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by: Javonte Nolan


Javonte Nolan
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A. Long

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A. Long
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Nolan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by A. Long in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/222940/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Psychology 2000 Anna Long Test 2 8 9 10 11 12 131171 process that occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are achieved allowing various forms of outside stimuli to become neural signals in the brain 111113 brain takes all the sensations people experience allows them to be interpreted V 1 K form of neurons cells making up the nervous system A Eyes light B Ears Vibrations C Hands and Body Touch 1 1v 21 nwv 1 1 H 111 processing of converting outside stimuli such as light into neural Jan 1quot minimum difference between 2 stimuli requires for detection of 50 percent of the time Difference Threshold 39 1 lowest level of stimulus that person can consciously detect 50 percent of the time stimulation present 1 increases proportion to the size of the stimuli Just Noticeable Difference KDeltaIL brightness 13 2quot ma mum determined how much these is mixture of wavelength purity 14 T u ui39wfm transformation of stimulus energy into neural impulses that the brain can understand 15 T F Different wavelengths result in different colors True l6 amount of energy is a wave determined by amplitude related to perceive brightness Parts of an Eye 17 a light sensitive inner surface of the eye containing photoreceptor rods and cones plus layers of the neurons Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and seal it to the brain Bipolar and Ganglion cells process visual information 18 35 139 1 receives messages from photoreceptor and transmits them to ganglion cells which form the optic nerve l9 transmit tissue where light enters the eyes 20 Iris muscle that expands and contrast to change the size of the opening for light 21 t focus the light rays on the retina through visual accommodation 22 901 process by which the eye lenses changes shape to help focus new or far objects on the retina Problems with Eyes 23 739 7 39 near objects seem closer than distant objects 24 far away objects seem clearly Visual Information 25 Optic Nerve connects to the THALAMUS is the middle of brain and the thalamus to the VISUAL 26 carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain 27 28 29 all sensory messages to the sensory area in the cortex experiences or expectations in uence these perceptions Color Mixture 3 l 32 the light by itself Color Vision Theory 33 39 34 Green Blue and Yellow colors are arranged in pairs Red to Green and Blue to Yellow one is stimuli as the other is inhibited Visual Perception 35 ii wgir u w Alma V 1 process by detecting speci c elements in visual input and assembling them into more complex form 36 process a progression from individual elements to the whole 37 progress from where to the element 38 Cum t 17 miquot perception of color appears to involve stages of information processing The receptors that do the principle outline Trichromatic Theory Stages of processing cells in the retia the brain seems to follow the principle of ent Process Theory 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 139 UT 3 perceive gures that are incomplete 46 vibrations of molecules of air surrounded us hairs cells of the inner ear Sound Characteristics 54 L Parts of Ear 5 5 56 57 Hammer Anvil Stirring these several vibrations to the cochlea oval window inner ear 58 in am r 7 oval window contains cochlea a uid lled coiled shape tunnel that consist of receptors for hearing Hearing Theories frequency of tone ending up to sax its pitch Hearing Impairment 61 sound vibrations can be passed from the earde to the cochlea A Damaged to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves 62 397 18mm rmrn u n i problem lies in the inner ear or in the auditory pathway and the cortical of the brain Damages of the cochlea hair cells sweet sour salty bitter brothy or umami 9 gustatory taste buds receptors and taste buds 65 olfactory cilia and receptors Cilia Types of Sense and the vestibular sense Skin Sense 76 77 78 No Sleep 79 39 the day quot Jwith 39 1 Symptoms trembling hands eye twitching staring off into space general discomfort Theories of Sleep 83 A theta waves replace alpha waves light sleep hypnic jerk 88 139 body temperature drops heart slows breathing shallow sleep 89 90 waves are beta waves and dreaming Sleep Disorders 91 A Narcolepsy excessive random sleeping B Rem Behavior Disorder muscles seem paralyzed acting out dreams 92 A Somnambulism sleep walking B Night Terrors state of panic while sleeping C Insomnia inability to sleep D Sleep Apnea people stop breathing for nearly 30 seconds 93 ccording to Freud it is wishful ful llment people repressed con icts 94 Elements of Hypnosis A Person told to focus on what is being said B Person told to relax and feel tired C Accept suggestions D Vivid imagination 95 91 SEEJ relaxation pain control decrease anxiety repress memories reduce food craving or smoking Started by Franz Anton Messer and James Braid named it hypnosis Theories of Hypnosis 96 subject has split awareness one stream of communication the hypnotist and external word while the other is hidden observer 97 quot 7 I W People who are hypnotized are not in an altered state of mind but play the role expected of them in the solution 98 mental process under greater voluntary control Approaches to Meditation behavioral activity A Amphetamines speed B Cocaine C Nicotine D Caffeine decrease the functioning of the nervous system A Barbitrulizer minor tranquilizer B Benzodiazepine major tranquilizer A Opium B Morphine C Heroin D Methadone 104 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 C MDMA D Marijuana E Mescaline quot1m dementia caused by vitamin B de ciency alcohol any relative pleasant and durable change in behavior that is brought about experience and practice A Classical Conditioning B Operant Conditioning C Cognitive Learning Theory D Observable Learning learning to elicit an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces the response 1r a 11121111111 1 initial stage in classical condition during which an association between a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus A Basic Principles Neural stimulus needs to come before unconditioned stimulus Time between the 2 stimuli is 5 seconds Pair needs to occur several times Condition stimuli is usually distinctive origin containing stimulus 13 113 organism has learned a response to a speci c stimulus v classical conditioning of learning involuntary and isolating elementary learning from behavior complex learning 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 Classical Conditioning involves behavior that occurs as an automatic response to the stimulus involves INVOLUNTARY 125 Operant Conditioning involves operant behavior that operates on the environment producing rewarding or punishing stimuli involves LEARNING VOLUNTARY 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 of responses A Gambling B Fishing f reinforces a response only after a speci ed time has elapsed A Prepping for an exam hours before 136 F reinforces unpredictable times A Pop quizzes reinforcing studying material Psych Sep 12 Theories of personality part two Behavioral ampSocia1 Cognitive Perspective Behaviorists define personality as a set oflearned responses and habits Socials Cognitive theorists emphasize the in uence of others behaviors and ones own expectations on personality Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory Bandura 198620012005 Believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social context Not only environment that changes us we as people also impact and change the environment Environment Reinforcers 9 Personal Cognitive Factors Beliefs expectancies personal disposition Selfefficacv A person s judgments of hisher capabilities to execute a behavior Can vary in level across different behaviors and circumstances Develops out of 1 Past performance 2 Vicarious experiences from observing others 3 Social in uences about capabilities 4 Physiological states in uencing judgments about capabilities Example writing Rotter s Theory of Locus of Control Socialcognitive psychologists emphasize our sense ofpersonal control whether we control the environment or the environment controls us Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate External locus of control refers to the perception that we have no control over what happens to us Learned helplessness The tendency to stop trying to achieve a goal because past failure has led to the belief that success is not possible Criticisms of the Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspective 1 Some believe human personality and behavior are too complex to explain as a result of environmental consequences or cognitions According to the strictest Behaviors view personality development is in uenced primarily by HABITS Expectancypersons judgments of the probability that a particular behavior will produce particular consequences Selfesteem the positive values a person places on his or her sense of selfworth 2 Humanistic Perspective By 1960s Psychologists had become discontented with Freud s negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists Abraham Maslow


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