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by: Clementine Boehm


Clementine Boehm
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F. Adair

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F. Adair
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2040 at Louisiana State University taught by F. Adair in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/222942/psyc-2040-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
SuSocial Psychology Thursday August 27 2009 Social psychology is the scientific study of how individuals think and feel about interact with and influence each other individually and in groups Sociology looks at large group behavior and systems in society Biology examines the role of genetics in behavior Anthropology investigates the physical and cultural development of a species History determines how economic political and technological trends influence behavior Bystander effect effected by the number of people watching and the people have a confusion about their roles It makes it unlikely for someone to help if there are many people around If there is only one person around they feel responsible and help Social science began applying the scientific method in the late 1800s They trace their roots back all the way back to ancient Greece and they all deal with human motivation emotions and what not Even in ancient Greece the people were trying to figure out the social psychology Psychology actually derives from Greece Arostatle believed associations made who we are Plato thought that people were like shadows on a wall The middle ages sooomeee off the knowledge was still kept but there was nnnot a whole lot of knowledge until the renaissance The idea of humanism came up then The scientific revolution influenced psyc in the 1800s Bill first scientific psychologist1879 over the last 130 years we have progressed quite a bit We try to come up with theories and models and test hypothesis and make models to better explain some type of phenomena Kurt lewls 18901947 father of social psychology behavior is just the Look up Model of Social Behavior The scientific Method o Is the process of gaining empirical support for explanation of phenomena 0 The scientific method involves four general steps I Identifying a phenomenon to study I Developing a testable research hypothesis I Designing a research study I Carrying out the research study Look at experimental V Correlation research 0 Can be found in notes onine Thursday September 03 2009 Self concept and how it fits in with the social world we live in 0 Self 0 Think of as a cognitive structure 0 Contains organized and stable contents of personal experiences 0 Made up of our memories and how we reacted to certain situations likes and dislikes 0 Assist understanding and prediction of action 0 We use our selves to understand what is going on around us and predict how we intend to act 0 The self functions as an evaluative and emotional guide 0 Our normal state of consciousness and seperates us from everything else 0 In some different cultures we see differences in how people see themselves 0 Deindivlization 0 You lose your sense of self and react like everyone else and function like the crowd is 0 Not thinking about their own individual behavior 0 3 different ways we see ourselves 0 Self concept I Includes all ideas and thoughts about ourselves 0 Private self I How we see ourselves 0 Public self I How we think people see us I Becomes very important when we start getting older I What we think other people think of us is very important 0 Collective self I How we think the people that are important see us 0 Spotlight effect 0 Means there is sometimes a belief that others are paying closer attention to us then they really are 0 Really see this when people are in an awkward situation and start to think that other people are looking at them 0 Or if you are with someone that is acting out then you might think that you have the spotlight effect The illusion of transparency o The belief that others can read our concealed emotions o Often times makes people not to open up to you Self interest effects our self judgement 0 We tend to be less objective about ourselves then when we are judging others 0 This is called self leniency Self concern motivates self behavior 0 Our concern for self image motivates us to present ourselves in a good social way Social relationships help to define the self 0 We have different kidns of relationships and the more that we have the higher chances that we are relating with these people different which makes a more complex self o If you have a lot of activities in your life you are different with all of these people making your self complex more complicated Social surroundings 0 Effect our self awareness 0 Traveling abroad you realize that after awhile you become a little more self aware trying to fit in 0 You also become aware of the people are you to try and act the way people do in these social situations Our self perception is our distinctiveness close up 10 components and organization of the SelfConcept 0 Personal attributes I Characteristics distinguishing an individual from others 0 Possible selves I Ideas about what we may be in the future 0 Self schema I An organization of previous experiences schemas guide future behavior I Very important because it helps us perform quickly and effectively I It is a memory device that allows us to immediately decide if we like something I If it takes you awhile to decide something it may be because you haven t had a situation like this before 0 Autobiographical memory I Memory for information relating to the self 0 Self complexity I The number of ways in which we define ourselves I Helps us absorb negative events without damaging ourselves 0 Self refrence effect I When information is relevant to us it is easy to remember I Relate something to yourself and it is easy to remember 0 We remember positive things about our selves instead of bad things 0 Our self concept effects our recall 0 Self regulation I How we think of ourselves from our own perspective and from the perspective from those close to us Add old written notes to this Thursday September 10 2009 Social judgments We constantly are making judgments o Attribution theory 0 Focusing on how people explain others behavior by contributing their behavior to internal dispositions persons behavior to their own actions or external conditions what is happening with the situation 0 Kelly 0 Consistency I We ask the question does the person usually act this way in the situation 0 Distinctiveness I does the person act differently in different situations 0 Conscience I llDo others react similarly in this situation 0 Fundamental attribution error o Is occurring when people tend to push something off on to someone else We tend to fall back on a biases or an error to explain a situation There can be positive and negative attributions 000 4 factors we judge by I Perceptual I Motivational I Cultural I Language 0 Strategies and methods of social perception o Categorization I Objectspeople are grouped together based on perceived similarities 0 Category based expectancies v target based expectancies I Category based expectancies o Expectancies that a person will behave think or feel a certain way based solely on hisher membership in a group I Target based expectancies o Expectancies about a specific person based on individuating information about that person 0 Categories are formed based on I Prototypes 0 Abstract representations of category members I Exemplars 0 Specific examples of category members 0 Schemas o Organized sets of information about people or events that help us to predict what should happen 0 Types of schemas I Person schemas I Role schemas I event schemas 0 Like scripts tell us what should happen I Story schemas o Schemas for specific sets of events that include a beginning middle and end 0 Help guide us through similar situations 0 Schemas and expectancies I Selffulfilling prophecy o The tendency to confirm our expectations by behaving toward people in ways that provoke them to act consistently with those expectations 0 This can also be positive or negative 0 Impression formation 0 People are always forming first impressions when they meet someone o It is the process ofjudging others 0 An impression is made very quickly and sometimes just by the way someone is dressed o Negative information seems to be weighted a whole lot longer We remember things better at the beginning of a list and very well at the end of the list and as we go through information we remember things in the beginning and end really well 0 The primacy effect 0 Heard or saw it in the beginning 0 The recently effect 0 Heard it at the end 0 Belief perseverance 0 Our impressions that we perform maintain even in the face of conflicting information 0 First impressions last and are hard to be forgotten so impressions are very important 0 Implicit personality theory 0 We tend to group personality traits together I We may attribute additional traits that seem to go together with what we already know I Ex We know someone who is outgoing so we think that they must have a lot of friends and do a lot of things as well 0 When we develop person schemas we are using implicit personality theory 0 Processing the impression is an intuitive process and can sometimes and actually most of the time is done automatically Sometimes we are not even aware that we have formed an impression Controlled processing 0 Forming an impression with some intent and you are focusing on what you are seeing and perceiving 0 We don t normally use this because it causes us to slow down and analyze things I Normally when things are ambiguous and complicated I Sometimes arises in the sight of danger Automatic vigilance o It is an alert impression 0 When you see a threat you tend to stop and pay closer attention to that person and you used controlled processing to accurately figure out the person Accuracy of social perception o If we were more controlled with our perceptions then this would be easier 0 circumscribed accuracy I This is a situational accuracy I How well are people getting accurate readings in particular situations 0 Global accuracy I Accuracy in all situations I Focusing more on the traits of individuals across all situations 0 Common errors in Reading others and situations 0 Egocentric bias I People tend to view themselves as the center of events and assume that others see things the way they do 0 Illusion of control I People tend to believe that they have control over events that are truly random 0 Heuristics or quot rules of thumbquot I Availabilityheuristic 0 Estimating the frequency of events based on how quickly examples come to mind 0 Ex Shark attacksseemed like there were a lot but really people were just writing about it more 0 Representative heuristic I Estimating the probability that a person is a member of a category based on how representative heshe is of that category 0 Simulation heuristic I Mentally undoing the course of events taking the verbal form of if only I Helps us rationalize and helps our egos o Counterfactualthinking I Can simulate or imagine a better way for ourselves I Better result 0 Self serving bias I Tendency to see ourselves favorably I Leads to motivate for the best reality for ourselves I We like to look at ourselves in a positive light and that is not always accurate 0 Over confidence I Can lead to disasters 0 Confirmation bias I We attend to information that confirms our beliefs and attend less to information that goes against our beliefs I Ex Politicsradio stations 0 Mood I May generalize a certain disposition to the situation I Can affect behavior 0 Hindsight bias I ldea we can look back and have a more accurate view of how things happened I Not necessarily true September 17 2009 Attitudes o Attitude o A mental state of readiness o Organized through experience 0 Exerting a directive influence on a person s responses to related objects and situations 0 Components of structure I Cognitions I Affective responses I Behavioral intentions I Behaviors 0 Values 0 More general and is a deep conception of what we personally feel is right 0 They also guide how we construct our attitudes and people t o Attitude functions 0 Define us badge value 0 Direct future feelings and thoughts 0 Summarize feelings thoughts intentions behaviors I These four components attitudes sum these up 0 Specific Measurement 0 O 0 Survey Behavio Utilitarian Knowledge Value expressive Ego defensive 0 We use attitudes in defending our different opinions Sampling technique is most important because we want our sample to represent our population There are different applications for surveys Polls are types of surveys ral lnvolves observation 0 Participation someone is actually part of the group 0 Obtrusive 0 Lost letter technique has an address on the letter scattered near post office and measures peoples behavior unobstrusively Psycho physiological Formation O O 0 Can detect things about a person by looking at the number of times they blink or when playing poker they may unintentionally allow you to know if they have a good hand or not without meaning to Polygraph machine measures breath pulse blood pressure and perspiration o Lie detector 0 In reality they have very low reliability Mere exposure Being exposed to certain attitudes we develop certain associations over time Personal experience As we go through some event we have memories about it and we size up what that event meant and we develop an attitude towards things because of it Learning theory You have 3 different ways of looking at this 0 Classical conditioning 0 Could get the dog to salivate from the tone pavlav 0 With attitudes if we associate a product with something that we like then we are much more likely to like the product 0 Operant conditioning o Reinforcement o Observational learning 0 Sometimes just observing someone else can lead to learning People watch what other people do and through that observational they may form an attitude 0 Personality factors our attitudes as well In personality we may have an inclination for certain attitudes 0 Can affect the expressiveness of attitude as well 0 Responsiveness I People sometime have the kind of attitude where they like to interact more with people 0 Rigidity I Someone that has a rigid personality they don t hold back their rigidness of their attitude 0 Cognitive dissonance 0 Theoretical type of tension when someone is aware of two inconsistence cognitionsattitudes I If they can justify their attitude and behavior they don t feel bad 0 Cognitive consistency 0 People feel the need to keep their behaviors consistent with their attitudes 0 Techniques 0 Footinthedoor technique I When someone first agrees for a smaller request soon agrees for a larger request 0 Low ball technique I Tendency for people to agree on an increasing price after agreeing for a lower price see low price for a car and then you add special features and the price increases 0 Sometimes we change our attitudes based on just our behavior 0 Even just playing a role can get your attitudes to change Psyc 2040 exam 2 0 Culture and gender in how we interact socially o Conformity 0 Culture applies to enduring behaviors attitudes traditions that are shared by a large group These things are transmitted from generation another 0 Relatively stable 0 Norms 0 Rules that are expected within a culture I Ex Personal space 0 Differs by culture 0 Small groups I When together doing something people develop their own norms I Leaders will most likely emerge o 5 social beliefs that universally effect very similar to personality theories 0 Norms can differ by the way someone believes about their environment and how much control they feel like they have I Cynicism I Social complexity I Reward application I Spirituality I Fate control 0 More on norms 0 Social status I People with low social status are often expected to use a informal way of presenting their ideas I Vice versa High social status often use formal way of presenting ideas I Certain cultures social class is very important with 0 Authority gures I Expected that you respect people with authority 0 Norms in different regions 0 Taboos o Stealing incest murder I Most cultures have taboos against these universally 0 Northern cultures differ somewhat from equitoral cultures when it comes to the norm of personal space o Equatorial cultures are comfortable when they are more closer and northern cultures need more personal space 0 Collectivism Vs Individualism o Individualism big value in US Translates to norms speci c to this concept 0 Concept of self 0 Independent Life Task 0 Discover and express ones uniqueness o What matters 0 ME personal achievement and ful llment rights and liberties Coping Method 0 Change reality Morality 0 De ned by individuals self based Relationships 0 Manyoften temporary or casual confrontation acceptable Attributions 0 Behavior re ects one s personality and attitudes 0 Eastern cultures are more collectivism Concept of self 0 Interdependent Life Task 0 Maintain connections t in What matters 0 WE group goals and solidarity social responsibilities and relationships Coping Method 0 Accommodate to reality Morality 0 De ned by social networks duty based Relationships 0 Few Close and enduring harmony required Attributions 0 Behavior re ects social norms and roles 0 Ex Japan has more attention with sports media to the coach rather than the actual athlete 0 Culture also effects gender roles 0 We are taught how we are supposed to interact across genders and as genders as we grow up 0 Not always the same in every culture 0 Gender roles are very clear I Ex aggressive stoic cold males passive warm emotional female I Even the types of words that we use sometimes can lead us towards how we expect a gender I We learn at a very young age how we aresupposedto behave I Relatively stable but do change over time 0 Gender typing 2 types I The process which we acquire gender identity and role I Social learning theory 0 Says that reward and punishment or observation lead to gender type behavior I Gender schema theory 0 States that culture in uences are gender schemas and our schemas of course effect our thinking and behavior 0 Ex cross cultural studies latin America macho man valued other cultures china macho attitude shouldn t stand out 0 Social behaviors I Girls self concept are more tied to social relationships 0 Females are usually more caring I Males are usually more independent 0 Males tend to be aggressive sexual tendencies 0 Gender Role I Biological physiological approach 0 Differences in males and females there is a greater amount of testosterone I Social structural approach 0 Cultural expectations effect how we develop our gender roles 0 We nd more differences in gender roles between cultures than similarities I Evolutionary approach Males competed for females to reproduce which made males more aggressive Females tend to protect and nurture offspring which made them nicer 0 Role con ict 0 When changing from a traditional to something new then it can cause con ict 0 Becomes a problem when one of the spouses has a vey narrow view then they are less likely to want to change I May maintain violence I Not show emotions when maybe sometime needed Cultural studies have found that the male is almost always the leader of the household but other places may differ 0 Typical differences is sometimes called by division of labor I Labor is going to make the difference of whether you live or die 0 Industrialized cultures I We have diversity in roles I Not so much of a dependence on de ning gender roles 0 Biological differences that divide up the labor roles I Biologically the male has more endurance and body strength Females may be better in different things Conformity o Conformity o A change in behavior based on real or imagined pressure from others 0 Social in uence comes from 0 Information I A change in behavior resulting from information received from others I The goal is to get the information right to be accurate I Behavioral change Re ects our true beliefs 0 Norms I Behavioral change results from movement toward a social norm I Goal is to be socially accepted and avoid appearing different I Behavioral change does not re ect true beliefs I Attitude change if any is weak and unstable Auto kintetic effect total dark room small light will appear to be moving even though it is stable 0 People sat in a room like this and had them decide how much the light was moving and how far it was moving 0 Developed spontaneous norms for judging this and came to an agreement even though they were not asked to 0 People are naturally lead to spontaneously develop these norms on all kinds of things 0 Used lines and had pictures of a stimulus line and 3 other lines that were labeled and the judgement process was that people went around a table and each person would say what the matching lines were Not that hard to tell but ash put people that were pretending to be guessing and they would say the wrong answer The experimental subjects would start to change their ideas because they would conform 13 of the time people would conform even if it was obviously wrong I Judegment was distorted became bias because of what other people were saying I Action was disorted the actual act of agreeing was in uenced by other people then there w I Perception was distorted Factors affecting conformity 0 Nature of the task I Intellective vs judgemental issues I Intellective choice 0 What to do with your money I Judgemental 0 Someone was trying to talk you into joining something You are dealing more in emotions than pros and cons 0 Less likely to take place very quickly conformity 0 Size majority I Critical size 3 5 I People will conform more when there are 5 people I Ash found that 3 people were good with his line experiments 0 True partner effect I Resist with help from a friend I Conformity is less likely when 2 people can ban together 0 If they form a coalition you can hold up a vote for a long time 0 Ex Jury I Social strength in the support of others 0 Group cohesiveness I More cohesive a group is the more that they want to stay together I Begin conforming to the norms of the group as a natural effect 0 High status in uence I Persons of high status people look up to them and listen to what these people have to say I Public response 0 When people know they are going to be identi ed they may not react the same way as they would if they were unknown 0 Gender roles I Effect whether we are going to conform I Females are more attuned to normative social in uence than males 0 Minority in uence I Consistency exibility timing I Political body is making some sort of decision If there is more people on one side then they are a minority I Minorities can still have a lot of in uence 0 By presenting their views 0 Consistently 0 Good timing 0 Flexibily October 15 2009 Persuasion o Yale communication Model 0 The who I The communicator o What I The message 0 Whom I The audience 0 Means I The channel 0 All lead to Persuasion o Credibility 0 who I Expertise is important I Trustworthy 0 Trust them even if they are not an expert Rhetorical technique 0 Argues against their own self interest to appear non self serving Sleeper effect after a long delay even an argument from a non creditable source can change attitudes 0 Can occur with a strong speaker 0 Remember it 0 Over time the que and the message become skewed o What I Primacy effect 0 Remember things at the beginning better than other things I Recentcy effect 0 Remember things at the end better than other things I Some research has focused on fear 0 Fearful messages usually get us to be safer about things 0 Moderate fear just enough to get a persons attention 0 Effective o Situations where fear is high 0 Not as much persuasion o Repulsed by it 0 Low fear 0 Wont play in a factor at all 0 To whom the audience I Knowing your audience is important I Well informed audience 0 Will except 2 sided argument I Sometimes you can give an inoculation weakened version of the opposing view I Discrepancy o If the audience disagrees then the speaker is going to have to be highly credible to get across to them Receptive 0 Already agreeing with it then the battle it won 0 The message will be likely accepted Social judgment theory 0 States that the degree of personal involvement determines how the target audience will take the message 0 We know from this that the audience is very important 0 As the issue becomes more important to the audience then the latitude of acceptance decreases o Latitude of non commitment 0 Positions the audience will be non committed to o Latitude of acceptance 0 Posistion the audience will accept o Latitude of rejection 0 Positions the audience will reject I Extremists o Wont budge because they have already decided ahead of time I Moderates o Accepts views from both sides 0 The ones that get things persuaded because they can get people from both sides I Multiple audiences 0 Send different messages using keys 0 Keys key word that gets peoples interest 0 words carry special meaning to certain people 0 means I the median or the channel I what kind of communication are you going to make 0 internet 0 spam 0 speeches o a lot of different ways to send out persuasion these days 0 companies use different means to get their message across elaboration likelihood Model look up in the book 0 persuasive communication I audience 2 routes 0 target is motivated and able to understand leads to 1st route to persusion 0 Target nds message irrelevant or is unwilling or unable to understand leads to 2ndl route to persuasion I Route to persuasion 0 Central route Target receives and elaborates on message 0 Peripheral route target uses heuristics and is affected by mood I Result 0 Central route if argument is accepted target undergoes long term attitude change 0 Peripheral route Target can easily be persuaded by other communication More likely to use heuristics if it is something we are not really willing to attend to Cognitive dissonance theory 0 Occurs when I A person holds two con icting cognitions I A person behaves inconsistently with a cognition Dissonance is an unpleasant state of physiological arousal Motivation to reduce dissonance arousal usually leads to attitude change 0 Cognitive dissonance occurs only when there exists I An illusion that one chose to perform the inconsistent behavior I Perceived negative consequences associated with the behavior 0 O o Reversed incentive effect I When given more incentive the intrinsic reward goes down or goes away O 0 Self perception theory I We don t need to postulate the physical arousal I People draw inferences about themselves by observing their own behavior A lot of people say don t smoke but continue to smoke themselves Self af rming I Sometimes people change direction of their vies I One condition that effects people changing their views Psychological reactants I If they sense they are being lied to or sense someone is trying to change you and then people start to revolt if they think their freedom is being threatened o Threatening message 0 O Negative cohersion Resistance can occur 0 Subliminal messages O 0000 Theory behind them had to do with getting a message out that people do not directly perceive Our sense pick up things that happen very quickly Can t really use things like that to persuade Experimented to see if true but it doesn t work Can change modd for very short time but can t change long term attitudes 0 Attack message 0 O Negative effect The way the messages are construed you need to be careful 0 Compliance techniques 0 O O Foot in the door I People are more likely to comply with a large request if it is preceded by a small request Door in the face I People are more likely to comply with a request if it is preceded by a larger unreasonable request Low balling I People are more likely to perform a high cost behavior if they have already committed to that same behavior when believed to be less costly 0 That s not all technique I People are more likely to agree with a request if the requester makes an offer more attractive by throwing in extras 0 Proproganda O O 0 An attempt to manipulate and conrol the way people feel and act Propagandists will I Take advantage of stereotypes and assign derogatory names to out groups Create an enemy against which people feel they must defend themselves Present a biased selection of facts use overt lies Assert a point forcefull And repeat it over and over again Align the leader with a higher power religious political ideological to legitimize views and behavior An individual is able to control a group to serve them only Uses propaganda and persuasive techniques An extremist sect based on spiritual values Promises what people could want belonging to something Use authoritarian leaders who are charismatic Communal relationships I Like a family People desire to belong to something Charismatic leadership I Think of a person in history that could walk into a room and the crowd goes wild Cognitive dissonance I When things don t happen the way they were told they change their belief Commitment I People make a big commitment to move contribute break off any contact with any friends or relatives Complete surrender I You don t need anything because we have it all for you Controlled behavior and thought I Learned everything together that explains something you didn t understand before Captivity and isolation I Couldn t escape I Didn t know how to go home 0 Individuals not a special kind of person 0 O O O Propaganda I Keeps them believing in the cults story Perceived ef cacy of commitment I Feel like they have committed voluntarily Lure of new religious movement Authoritarian submission Need for guidance and safety 0 Proliferation of cults 000 Liberty costs psychological physical nancial etc Unful lled needs addressed Member diversity increasing Promised bene ts of membership


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