INTR TO PSYC
INTR TO PSYC PSYC 2000
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This 68 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Erin Jackson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222948/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.
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Social Psychology 0 Social Psychology the scientific study of how we think about influence and relate to one another Module 56 Social Thinking Attributing Behavior 0 Attribution Theory the theory that we explain someone s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person s disposition o Fundamental Attribution Error tendency for observers when analyzing another s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition Effects of Attributing Behavior 0 Legal system self defense vs malicious actions 0 Marriage person vs situation 0 Poverty and Unemployment support of welfare Attitudes and Actions 0 Attitude feelings often influenced by our beliefs that predisposes us to respond in a particular way to objects people and events Attitudes Affect Actions 0 Central Route Persuasion occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts 0 Peripheral Route Persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker s attractiveness selling of products with celebrities Actions Affect Attitudes o Footinthedoor Phenomenon tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Candidate with a sign Actions Affect Attitudes 0 Role a set of explanations norms about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave o Eg Zimbardo s Stanford Prison Experiment Cognitive Dissonance 0 Cognitive Dissonance Theory we act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts cognition are consistent Module 57 Social Influence Group Pressure and Conformity o Conformity adjusting one s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard tip jar full more likely to tip Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 0 One is made to feel incompetent 0 Group has 3 people 0 Group is unanimous o Admiration of group 0 No prior commitment to response 0 Observation 0 Culture encourages respect for social standards Reasons for Conforming o Normative Social Influence influence resulting from a person s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval o Informational Social Influence influence resulting from one s willingness to accept others opinions about reality Obedience Milgram Experiment 0 Stanley Milgram 1960s 0 Purpose to determine whether participants would obediently shock others when asked by an authority 0 Results Twothirds of participants administered the highest level of shock Conditions that Strengthen Obedience 0 Person giving orders perceived as legitimate authority figure 0 Authority supported by prestigious institution 0 Victim depersonalizeddistant o No role models for defiance Lessons from Conformity and Obedience Studies llThe most fundamental lesson of our study is that ordinary people simply doing their jobs and without any particular hostility on their part can become agents in a terrible destructive processquot Milgram Group Influence 0 Individual Behavior in Presence of Others 0 Effects of Group Interaction Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others 0 Social Facilitation stronger responses on simple or welllearned tasks in the presence of others playing sports 0 Better performance on easy tasks 0 Worse performance on difficult tasks Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others 0 Social Loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards attaining a common goal than when individually accountable group projects Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others 0 Deindividuation loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity excitement at a football game vs watching it at home alone Effects of Group Interaction 0 Group Polarization the enhancement ofa group s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group racial group discussing racism makes them more racist Effects of Group Interaction o Groupthink mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Power of Individuals 0 Minority Influence the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities Rosa Parks Module 58 Antisocial Relations Prejudice o Pre39udice an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members 0 Stereotype a generalized belief about a group of people 0 Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members How Prejudiced are People 0 Overt prejudice has waned but subtle prejudice lingers Social Roots of Prejudice Social Inequalities o Prejudice can be used to rationalize social inequities Social Roots of Prejudice Us and Them 0 Ingroup usquot people with whom we share a common identity 0 Outgroup quotThemquot those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup o Ingroup Bias tendency to favor our own group Emotional Roots of Prejudice o Scapegoat Theory theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Cognitive Roots of Prejudice o Categorization o OtherRace Effect tendency to recall faces of one s own race more accurately than faces of other races 0 Vivid Cases 0 JustWorld o JustWorld Phenomenon tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get Aggression o Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy Biological Influences on Aggression 0 Genetic pit bulls bread to be aggressive o Neural frontal lobe inhibits aggression 0 Biochemical high levels of testosterone increase aggression Psychological Influences on Aggression o FrustrationAggression Principle principle that frustration the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal creates anger which can generate aggression o Aversive stimuli like foul odors and hot temperatures SocialCultural Influences on Aggression o Observing Models of Aggression 0 Acquiring Social Scripts 0 Video Games Module 59 Prosocial Relations Psychology of Attraction Proximity 0 Mere Exposure Effect phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them Psychology of Attraction Physical Attractiveness 0 Biggest influence on first impressions 0 Not rated to happiness or selfesteem 0 Average is more attractive o Perception affected by feelings Psychology of Attraction Similarity o Attracted to others who share our attitudes beliefs and interests Romantic Love Passion 0 Passionate Love an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning ofa love relationship Romantic Love Compassion o Compassionate Love deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined o Eguity a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it o SelfDisclosure revealing intimate aspects from oneself to others Altruism o Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander Intervention o Bystander Effect tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present lady was murdered and raped and no one called the police Norms for Helping 0 Social Exchange Theory theory that our social behavior is an exchange process the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs 0 Reciprocity Norm expectation that people will help not hurt those who have helped them 0 Social Responsibility Norm expectation that people will help those dependent upon them Peacemaking 0 Conflict perceived incompatibility ofactions goals or ideas Peacemaking Social Traps 0 Social Trap a situation in which the conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing their self interest become caught in mutually destructive behavior Peacemaking Enemy Perceptions o MirrorImage Perceptions mutual views often held by conflicting people as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and vies the other side as evil and aggressive Peacemaking Contact 0 Putting parties in contact can help but not necessarily Peacemaking Cooperation 0 Superordinate Goals shared goals that override the differences among people and requite their cooperation Peacemaking Conciliation o GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tensionreduction a strategy designed to decrease international tensions Module 40 Introduction to Emotion What is Emotion o Emotion a response of a whole organism involving physiological arousal expressive behaviors and conscious experience JamesLange Theory of Emotion o JamesLange Theory our experience ofthe emotion is our awareness of out physiological response to emotion arousing stimuli Pounding heart arousal CannonBard Theory of Emotion o CannonBard Theory an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion Pounding hear arousal I Fear emollon TwoFactor Theory of Emotion o TwoFactor Theory to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal Emotions and the Body 0 Autonomic Nervous System prepares the body for action and calms the body after a crisis 0 Link between emotions and physiological arousal Physiological Similarities and Differences Among Emotions o Difficult to physiologically distinguish among emotions but some reliable differences 0 Examples finger temp and hormone secretions left hemisphere associated with positive emotions and right hemisphere associated with negative emotions Cognition and Emotion 0 Sometimes cognition defines emotion o Other times emotion is experienced before or even without cognition Module 41 Expressed Emotion Detecting Emotion o Nonverbal communication like facial expressions and tone of voice convey emotion Gender Emotion and Nonverbal Behavior 0 Women on average better at detecting emotion through nonverbal communication 0 Better at telling relationships 0 Better at describing emotion o More emotionally reactive Culture and Emotional Expression 0 Many facial expressions are universal but amount of emotional expression differs by culture Effects of Facial Expressions o Facial expression can sometimes lead to emotional experiences Module 42 Experienced Emotion Distinct Emotions 0 10 distinct emotions most present in infancy o 2 dimensions valence and arousal Fear 0 Learning Fear 0 Some fear is automatic but fear can also be learned 0 Biology of Fear 0 Biological disposition to fear certain things eg spiders o Amygdala associated with fear emotion 0 Individual differences in fear Anger o Catharsis emotional release 0 Catharsis Hypothesis releasing aggressive energy through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges 0 Expert Advice 0 Wait 0 Don t ruminate Happiness o FeelGood DoGood Phenomenon people s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood o Subjective WellBeing self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life method of evaluating quality of life Emotional Ups and Downs o Emotions seem to balance out both daytoday and in the long run 0 Extremely negative and extremely positive emotions very difficult to sustain Wealth and WellBeing o Wealth correlated with happiness to a certain extent 0 Societal happiness stable over time Adaptation and Comparison 0 AdaptationLevel Phenomenon our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our previous experience Adaptation and Comparison Relative Deprivation the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself Predictors of Happiness This 0 High selfesteem o Optimistic outgoing agreeable 0 Close friends good marriage 0 Engage skills 0 Religious faith 0 Sleep and exercise Not This 0 Age 0 Gender 0 Parenthood 0 Physical Attractiveness Module 43 Stress and Health Stress and Health 0 Behavioral Medicine interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge applying it to health and disease 0 Health Psychology psychology s contribution to behavioral medicine Stress and Illness 0 Stress process by which we perceive and respond to certain events stressors that we appraise as threatening or challenging Stress Response System 0 General Adaptation Syndrome body s adaptive response to stress in 3 phases alarm resistance and exhustion Stressful Life Events 0 Catastrophes 0 Significant Life Changes 0 Daily Hassles Stress and the Heart 0 Coronary Heart Disease clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle Stress and the Heart 0 Personality 0 Type A Personality competitive hard driving impatient verbally aggressive and anger prone 0 Type B Personality easygoing relaxed o Pessimism 0 Depression Stress and Disease 0 Psychophysiological Illness quotmind body illness any stress related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches o Psychoneuroimmunology PNI how psychological neural and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and health Psychoneuroimmunology o Lymphocytes 2 types of white blood cells that fare part of the body s immune system 0 B Lymphocytes form in bone marrow release antibodies that fight bacterial infections 0 T Lymphocytes form in thymus and other lymphatic tissue attack cancer cells viruses and foreign substances Stress AIDS and Cancer 0 Stress exacerbates the course of AIDS 0 Some studies link stress and cancer while others do not Module 44 Promoting Health Coping with Stress o Coping alleviating stress using emotional cognitive or behavioral methods 0 2 Types Problemfocused Coping direct alleviation of stress by changing the stressor or O the way we interact with that stressor Emotionfocused Coping indirect alleviation of stress by avoiding or ignoring a O stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one s stress reaction Effects of Perceived Control Optimism and Social Support 0 Perceived lack of control leads to stress and negative health outcomes 0 Optimism and social support have positive effects on health Managing Stress Aerobic Exercise 0 Aerobic Exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness may also reduce stress depression and anxiety 0 Improves mood and physical health Managing Stress Biofeedback Relaxation and Meditation o Biofeedback system for electronically recording amplifling and feeding back info regarding a subtle physiological state eg blood pressure muscle tension Spirituality and Faith Communities Module 1 The Story of Psychology What is Psychology 0 Psychology the science of behavior and mental processes 0 Involves humans and animals 0 Psychologists differ in importance placed on specific types of behavior I Objective observation behaviors we can directly see or observe can be directly measured I Subjective observation behaviors we can t directly see or observe things that must be inferred Psychology s Roots Historical Perspectives o Structuralism participants must describe everything that they feel 0 Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 father of modern psychology 0 Structuralist a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experience 0 Introspection a method of selfobservation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings not a sufficient way of finding out what is going on in our minds 0 Early Psychology Experiment Wundt et al measured the time lag between hearing a sound a pressing a telegraph key studying reaction time found it took about 110 of a second some say it s the first psych experiment 0 Historical Functionalism 0 William James 18421910 first American psychologist o Functionalist a psychologist who studied the function rather than the structure of consciousness 0 ALL activities of the mind serve one function to help us survive as a species Historical Inheritable Traits I Sir Francis Galton 18221911 I Abilities character and behavior are inheritable I Fails to take the environment into account 4 v n I Historical Gestalt 039 I f I Gestalt Whole pattern v 394 r I How sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences I Ifyou see a desk you don t see the components you see a desk the cube as above Necker Cube Psychology s Biggest Question Nature vs Nurture I Nature Nurture Issue the controversy over the relative contributions of biology nature and experience nurture 0 Long standing debate I Continues today I What matters more nature or nurture I What shapes us the most 0 Plato 7 nature 0 Aristotle 7 nurture 0 Darwin I Natural Selection nature selects traits that best enable the organism to survive and repro u Three Levels of Analysis aialoglcal In uences Psychological In uences natural selection otariantive learned fears and other learned traits expectations genetic predispositinns responding emotional res onses oenvironrnent cognitive pro r g lain me d b hanisms perceptual Interpretations 39 hmmunal in uences Behavior or mental process Social cultural In uences presence Dfo h r cultural sacietal and family expectations peerand orhergrnuplnlluences campelling madels such as in the media Contemporary Per spec ves Ntumsclcnc Evolu unzw the survival nfgcilts Bchnvlm gcnc c Haw muc n nur genes and curmvlmnmcnt Tn whntcxtimtu psydmlngtal nits such its lntelllgcnce penalml in ucnm mu lndlvldlml dilfzmlccs ty sexual urlcntztion and Vlllncmb lllw to depression attributable tn nur gentsl Tn eurenvunnmentl chhudmaynl drlvcs and can lcls urnu afscxuil nnrl agnrrsrive dill39cs m as the rllsgulrcd ffnrls at unlul llttl wlshls and eltldhnnd llamas Bdmioml mast ctlnttvmy ta altn our lcllavlnt say la lost mightquot stop making Comm Haw vnn em rum lllfurl39llatlal39l nmblcmii Saclalclllrlm belravlnr mdlhlnklng vary anon sltue Haw an we humans alllt as mcmhm alum human family A Haw lions and ultuxcs pmduzu of diffctml mvlmnmcnml mums how do w d u Basic V Applied Science 0 Basic Science research for the sake of knowledge not concerned with application to real problems 0 Concerned with knowledge for knowledge sake 0 Applied Scienceresearch that aims to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals 0 Apply scientific knowledge to a real world problem 0 Example 0 Basic researcher studies memory and learns that spaced practice is more effective than massed practice 0 Applied researcher uses this finding to develop training for workers Subfields of Psychology Basic 0 Bi010 ical eXplores the links between the brain and mind 0 Developmental studies changing abilities from womb to tomb 0 Cognitive studies how we perceive think and solve problems 0 Personality investigates our persistent traits things that are stable throughout our life introverted or extroverted 0 Social eXplore how we view and affect one another conformists etc Subfields of Psychology Applied o IndustrialOr anizational studies and advise on behavior in the workplace how to trainplace employees 0 Counseling helps people cope with academic vocational and marital challenges everyday problems 0 Clinical study assess and treat people with psychological disorders more serious disorders Clinical Psychologists vs Psychiatrists 0 Clinical Ps cholo ists PhD39 assess and treat mental emotional and behavioral disorders using therapy 0 Ps chiatrists MD39 use drugs and psychotherapy to treat mental emotional and behavioral disorders Many Faces of Psychology Video Module 2 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Need for Psychological Science 0 Scientific study of behavior and mental processes 0 Scientific methods 0 Systematic I Gather information systematically I We gather information everyday in informal ways 0 Want to see a movie 0 Decide by asking who have seen the movie or read reviews 0 But doesn t psychology just tell us what we already know Hindsight Bias 0 Hindsi ht Bias the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it o I knew it all along phenomenon 0 Examples 0 VA Tech shootings o I knew we d winlose o Rewards shape behavior I Dog gets treat when he sits on command Overconfidence Overcon dence Phenomenon tendency to be more confident than correct to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments There is no reason for anyone to have a computer in their home Ken Olson pres of Digital Equipment Co 1977 Reagan doesn t have the presidential look United Artists executive when asked Whether Ronald Reagan should star in the movie The Best Man 1964 A severe depression like that of 19201921 is outside the range of probability Harvard Economic Society Weekly Letter November 16 1929 How long do you think it would take you to unscramble these words NREAT WATER ETYRN ENTRY GRABE BARGE Need for Psychological Science 0 Hindsight Bias and Judgmental Overconfidence illustrate the limits of intuitionand need for scientific inquiry and critical thinking Module 48 Introduction to Psychological Disorders Defining Psychological Disorders PsychologicaiDisorder o Classification changes across culture and time Understanding Psychological Disorders 0 Medical Model Classifying Psychological Disorders 0 DSMlVTR Labeling Psychological Disorders 0 Labels can sometimes interfere with ability to live a normal life as much as the disorder itself Rates of Psychological Disorders Gmcrallzcd anxiety 31 social phobia 68 Phobia of spsci c claim or situation 87 Mood disorder 95 Obsessivercompulsivc disordcr 10 Schizophrenia 11 Postrtmurnaric stress disorder FiSD 35 Attentionde cit hyperactivity disorder ADHD 41 Any mental disorder 252 Modu uurtr National insntutc of Mental Health 2003 Anxiety Disorders o Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders o Generalized Anxiety Disorder Anxiety Disorders 0 Panic Disorder Anxiety Disorders o Phobia 0 Specific 0 Social Anxiety Disorders 0 ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0CD Anxiety Disorders 0 PostTraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD haunting memories nightmares social withdrawal jumpy anxiety andor insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks after a traumatic experience 0 PostTraumatic Growth Module 50 Dissociative Personality and Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders 0 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders 0 Dissociative Identity Disorder a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities Personality Disorders 0 Personality Disorders 0 Antisocial Personality Disorder a personality disorder in which the person usually a man exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward friends and family members Somatoform Disorders 0 Somatoform Disorder Somatoform Disorders 0 Conversion Disorder Somatoform Disorders 0 Hypochondriasis Module 51 Mood Disorders Mood Disorders 0 Mood Disorders Mood Disorders 0 Major Depressive Disorder disorder in which a person experiences without drugs or a medical condition 2 weeks of significantly depressed moods feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities Mood Disorders 0 Mania 0 Bipolar Disorder a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy ofdepression and the overexcited state of man39a Understanding Mood Disorders Behavioral and cognitive changes Widespread 0 Women more vulnerable 0 Most episodes selfeterminate o Stressful events trigger o Becoming more common and striking earlier Module 52 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia a Schizophrenia Types of Schizophrenia a Delusions Paranoid Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations often with themes of persecution or grandiosity Disorganized Disorganized speech or behavior or at or inappropriate emotion Catatonia Immobility or excessive purposeless movement extreme negativism andor parrotlike repeating of another s speech or movements Undi erentintzd Many and varied symptoms Residual Withdrawal after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared 0 Typically affects young people maturing into adulthood 0 Men and women equally affected 0 Slow onset less likely to recover Understanding Schizophrenia 0 Brain 0 Genetics Module 53 The Psychological Therapies Psychological Therapies 0 Psychotherapy treatment involving psychological techniques consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth 0 Eclectic Approach Psychoanalysis o Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud s therapeutic technique in which the patient s free associations resistances dreams and transferences released previously repressed feelings allowing the patient to gain selfinsight Psychoanalysis 0 Resistance 0 Interpretation the analyst s noting supposed dream meanings resistances and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight o Transference Psychoanalysis o PsychodynamicTherapy Humanistic Therapies Insight Therapies Humanistic Therapies 0 ClientCentered Therapy therapy in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine accepting empathic environment to facilitate clients growth AKA llperson centered therapy 0 Active Listening Humanistic Therapies o Unconditional Positive Regard a caring accepting nonjudgmental attitude which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to 39 r39 0 self and self Behavior Therapies 0 Behavior Therapy Behavior Therapies Classical Conditioning 0 Counterconditioning a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors Behavior Therapies Classical Conditioning 0 Exposure Therapies Behavior Therapies Classical Conditioning 0 Aversive Conditioning Behavior Therapies Operant Conditioning 0 Token Economy operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats Cognitive Therapies 0 Cognitive Therapy Cognitive Therapies 0 CognitiveBehaviorTherapy Group and Family Therapies 0 Group Therapy 0 Family Therapy treats the family as a system views an individual s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members Module 54 Evaluating Psychotherapies s Psychotherapy Effective 0 Clients 0 Clinicians 0 Outcome Research Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies 0 Depends on psychological disorder being treated 0 NOT effective energy therapies recoveredmemory therapies rebirthing therapies facilitated communication crisis debriefing o EvidenceBased Practice clinical decisionmaking that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences Evaluating Alternative Therapies 0 Eye T quot 39 and 39g 0 Light Exposure Therapy Commonalities Among Psychotherapies 0 Hope 0 New Perspective 0 Empathic Trusting Caring Relationship Culture and Values in Psychotherapy Module 55 The Biomedical Therapies Biomedical Therapies 0 Biomedical Therapy Drug Therapies 0 Psychopharmacology Antipsychotic Drugs 0 Antipsychotic Drugs 0 Tardive Dyskinesia involuntary movements of the facial muscles tongue and limbs Antianxiety Drugs 0 Antianxiety Drugs Antidepressant Drugs 0 Antidepressant Drugs MoodStabilizing Medications 0 Used to treat bipolar Brain Stimulation ECT o Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT Brain Stimulation Alternative Neurostimulation Therapies 0 Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation rTMSapplication of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain used to stimulate or suppress brain activity Psychosurgery o Psychosurgery o Lobotomy nowrare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollany emotional or violent patients cuts nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotioncontrolling centers of the inner brain Therapeutic LifeStyle Change Modules 5659 Social Psychology 0 Social Psychology the scientific study of how we think about influence and relate to one another Module 56 Social Thinking Attributing Behavior 0 Attribution Theory the theory that we explain someone s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person s disposition o Fundamental Attribution Error tendency for observers when analyzing another s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition Effects of Attributing Behavior 0 Legal system ex jury tries to decide whether someone shot another person in selfdefense or with malicious intent 0 Marriage is a rude comment due to 0 Poverty and Unemployment ex making social decision on whether or not you support welfare Attitudes and Actions 0 Attitude feelings often influenced by our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects people and events Attitudes Affect Actions 0 Central Route Persuasion occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts 0 Peripheral Route Persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a spea ker s attractiveness Actions Affect Attitudes o Footinthedoor Phenomenon tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Actions Affect Attitudes 0 Role a set of explanations norms about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave o Eg Zimbardo s Stanford Prison Experiment Cognitive Dissonance 0 Cognitive Dissonance Theory we act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts cognitions are inconsistent Module 57 Social In uence Group Pressure and Conformity o Conformity adjusting one s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 0 One is made to feel incompetent 0 Group has 3 people 0 Group is unanimous o Admiration of group 0 No prior commitment to response 0 Observation 0 Culture encourages respect for social standards Reasons for Conforming o Normative Social Influence influence resulting from a person s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval o Informational Social Influence influence resulting from one s willingness to accept others opinions about reality Obedience Milgram Experiment 0 Stanley Milgram 1960s 0 Purpose to determine whether participants would obediently shock others when asked by an authority 0 Results Twothirds of participants administered the highest level of shock Conditions that Strengthen Obedience 0 Person giving orders perceived as legitimate authority figure 0 Authority supported by prestigious institution 0 Victim depersonalizeddistant o No role models for defiance Lessons from Conformity and Obedience Studies llThe most fundamental lesson of our study is that ordinary people simply doing their jobs and without any particular hostility on their part can become agents in a terrible destructive processquot Milgram Group Influence 0 Individual Behavior in Presence of Others 0 Effects of Group Interaction Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others 0 Social Facilitation stronger responses on simple or welllearned tasks in the presence of others 0 Better performance on easy tasks 0 Worse performance on difficult tasks Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others 0 Social Loafing tendency for people to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others 0 Deindividuation loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Effects of Group Interaction 0 Group Polarization the enhancement of a group s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group Effects of Group Interaction o Groupthink mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Power of Individuals 0 Minority Influence the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities Module 58 Antisocial Relations Prejudice o Prejudice an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members 0 Stereotype a generalized belief about a group of people 0 Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members How Prejudiced are People 0 Overt prejudice has waned but subtle prejudice lingers Social Roots of Prejudice Social Inequalities o Prejudice can be used to rationalize social inequities Social Roots of Prejudice Us and Them 0 Ingroup Usquot people with whom we share a common identity 0 Outgroup quotThemquot those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup o Ingroup Bias the tendency to favor our own group Emotional Roots of Prejudice o Scapegoat Theory theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Cognitive Roots of Prejudice o Categorization o OtherRace Effect tendency to recall faces of one s own race more accurately than faces of other races 0 Vivid Cases 0 JustWorld o JustWorld Phenomenon tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get Aggression o Aggression any physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy Biological Influences on Aggression 0 Genetic o Neural 0 Biochemical Psychological Influences on Aggression o FrustrationAggression Principle principle that frustration the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goaI creates anger which can generate aggression o Aversive stimuli like foul odors and hot temperatures SocialCultural Influences on Aggression o Observing Models of Aggression 0 Acquiring Social Scripts 0 Video Games Module 59 Prosocial Relations Psychology of Attraction Proximity 0 Mere Exposure Effect phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them Psychology of Attraction Physical Attractiveness Psychology of Attraction Similarity Romantic Love Passion 0 Passionate Love an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning ofa love relationship Romantic Love Companionate o Companionate Love deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined 0 Equity a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it o SelfDisclosure revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Altruism o Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander Intervention o Bystander Effect tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present Norms for Helping 0 Social Exchange Theory theory that our social behavior is an exchange process the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs 0 Reciprocity Norm expectation that people will help not hurt those who have helped them 0 Social Responsibility Norm expectation that people will help those dependent upon them Peacemaking 0 Conflict a perceived incompatibility of actions goals or ideas Peacemaking Social Traps 0 Social Trap a situation in which the conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing their self interest become caught in mutually destructive behavior Peacemaking Enemy Perceptions o MirrorImage Perceptions mutual views often held by conflicting people as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive Peacemaking Contact Sometimes putting parties into contact can help but not necessarily ex people with gay friends are more understanding of homosexuality Peacemaking Cooperation 0 Superordinate Goals shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation Peacemaking Conciliation o GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension reduction a strategy designed to decrease international tensions Introduction to Psychology Developing through the Life Span Developmental Psychology 0 Developmental Psychology branch of psychology that studies physical cognitive and social change throughout the life span 0 3 Major Issues 0 NatureNurture explains how genetics and behavior shape things 0 Continuity Stages 0 Stabili Change concerns whether our age affect personality Module 13 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Conception 0 Single sperm cell male penetrates outer coating of egg female and fuses to form a fertilized cell Prenatal Development 0 Zygote fertilized egg cell cells divide rapidly for 1st two weeks after conception and begin to differentiate o Emb o developing human organism from 2 9 weeks after conception cells differentiate and divide and specialize for different functions Fetus developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth Teratogens o Terato ens agents such as chemicals and Viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm 0 Examples I HIV heroin smoke alcohol 0 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman s heavy drinking The Competent Newborn o Habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulations o 4 month olds showed habituation to a series of cat pictures and looked longer at the novel dog stimulus I Newborns tend to look away when they see something familiar o Newborns prefer human faces and patterns Module 14 Infancy and Childhood Physical and Motor Development 0 Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively unin uenced by experience 0 Sitting unsupported 6 months 0 Crawling 89 months 0 Beginning to walk 12 months 0 Walking independently 15 months Physical Development Maturation and Memory 0 Infants can form memories but they don t last 0 Average age of earliest lasting memory 35 years 0 Examples they remember 0 Moving 0 3rd or 4th birthday party Cognitive Development Schemas Schema a conceptual framework that organizes and interprets information Assimilation interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas Accommodation adapting our current schemas to incorporate new information Cognitive Development Object Permanence amp Representational Thought 0 Ob39ect Permanence a child s realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it 0 ex At 8 months of age what is out of sight is not out of mind 0 Re resentational Thou ht the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind develops around 1824 months Cognitive Development Principle of Conservation 0 Conservation the principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed Cognitive Development Egocentrism o E 0centric a young child s inability to understand another person s perspective 0 Example I Hides by covering his own eyes 0 Theory of Mind people s ideas about their own and others mental states Cognitive Development Piaget s Theog o 4 stages 0 Sensorimotor o Preoperational 0 Concrete Operations 0 Formal Operations 0 Ages can differ but ALWAYS the same order Cognitive Development Piaget s Stages 0 Sensorimotor Birth 2 years 0 Experiences world through senses put objects in mouth 0 Object permanence Stranger anxiety 0 Preoperational 2 7 years 0 Represents things with words and images intuitive reasoning o Pretend play Egocentrism 0 Concrete Operational 7 11 years 0 Logical thinking for concrete events 0 Develop Conservation Mathematical transformations I Eg5499 54 0 Can understand jokes like this Mr Jones went into a restaurant and ordered a whole pizza for his dinner When the waiter asked if he wanted it cut into 6 or 8 pieces Mr Jones said Oh you d better make it 6 I could never eat 8 pieces 0 Formal Operations 12 years onward 0 Abstract reasoning 0 Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning 0 Example if then If John is in school then Mary is in school John is in school What can you say about Mary Re ecting on Piaget s Theory 0 Development is a continuous process 0 Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age 0 Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition Social Development Attachment and Anxie 0 Attachment an emotional tie with another person 0 Strong attachment to caregiver forms around 6 months especially strong 6 months 3 years 0 Stranger Anxiety infants fear of strangers Social Development Attachment and Contact 0 Physical contacUcomfort ismore important than food 0 Harlowe Experiment 0 Rhesus monkeys preferredcloth mother to wire mother Social Development Attachment 0 Critical Period optimal period when certain events must take place in order to facilitate proper development 0 Imprinting inherited tendency of some newborn animals to form an attachment to and follow the first moving object they see Social Development Attachment Styles 0 Secure Attachment 0 Upset when mother leaves happy When she returns 0 Parent Behavior attentive o Avoidant Attachment 0 Ignore mother when she leaves and returns 0 Parent Behavior neglectful o Ambivalent Attachment 0 Confused upset when mother leaves ignore her on return 0 Parent Behavior inconsistent Deprivation of Attachment 0 Consequences o Withdrawn o Frightened 0 Unable to develop speech 0 Examples 0 Romanian orphanages o Genie Social Development SelfConcept o Selfconcept our understanding and evaluation of who we are 0 Form around 15 18 months 0 Positive selfconcept results in confidence optimism independence and sociability Social Development Parenting Styles Type Description Effect Parents impose rules and expect punishment Low selfesteem and social Author1tar1an obed1ence skllls Democratic Parents are demanding but responsive High selfesteem selfreliance Authoritative allow children to have a say and social competence Parents submit to children s desires no Permlsswe Aggressive immature Module 15 Adolescence Adolescence o Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence 0 Some experience it as stressful others as carefree Physical Development 0 Puberty period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable or reproducing 0 Earlier in females 0 Primar Sex Characteristics body structures ovaries testes and external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible 0 Menarche the 1st menstrual period o Spermarche the 1st ejaculation o Seconda Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips male voice quality and body hair 0 Frontal lobe not fully developed until age 25 0 Implications for judgment impulse control longterm planning 0 May be explanation for teenagers being risky and having fast impulses Cognitive Development 0 Reasoning Power 0 From selffocused Parents just don t understand 0 To abstract reasoning Does God exist or Is war productive o Moral Reasoning o 3 Stages I Preconventional childhoodselfinterest seeking rewards and avoiding punishment I Conventional early adolescencecaring for others following rules I Postconventional late adolescence ethical principles Social Development 0 Erikson s Stages of Psychosocial Development 0 Each stage of life has its own crisis to be resolved Crisis of Adolescence Identity vs Role Confusion 0 Identity our sense of self solidified by testing and integrating various roles Crisis of Young Adulthood Intimacy vs Isolation Table 171 9Be familiar with adolescence and adulthood parts 0 Intimacy ability to form close loving relationships Emerging Adulthood 0 Emerging Adulthood period from the late tends to early twenties bridging the gap between adolescence and adulthood 0 Average Marriage Age 0 1920 25 for men 21 for women 0 1980 25 for men 22 for women 0 2007 28 for men 26 for women Module 16 Adulthood and Re ections on Developmental Issues Development in Adulthood 0 Changes still occur 0 More difficult to put in stages Physical Development 0 Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood o Decreased muscular strength reaction time sensory abilities and cardiac output 0 Decreases in women s fertility o Menopause time of natural cessation of menstruation biological change in which a woman can no longer produce Life Expectancy 0 Worldwide life expectancy increased from 49 in 1950 to 67 in 2004 0 Growing segment of the population 0 Women live 46 years longer than men Physical Changes Sensory Abilities o Decline in sight smell and hearing Physical Changes Health 0 Positive 0 Fewer shortterm ailments because of accumulation of antibodies 0 Exercise helps 0 Negative 0 More susceptible to lifethreatening illnesses because of decreased immune system 0 Slower reaction time Cognitive Development Aging and Memog 0 Recall fillintheblank vs Recognition multiple choice 0 Prospective Memories things like having to remember to go to the post office triggered vs timebased 0 Meaning recalled a lot better for older people Cognitive Changes Dementia and Alzheimer s disease 0 Alzheimer s Disease a condition that destroys a person s ability to think remember relate to others and care for herself or himself Can lead to disorientation and loss of emotion NOT normal aging Affects 3 of the population by age 75 Cognitive Development Aging and Intelligence 0 ngstallized Intelligence accumulated knowledge and verbal skills39 increases with age 0 Fluid Intelligence ability to reason speedily and abstractly39 decreases in late adulthood Social Development Commitments 0 Social Clock culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage parenthood and retirement 0 Commitments 0 Family 0 Work Social Development WellBeing o Wellbeing is stable across the life span 0 Mood is more stable with age Social Development Death and Dying 0 Misconceptions o Terminally ill and grieving people go through identical predictable stages FALSE 0 Stronger grief following a loss leads to quicker recovery FALSE 0 Letting it out is better than grieving privately FALSE Re ections on Development 0 Continuity and Stages 0 Slow continuous process 0 Series of genetically predisposed stages 0 Stability and Change 0 Development requires both MODULES 17 to 22 Introduction to Psychology Sensation and Perception Module 17 Introduction to Sensation and Perception Sensation and Perception 0 process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment 0 process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Is more physiological Information Processin o analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain s integration of sensory information o information processing guided by higher level mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Psychophysics o study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience with them Light Brightnes s Sound Volume Pressure Weight lSugar lSweet Thresholds 0 minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 of the time o when stimuli are below one s absolute threshold for conscious awareness Signal Detection Theory 0 Predicts how and when we detect a signal amid noise Assumes detection partly depends on a persons experience expectations motivation and alertness Example You are driving a bus with 12 passengers and at your first stop 6 passengers get off At the second stop 3 get off At the third stop 2 more get off but 3 new people get on What color are the bus driver s eyes Subliminal Messages 0 the activation often unconsciously of certain associations thus predisposing ones perception memory or response Difference Thresholds o minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time o principle that to be perceived as a different 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage Light 8 Weight 200 Tone 3 Sensory Adaptation o Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation Module 18 Vision How Do We See 0 conversion of one form of energy into another and the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses our brain can then interpret Stimulus Input Light Energy Electromagnetic spectrum Part ofspectrum visible Xrays AC circuits Gamma rays nd Ultra Infrared violet rays ra ys t I 10 10 1039 10 10 105 10 10 10 10 10 1o Wavelength in nanometers billionths of a meter Stimulus In ut Light Energy 0 distance from the peak of one lighU sound wave to the peak of the next determines hue Radar Broadcast ha 5 o amount of energy in a sound wave which is determined by the waves amplitude determines brightness Structure of the Eye 0 protects the eye and bends light to provide focus 0 adjustable opening in the center of eye through which light enters o muscle that eXpands and contracts to change the size of opening pupil for light 0 focuses he light rays on the retina o lightsensitive inner surface of the eye i Iris Cornea Ellnd spot Lens 0 process by which eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina versa The Retina o detect black white gray necessary for peripheral and twilight Vision 0 detect fine detail and colors function in welllit conditions o part of the retina where there are no receptor cells Visual Information Processing 0 nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific feature of the stimulus such as shape angle or movement 0 processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously Color Vision 0 the eye contains 3 receptors that are sensitive to red blue and green Color Vision opposing retinal processes red green39 yellowblue39 whiteblack enable color vision Module 19 Hearing Stimulus Input Sound Waves 0 the sense or act of hearing 0 Amplitude 9 Loudness 0 Frequency 9 Pitch o number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time o a tones experienced highness or lowness Parts of the Ear o collects and sends sounds to eardrum o concentrates the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea s oval windows 0 contains cochlea semicircular canals and vestibular sacs o coiled bony uidfilled tube through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses Loudness Great amplitude brlgl39ll colors loud sounds Small amplitude dull colors son sounds Pitch links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea s membrane is stimulated rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone enabling us to sense pitch Locating Sound 0 Two ways when sound is louder in one ear starts in one ear and is slower to reach the other ear 0 the time it takes to reach both ears Hearing Loss 0 caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea caused by damage to the cochlea s receptor cells or the auditory nerves 0 converts sounds into electrical signals Module 20 Other Senses Touch 0 Mix of 4 skin senses o system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts 0 Receptors in muscles bones joints 0 sense of body movement and postion including balance Touch Understanding Pain 0 Biological psychological and social factors contribute to the experience of pain 0 spinal cord has a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass Touch Controlling Pain 0 Placebos o Eg placebo pills fake acupuncture o Distraction o Eg think ofa pleasant image Taste 0 Originally served basic survival function 0 Taste buds enable taste and reproduce quickly Smell 0 Chemicals are carried to receptor cells resulting in smell 0 Smell strongly associated with memory Sensory Interaction o Principle that one sense may in uence another 0 E g smell and taste intimately connected 0 one sort of sensation such as hearing sound produces another such as seeing color Module 21 Perceptual Organization Gestalt Review 0 Gestalt Whole pattern 0 How sensations are assembled into perceptual eXperiences Form Perce tion Figure and Ground 0 h the organization of the Visual field into objects the figures that stand out from their surroundings the ground Form Perce tion Grouping 0 i the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups Depth Perception o ability to see objects in 3 dimensions although the images that strike the retina are 2dimensional39 allows us to judge distance 0 lab device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals Depth Perce tion Binocular Cues o depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes 0 by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes the brain computes distance 0 Greater disparity closer object Depth Perce tion Monocular Cues o depth cues available to either eye alone 0 relative height relative size relative motion light and shadow linear perspective and interposition Motion Perception o Shrinking objects perceived as retreating enlarging object seen as approaching o brain sees continuous movement in a rapid series of images 0 an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink in and off in quick succession Perce tual Constanc o H perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change 0 Types Shape and size we perceive them as none changing even if your retina is changing Light Color Module 22 Perceptual Interpretation Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision 0 Those who were blind from birth and given sight as adults 0 Have difficulty distinguishing shapes 0 Have difficulty seeing faces as a whole Perce a n tation Min tual Ad Me 7 V an in vision the ability to adjust to an artificial deplaced or inverted visual field Perce n tual Set another Such as a cop thinking a hammer is a weapon and a carpenter seeing it as a tool a a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not Perceptual Set Context Effects 0 Immediate context affects perceptions 0 Example Perceptual Set Emotion and Motivation 0 Motivation 0 Perceptions affected by rewards o Emotions o Spouses who feel loved perceive problems as less serious Perception and the Human Factor 0 Human factors psychology branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use Is There Extrasensory Perception o claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input includes telepathy clairvoyance and precognition o the study of paranormal phenomena including ESP and psychokinesis ESP Claims 0 mindtomind communication 0 perception of remote events Putting ESP to the Test 0 Psychics no better than chance 0 Chance guarantees that coincidences are sure to occur Module 48 Introduction to Psychological Disorders Defining Psychological Disorders 0 Psychological disorders patterns of thoughts feeling or behaviors that are deviant distressful and dysfunctional 0 quotdeviantquot behavior varies by context culture and time 0 Deviant behavior typically causes distress 0 Dysfunction is key to defining a disorder Thinking Critically about ADHD 0 Attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one of more of three key symptoms 0 Extreme inattention 0 Hyperactivity 0 Impulsivity Normal High Energy or Genuine Disorder 0 Skeptics 0 ADHD is diagnosed two to three times more often in boys than in girls 0 Rates depend on teacher referrals 0 Vs Proponents 0 Increased awareness of disorder today 0 Neuroimaging and genetic evidence Understanding Psychological Disorders 0 Reform against brutal treatments led by Phillipe Pinel 17451826 0 Medical model the concept that diseases in this case psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed treated and in most cases cured often through treatment in a hospital Understanding Psychological Disorders 0 Biopsychosocial approach current approach of psychology which studies how biological psychological and socialcultural factors interact to produce specific psychological disorders Classifying Psychological Disorders 0 Diagnostic classification aims not only to describe a disorder but also to predict its future course imply appropriate treatment and stimulate research into its causes 0 DSMlVTR is a widely used classification system for psychological disorders Labeling Psychological Disorders 0 Some psychologists criticize the use of diagnostic labels 0 Biasing power of labels Rosenhan study 1973 0 Stereotypes linger in media portrayals of psychological disorders 0 Labels can change reality 9 selffulfilling prophecy Rates of Psychological Disorders 0 Mental health surveys in many countries provide varying estimates of rates of psychological disorders 0 Poverty is a predictor of mental illness 0 Among Americans the three most common psychological disorders are phobias alcohol dependency and mood disorder Module 49 Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders 0 Anxiety disorders psychological disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety 0 Five disorders that we will focus on 0 generalized anxiety disorder GAD 0 panic disorder 0 phobias 0 obsessivecompulsive disorder OCD 0 posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD 0 GAD an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal 0 Individuals with GAD cannot identify and therefore cannot deal with or avoid its cause Panic Disorder 0 Panic disorder an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minuteslong episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain chocking or other frightening sensations Phobias 0 Phobias anxiety disorders marked by a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation 0 Specific phobias 0 Social phobia 0 Agoraphobia ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0 ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts obsessions andor actions compulsions O Obsessions and compulsions cross the line from normal behaviors to a disorder when they become so timeconsuming that they interfere with everyday functioning PostTraumatic Stress Disorder 0 PTSD an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories nightmares social withdrawal jumpy anxiety andor insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience 0 PTSD common among war veterans as well as survivors of accidents disasters and violent and sexual assaults 0 The greater one s emotional distress during a trauma the higher the risk for symptoms of PTSD 0 Also depends on sensitivity of one s limbic system 0 Has PTSD been overdiagnosed 0 Recognition of posttraumatic growth 0 Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises Understanding Anxiety Disorders 0 Psychoanalytic theory Freud viewed anxiety disorders as the manifestation of mental energy associated with the discharge of repression impulses 0 Learning perspective 0 Biological perspective The Learning Perspective 0 Fear conditioning 0 Stimulus generalization 0 Reinforcement of fearful behaviors 0 Observational learning of others fears The Biological Perspective 0 Role of certain fears in natural selection and evolution 0 Genetic inheritance of emotional reactivity 0 Abnormal responses in brain s fear circuits Module 50 Tquot 39 39 P quot and Disorders Dissociative Disorders 0 Dissociative disorders disorder of consciousness in which a person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity often in response to an overwhelmingly stressful situation Dissociative Identity Disorder DID 0 DID a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and altering personalities 0 Formerly known as multiple personality disorder The Controversy about DID 0 Skeptics 0 Is DID a genuine disorder or an extension of our normal capacity for personality shifts 0 Most DD patients are highly hypnotizable 0 DD is highly localized in time and space 0 Supporters 0 Distinct brain and body states associated with different personalities Personality Disorders 0 Personality disorders disruptive inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair one s social functioning Antisocial Personality Disorder 0 Antisocial personality disorder a personality in which the person usually a man exhibits a lack of conscientious of wrongdoing even toward friends and family members may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder 0 Biological influences 0 Genes 0 The brain 0 Study of quotbiosocialquot factors Somatoform Disorders 0 Somatoform disorders psychological disorders in which the symptoms take a somatic bodily form without apparent physical cause Somatoform Disorders 0 Conversion disorder a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found 0 Hypochondriasis a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease Module 51 Mood Disorders Mood Disorders 0 Mood disorders psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes 0 Two main types 0 Major depressive disorder 0 Bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder 0 Major Depressive Disorder a mood disorder in which a person experiences in the absence of drugs or a medical condition two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities Bipolar Disorder 0 Bipolar Disorder a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania Characteristics of Depression 0 Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression 0 Depression is widespread 0 Compared with men women are nearly twice as vulnerable to major depression 0 Most major depressive episodes selfterminate 0 Stressful events related to work marriage and close relationships often precede depression 0 With each new generation depression is striking earlier and affecting more people The Biological Perspective 0 Three main areas of interest 0 Genetic predispositions 0 Siblingtwin studies 0 Brain activity 0 Frontal lobehippocampal activity 0 Biochemical imbalances 0 Neurotransmitter systems The SocialCognitive Perspective 0 Selfdefeating beliefs 0 Learned helplessness 0 Rumination 0 Negative explanatory style 0 Stable global and internal explanations vs temporary specific and external explanations Cycle of depression Suicide 0 National differences 0 Racial differences 0 Gender differences 0 Age differences 0 Other group differences Module 52 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia 0 Schizophrenia a group a sever disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions 0 llsplit mind Schizophrenia 0 Disorganized thinking 0 Delusions false beliefs often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders 0 Disturbed perceptions 0 Hallucinations 0 Inappropriate emotions and actions Onset and Development of Schizophrenia 0 Typically strikes as people are entering adulthood 0 Onset can be sudden or gradual 0 Acutereactive schizophrenia vs chronicprocess schizophrenia 0 Positive or negative symptoms Subtypes of Schizophrenia 0 Paranoid 0 Disorganized 0 Catatonic 0 Undifferentiated 0 Residual Causes of Schizophrenia 0 Brain abnormalities 0 Dopamine overactivity 0 Abnormal brain activity and anatomy 0 Maternal virus during midpregnancy 0 Genetic factors 0 Psychological factors Module 53 Psychological Therapies Therapy 0 Reform of mental health treatment system led by Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix 0 Two main categories of treatments 0 Psychotherapy 0 Biomedical therapy Psychological Therapies 0 Psychotherapy treatment involving psychological techniques consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth 0 Eclectic approach an approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy Major Types of Psychotherapies 0 Psychodynamic 0 Clientcentered 0 Behavior 0 Cognitive 0 Family Psychoanalysis 0 Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freaud s therapeutic technique in which the patients free associations resistances dreams and transferences and the therapist s interpretation of them released previous feelings 0 Bring feelings repressed from childhood into conscious awareness Methods of Psychoanalysis 0 Free association say aloud whatever comes to your mind 0 Resistance the blocking from consciousness of anxietyladen material 0 Interpretation the analyst s noting supposed dream meanings resistances and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight 0 Transference the patient s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships Psychodynamic Therapy 0 Psychodynamic therapy therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences and that seeks to enhance 0 Interpersonal psychotherapy a brief 1216 session form of psychodynamic therapy Humanistic Therapy 0 Aim to boost selffulfillment by helping people grow in selfawareness and selfacceptance 0 Insight therapies a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client s awareness of underlying motives and defenses Methods of Humanistic Therapy 0 Clientcentered therapy developed by Carl Rogers the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine accepting empathic environment to facilitate clients growth 0 Active listening empathic listening in which the listener echoes restates and clarifies 0 Unconditional positive regard a caring accepting nonjudgmental attitude which Rogers believed to be 39 to 39 39 39f 39 0 self and su I Behavior Therapies 0 Behavior therapy therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors 0 Counterconditioning procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behavior 0 Exposure therapies 0 Aversive conditioning Counterconditioning 0 Exposure therapy techniques that treats anxiety by exposing people in imagination or actuality to the things they fear and avoid 0 Systematic desensitization associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli Virtual reality exposure therapy progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears Counterconditioning 0 Aversive conditioning associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior Operant Conditioning 0 Behavior modification reinforced desired behavior and withhold reinforcement for undesired behavior 0 Token economy procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibitinga desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges Cognitive Therapies 0 Cognitive therapy therapy that teaches people new more adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions CognitiveBehavior Therapy 0 Cognitivebehavior therapy a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy changing selfdefeating thinking with behavior therapy changing behavior Group and Family Therapies 0 Group therapy 0 Family therapy therapy that treats family as a system views an individuals unwanted behavior as an influence by or directed at other family members 0 Selfhelp and support groups Module 54 Evaluating Psychotherapies s Psychotherapy Effective 0 Difficulty in figuring out how to assess effectiveness 0 Client s perceptions 0 Clinicians perceptions 0 Outcome research Client s Perceptions 0 Client testimonials affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy 0 BUT 0 People often enter therapy in crisis 0 Clients may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort 0 Clients generally speak kindly of their therapists Clinicians Perceptions 0 Most therapists like most clients testify to therapy s success regardless of the treatment 0 If a client seeks another clinician the former therapist is more likely to argue that the client has developed another psychological problem 0 Clinicians are likely to testify to the efficacy of their therapy regardless of the outcome of treatment Outcome Research 0 Metaanalysis a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies Average therapy client ends up better off than about 80 of the untreated individuals 0 Those not undergoing therapy often improve but those undergoing therapy are more likely to improve Placebo effect Regression toward the mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back regress toward their average Relative Effectiveness of Therapies Relative Effectiveness of Therapies 0 NO support for 0 Energy therapies 0 Recoveredmemory therapies 0 Rebirthing therapies 0 Facilitated communication 0 Crisis debriefing 0 Evidencebased practice clinical decisionmaking that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences Alternative Therapies 0 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing EMDR imagine traumatic or anxiety provoking events while moving your eyes able to unlock and reprocess previously frozen emotions 0 Light Exposure Therapy timed daily dose of intense light used to treat SAD Commonalities Among Psychotherapies 0 Hope for demoralized people 0 A new perspective 0 Empathic trusting caring relationship Culture and Values 0 Individualist vs collectivist cultures 0 Religious differences 0 Preventive mental health Module 55 Biomedical Therapies Biomedical Therapy 0 quot39 quot 39 therapy r or medical procedures that act directly on the patient s nervous system 0 Psychopharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior Antipsychotic Drugs 0 Antipsychotic drugs drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder 0 Especially positive symptoms 0 Block activity of dopamine 0 Tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of the facial muscles tongue and limbs Antianxiety Drugs 0 Antianxiety drugs drugs used to control anxiety and agitation 0 Depress central nervous system activity 0 Can produce psychological and physiological dependence Antidepressants 0 Antidepressant drugs drugs used to treat depression also increasingly prescribed for anxiety 0 Increase availability of norepinephrine or serotonin 0 Psychological effects are not immediate MoodStabilizing Drugs 0 Used to stabilize the emotional highs and lows of bipolar disorder 0 Lithium Depakote Brain Stimulation 0 Electroconvulsive therapy ECT a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain 0 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain 0 Deepbrain stimulation Psychosurgery 0 Psychosurgery surgery that removes or destroys tissue in an effort to change behavior 0 Lobotomy a nowrare psychosurgical procedure in which the nerve connecting the frontal lobes to the emotioncontrolling centers of the inner brain are cut Therapeutic LifeStyle Change 0 12 week training program composed of Aerobic exercise Adequate sleep Light exposure Social connection Antirumination Nutritional supplements
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