INTR TO PSYC
INTR TO PSYC PSYC 2000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Nolan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by R. Horn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/222950/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Module 1 The Story of Psychology Structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes functionihow they enable us to adapt survive and ourish Behaviorism the view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most research psychologist today agree with l but not with 2 Humanistic Psychology historically signi cant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual s potential for personal growth Cognitive Neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception thinking memory and language Psychology the science of behavior and mental process Natural Selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Level of Analysis the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to socialcultural for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological psychological and socialcultural levels of analysis How the body and brain enable emotions memories and sensory exper1ences ex How are messages transmitted within the body How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes ex How does evolution in uence behavior tendencies How much our genes and our environment in uence our 1 individual differences ex To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence personality sexual orientation and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes To our environment vquot How we encode process store and retrieve information ex How do we use information in remembering Reasoning Solving problems 7 1 How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures ex How are we humans alike as members of one human family As products of different environmental context how do we differ Counseling Psychology a branch of psychology that assist people with problems in living often related to school work or marriage and in achieving greater wellbeing Clinical Psychology a branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiat a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy sg 23 a study method incorporating five steps Survey Question Read Rehearse Review Module 2 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Hindsigl1t Bias the tendency to believe after leaming an outcome that one would have foreseen it Also known as the Iknewitallalong phenomenon Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions Rather it examines assumptions discems hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions Culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Module 3 Research Strategies How Psychologist Ask and Answer Questions Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events Hypothesis a testable prediction often prompted by a theory to enable us to accept reject or revise a theory Operational Definition a statement of the procedures operations used to define research variables ex Human intelligence my be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures Replication repeating the essence of a study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of reveling universal principles Surv y a technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group Population all the cases in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation used Electronically Activated Recorders EAR to sample naturally occurring slices of daily life Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Correlation Coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things ex from 1 to 1 Illusog Correlation the perception of a relationship where none exist Experimen a research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process dependent variable Random Assignmen assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups DoubleBlind Procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo Commonly used in drugevaluation studies Placebo Effect experimental results caused by expectations alone any effect on behavior caused by the administration of inert substance or condition which the recipient assumes is an active agent Experimental Group in an experiment the group that is exposed to the treatment that is to one version of the Independent variable Control Group the group that is not exposed to the treatment contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment v quotH39 illquot effect is bein quot 1 we the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable Whose g studied 439 39 J 1 l ml purpose to observe and record behavior no control over variables single cases may be misleading eX case studies surveys naturalistic observations ell one variable predicts another does not specify cause and effect eX compute statistical association sometimes among survey responses J y quottu lit ll lanli39 eX manipulate one or more factors use random assignment Dependent Variable the outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Normal Curve normal distribution a symmetrical bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near extremes Statistical Sigyificance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance Module 4 Neural and Hormonal Systems
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