INTR TO PSYC
INTR TO PSYC PSYC 2000
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This 143 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Vinci in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/222951/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Social Psychology Part 1 PSYC 2000 Focuses in Social Psychology 0 Social psychology scienti cally studies how we think about in uence and relate to one another 0 Social Thinking Module 56 0 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations 0 Attitudes and Actions 0 Social Influence Module 57 m h 39 Conformity and Obedience 0 Group Influence 1 0 The Power of Individuals 0 Antisocial Relations Module 58 m m m w a Social Thinking Moch e 56 Social Thinking 0 Social thinking involves thinking about others especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected 1 Does his absenteeism signify illness laziness or a stressful work atmosphere 3 Was the horror of 9 11 the work of crazed evil people or ordinary people corrupted by life events Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations 0 Attribution Theory we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone s behavior often by crediting either the situation or the person s disposition 0 Eg A teacher may wonder whether a child s hostility re ects an aggressive personality dispositional attribution or is a reaction to stress or abuse a situational attribution h Fundamental Attribution Error 0 The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error 0 EgWe see Joe as quiet shy and introverted most of the time but with friends he is very talkative loud and extrover ted Effects of Attribution 0 How we explaln someone s behav1or affects how we react to it 0 Hurrlcane Katrlna Tolerant reaction proceed cautiously allow driver a wide berth Situational attribution quotMaybe that driver is illquot Negative behavior t a g v Dispositional attribution Crazy driverquot speed up and race past the other driver craning to give a dirty look Attitudes and Action 0 Attitude A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects other people and events E g If we believe a person is mean we rnayfee dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly rnanner Attitudes Can Affect Actions 0 Our attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectly because other factors including the external situation also in uence behavior E g Democratic leaders supported Bush s attack on Iraq under public pressure However they had their private reservations 0 The Looking Glass Effect If we are made to feel self conscious we are truer to our convictions Actions Can Affect Attitudes 0 Not only do people stand for What they believe in attitude they start believing in what they stand for 0 So convincing people to act against their beliefs can affect their attitude People often adjust their beliefs toward consistency with their public acts Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking beliefs Small Request Large Request 0 Footindoor phenomenon The tendency for people Who have rst agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request 0 E g In the KoreanWar Chinese communists solicited cooperation from US army prisoners by asking them to carry out small errands By complying to small errands they were likely to comply to larger ones Role Playing Affects Attitudes 0 Zimbardo 1972 assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role appropriate attitudes i nal Why Can Actions Affect Attitudes 0 Cognitive Dissonance Theory 0 One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed we experience tension This is called cognitive dissonance 0 To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions Consider this scenario 0 Suppose you had volunteered to participate in a psychology experiment on campus Upon arrival you were seated at a table and asked to undertake a series of dull meaningless tasks for about an hour Afterward the experimenter convinced you to extol the virtues of the tasks you had performed by describing them to other potential participants as highly worthwhile interesting and educationalYou were paid either 1 or 20 to do this Suppose you were then asked to privately rate your enjoyment of the tasks on a questionnaire After which amount do you believe your actual enjoyment rating of the tasks would be higher 1 1 0 2 20 0 Cognitive Dissonance Fiona s attitude The tuition here is too high Cognitive dissonance awareness that attitude and gt behavior are inconsistent Fiona s behavior Dissonance resolved Maybe the school has a Social Influence Moch e 57 Social Influence The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes beliefs decisions and actions and the way they are molded by social influence T f f 5mm are or same fawn mm meningeer in mm m d39HiI39J39FH Conformity and Obedience 0 Behavior is contagious modeled by one followed by another We follow behavior of others to conform 0 Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance obedience toward authority Conformity The Chameleon Effect 0 Conformity Adjusting one s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Chartrand 8L Bargh 1999 0 This automatic mimicry is related to empathy Number of times 07 06 05 04 03 I Confederate rubs face Participant shakes foot I Confederate shakes foot Participant rubs face Group Pressure and Conformity 0 Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard 0 An influence resulting from one s Willingness to accept others opinions about reality Asch s 1955 conformity studies examined this phenomenon 1 2 3 Standard line Comparison lines Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 1 2 3 4 U One is made to feel incompetent or insecure The group has at least three people The group is unanimous One admires the group 5 status and attractiveness One has no prior commitment to response Others in the group observes one s behavior One 5 culture strongly encourages respect for social standard Reasons for Conforming 0 Normative Social In uence In uence resulting from a person s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection 0 A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected 0 Informational Social Influence The group may provide valuable information but stubborn people will never listen to others 0 Conformity varies by culture in individualist cultures conformity rates are lower Obedience 0 People comply to social pressure How would they respond to outright command 0 Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigated the effects of authority on obedience Slight gt l15u l Modemte ES130 Sawing Ciasuaa k Weary Intense Extaeme Danger 51mm IRES 311quot intangiw severe il 3 l l315 b l l3542DJ Sh til v hi v S K Milgram 3 Study Results 1 00 90 80 7O 60 50 4O 3O 20 10 O Slight 15 60 Percentage of subjects who obeyed experimenter The majority of subjects continued to obey to the end Moderate Strong Very Intense Extreme Danger XXX 75 120 135 180 strong 255 300 intensity severe 435 450 195 240 315 360 375 420 Shock levels in volts But about 1 3 did resist the pressure to shock the learner Milgram 8 Study Variations 0 Obedience was highest when 0 The person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure 0 The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution e g Yale University 0 The victim was depersonaiized at a distance or in another room 0 There were no role models for defiance of the experimenter Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies In both Asch39s and Milgrarn39s studies participants were pressured to choose between following their standards and being responsive to others In Milgrarn s study participants were torn between hearing the Victims pleas and the experimenter s orders and obedience usually won 0 The most fundamental lesson of our study is that ordinary people simply doing their jobs and without any particular hostility on their part can become agents in a terrible destructive process quot Milgram 1974 Wolves or sheep OOQChU lFWNl k Slight l w Slight Bioderate Strong Verystrong Intense M deralie 15130l Extrenqeintens y Dangerzsevere XXX Slmng l135i On the average what shock level do you think the teacher Chose for the learner 096 096 096 096 096 096 096 096 Extreme intensiw 315350l Danger SEVEIE 3354201 Intense E2553U13l wary Strung llq a l Shacklemohinynhs Iii1 l iuq l What shook level do you think the teacher Chose for the learner s 3Oth last mistake 0 1 Shght 0 0 2 Moderate 0 3 Strong 0 4 Very strong 0 5 Intense 0 6 Extreme intensity 0 7 Danger severe 0 8 XXX 0 Slight Moderate Slmng Very Intense Extreme Danger EH 1545 U5 13 l HES4amp0 strung 2554mm intensiw setrere HE 45m twauzwl nudeor 3541an K Shari levels in mils j What percentage of teachers do you think eventually set the shock at 450 volts 0 1096 11 2096 21 3096 31 4096 41 5096 51 6096 61 7096 71 8096 81 9096 91 10096 096 096 096 096 096 096 096 096 096 096 meadowlme H O Results from alternative study 0 Milgram reports that only one participant pressed the maximum shock 0 In general the shock level remained in the 45 to 60 Volt range 0 Students who are aware of Milgram s initial findings regularly overestimate these freely Chosen levels of shock Thought Question 0 If you could do anything humanly possible with complete assurance that you would not be detected or held responsible what would you do Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others 0 Social Facilitation Refers to improved performance on a task in the presence of others 0 E g cyclists race time were faster when they competed against others than against a clock 0 Works for easier tasks presence of others can interfere With peak performance on difficult tasks 39 So arousal due to the presence of others strengthens the most likely response Social Loafing 0 Tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually 0 Why 0 People in a group feel less individually accountable People in a group may view their contribution as dispensable Deindividuation 0 Loss of self awareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Effects of Group Interaction 0 Group Polarization enhances a group s prevailing attitudes through a discussion 0 If a group is like minded discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes High Prejudice Low 4 27 1 Highprejudice groups 7 Discussion among likeminded people tends to strengthen preexisting attitudes Lowprejudice groups 39 Before discussion After discussion Groupthink 0 A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionimaking group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives 0 Examples of groupthink fiascocs Attack on Pearl Harbor Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis Watergate Cm39errul The Challenger disaster quotAll than a pm my wax u A W 1quot V quotaw K Symptoms of Groupthink Illusions of invulnerability where the group think it is invincible and can do no wrong Collective efforts to rationalize or discount warnings Unquestioned belief in the moral correctness of the group Stereotyped views of the out group often as too evil weak or stupid to be worth bothering with Self censorship as people decide not to rock the boat Pressure to conform A shared illusion of being unanimous everyone always agrees with everyone else Protecting the group from contrary viewpoints by self appointed mind guards Preventing Groupthink One or more members should be assigned the role of devil s advocate Occasionally the group should be subdivided Have the subgroups meet separately and then come together to discuss the differences After the group seems to have reached consensus have a last chance meeting in which each member is encouraged to express any remaining doubts Call in outside experts to challenge the group s Views Have each group member air the group s deliberations with trusted associates and report their reactions Antisocial Relations Moch e 58 Prejudice 0 Simply called prejudgment a prejudice is an unjustifiable usually negative attitude toward a group and its members Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural ethnic or gender groups w 39 0 Components of Prejudice l belief stereotypes 2 Emotions hostility envy fear 3 Predisposition to act to discriminate 0 Prejudice works at the conscious and more at the unconscious level How Prejudioed are People 0 Over the duration of time many prejudices against interracial marriage gender homosexuality and minorities have decreased Percent approving 100 of marriage between Macks and 8 uvhites END 40 20 1958 1950 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 Year Racial and Gender Prejudice 0 Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice but prejudices still exist Percentage answering yes 90 so 70 6O 50 4o 30 Would you vote for a woman president Prejudice against women and blacks has fallen sharply in recent decades Do whites have a right 20 to keep minorities out of 10 their neighborhoods 0 1936 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Year Types of Prejudice 0 Overt prejudice has decreased both racial and gender 0 Subtle prejudices remain 9 A modern prejudice We may not be conscious of some of our actions that could be considered prejudice Overt Prejudice 0 Despite a decrease in overt prejudice it still remains in public settings 0 Example study 39 In Los Angeles 1 1 15 landlords received identically worded emails from a would be tenant experimenter 39 Signatures influenced positive replies Tyrell jackson 56 Said Al Rahmann 66Oo Patrick McDougalln 8 9 39 Graham Wellington PSA commercial from 2003 Racial Prejudice 0 Implicit 39 Nine out of ten white respondents were slow when responding to words like peace or paradise when they saw a black individual s photo compared to a white individual s photo Hugenberg amp Bodenhausen 2003 39 Participants were more likely to misperceive a tool as a gun when it was preceded by a Black rather than aWhite face Payne 2006 Tool or Gun Which one of the men placed a personal ad seeking a special lady to love and cherish forever 1 Picture a 0 2 Pictureb 0 Gender Prejudice 0 People tend to perceive their 0 Although prejudice prevails fathers as more intelligent than against women more their mothers people feel more positively 0 Most women still live in more toward women than men t th pover y an men Who do you like best 0 There is a preference for male who is more likely to Place a children in China and India even with sex selected abortion personal ad outlawed 0 67 of people in US who have a preference would rather have a boy if they only have 1 child even as soon as 2003 K Social Roots of Prejudice 0 Why does prejudice arise 1 Social Inequalities 2 Social Divisions 3 Emotional Scapegoating Social Inequality 0 Prejudice develops when people have money power and prestige and others do not Social inequality increases prejudice Dnginulfi erl Raprmuml nn rights ohIIaIrqtf g from h39erw lanounstrskzxoni m 39 r 39 0 Why w quot393 K CEiS F iJWH 39 Cognitive Dissonance The haves may develop attitudes that justify the status quo Stereotypesnrationalize inequalities They are lazy which is why they are on welfare Social Divisions Us and Them Ingroup People with Whom one shares a common identity outgroupzThose perceived as different from one s ingroup Ingroup bias The tendency to favor one s own group 39 This effect is seen even with temporary arbitrarv group distinctions 7 39 We feel a need to belong so we define ourselves and our identities through groups 39 Intense dislike for those not in our group Figure I Which is your favorite SEC team Alabama Arkansas p L Auburn Florida Georgia Kentucky LSU Mississippi State Ole Miss 10 South Carolina Jeoqomrlkyop 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Emotional Roots of Prejudice 0 Scapegoat Theory Prejudice provides an outlet for anger emotion by providing someone to blame 0 E g after 9 1 1 many people lashed out against innocent Ara Americans 0 Heightened patriotism aggression toward outgroup and increased support of President Bush 0 Higher levels of prejudice among economically frustrated people 0 In experiments people made to feel insecure will often restore self esteem by disparaging others k J Cognitive Roots of Prejudice 0 One way we simplify our world is to categorize We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them 0 In Vivid cases such as the 9 11 attacks terrorists can feed stereotypes or prejudices terrorism 39 However most terrorists are non Muslims 0 Other Race Effectn tendency to recall faces of one s own race more accurately than faces of other races JustWorld Phenomenon 0 The tendency to believe the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get 0 Good is rewarded and evil is punished 0 Explains why we blame the victims E g rape victims often get the blame for being promiscuous E g poor people get what they deserve because they don t try hard enough E g people who get lucky breaks have usually earned their good fortune Prosocial Relations Moch e 59 Altruism 0 An unselfish regard for the welfare of others 0 BecaIne a major concern of social Psychologists around the 1960s 0 What do you think motivates people to help 0 Kim Genovese Bystander Intervention 0 The decision making process for bystander intervention Notices Yes mnthrPrEtS Yes Assumes Yes Attempts incident 39nc39 9 a5 re5ponsibility to help emergency No lNo 1N0 No No No help help help Bysta nd er Effect 0 Tendency of any given attempting to help 80 to give aid if other 70 bystander to be less likely bystanders are present 60 50 4o 30 20 10 0 Percentage 90 7 7 Fewer people help if others seem available 1 2 3 Number of others presumed available to help Psychology Study Guide Anxiety Disorders Symptoms 0 Fear arousal in response to a specific and present event 0 Anxiety general reaction in anticipation of future events 1 State anxiety anxiety felt in the moment 2 Trait anxiety general level of anxiety 0 Anxious apprehension worry 1 High anxietynegative emotion 2 Sense of uncontrollability 3 Shift in attention to self 0 Physiological arousal fight of flight activation vs 0 Psychological arousal thoughts focused on impending event 0 Panic attack distinct period of time generally lt 10min characterized by intense physiological symptoms at least four 0 Phobias persistent irrational narrowly defined fear 0 Obsessions repetitive behaviorsthoughts used to irrationally reduce anxiety Usually in response to obsessions Specific Phobia 0 Key characteristics irrational persistent fear of specific object or situation eg insects heights flying 0 Associated with intense anxiety when in the presence of object or in anticipation of situation and avoidance of situations 0 Most common fears animalsinsects height blood and flying Social Anxiety Disorder 0 Key characteristics irrational persistent fear of social situations and fear of negative evaluation specifically 0 Associated with intense anxiety in social situations and avoidance of social situations 0 Specifier specific eg public speaking only and generalized Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 Key characteristics excessive worry more often than not for 6 months Must be in response to a range of events Include three of the following o Restlessness easily fatigued difficulty concentrating irritability muscle tension sleep disturbance 0 Must have difficulty controlling worries and lead to social or occupational dysfunction Panic Disorder 0 Key characteristics 4 of the following in a distinct episode 0 Palpitations or pounding heart sweating trembling shortness of breath choking chest discomfort nausea dizzinessfaintness feelings of unreality fear of losing control fear of dying paresthesias numbness or tingling chills or hot flashes 0 Must also have persistent concerns about having attacks or the implications of the attacks 0 With Agoraphobia distress about being in situations where escape may be difficult or embarrassing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0 Either obsessions or compulsions most people have both 0 Obsessions o Repetitive thoughts Recurrent and persistent thoughts impulses or images not simply excessive worries about reallife prob O o Attempts to suppress these thoughts impulses or images 0 39 that the 39 39 are 39 f 39 39 u y o Concern with dirt germs or toxins something terrible happening fire death illness symmetry order or exactness o Compulsions o Repetitive behaviors o behaviorsmental acts that the person feels driven to perform to prevent or reduce distress o excessive hand washing bathing tooth brushing or grooming repeating rituals inout ofa door updown from a chair checking doors locks appliances car brake homework 0 Must take more than an hour a day cause marked distress and interfere with normal occupational and social functioning 0 Must also attempt to suppress ignore or neutralize unwanted thoughtsbehaviors What is considered trauma 0 DSM Definition Two parts 1 Experience of an event involving actual or threatened death or serious injury to self or others 2 Response of intense fear helplessness or horror 0 The type of trauma matters 0 Vietnam those in combat vs POW 0 911 proximity matters PostTraumatic Stress Disorder 0 Four or more weeks of the following symptoms contribute to a diagnosis of PTSD O Haunting memories Social withdrawal 0 Jump anxiety 0 Resilience to PTSD 0 Only about 10 of women and 20 of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD o Holocaust survivors show remarkable resilience against traumatic situations 0 Lifetime prevalence rates are the highest 288 amongst any anxiety disorder BioPsychoSocial Factors 0 Psychological factors Learned factors anxiety which is an unconditioned response becomes a conditioned response to a conditioned stimuli fear of frogs o Conditioned response frog gt Conditioned Response Anxiety 0 Conditioned response frog gt Unconditioned Stimulus loud noises gt unconditioned response anxiety 0 Psychological factors Attention people high in anxiety are unusually sensitive to cues that signal threat Most people with an anxiety disorder exhibit an attentional bias to threat cues specific to their disorder Specific phobia attentional bias toward specific feared object roaches Social phobia attentional bias toward angry and disgust facial expressions Social Factors 0 Stressful life events loss of loved one 0 Childhood adversity prenatal stress abuse 0 Attachment relationships insecure attachments Behavioral Treatment 0 Exposure therapies o In vitro systematic desensitization 1 Relaxation deep muscle relaxation or deep breathing 2 Develops graded hierarchy imaginary situation which raise anxiety 3 While relaxed slowly works through the hierarchy o In vivo systematic desensitization uses real life stimuli Somewhat more effective than in vitro systematic desensitization Cognitive Treatment 0 Address current cognitive distortions negative automatic thoughts 0 Eg quotI am an idiot because didn t get an A in that coursequot quotI didn t get thatjob so no one will take me seriously 0 Different kinds of cognitive distortions o Allornothing thinking in terms of black or white no shades of gray Eg llIf I do not get an A in this class I am a failure 0 Catastrophizing generalizing from one negative event to worst possible outcome Eg llIf I don t get an A in that class I will flunk out of school get kicked out of my apartment and I ll be homeless for the rest of my lifequot 0 Goal of cognitive restructuring 1 Identify negative cognitive distortions 2 Challenge the distortions to see if unrealistic or exaggerated 3 Create a more positive or at least neutral rational thought to quotattackquot negative distortions 0 Cognitive Behavioral Treatment CBT uses skills from both cognitive and behavioral treatments 0 Triangle including Behaviors Thoughts Cognitions and Mood at each corner Medication Treatment 0 Antianxiety medications o Benzodiazapines work well in the short term but are sedative and highly addictive Symptoms often return when discontinued o Antidepressant medications o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI preferred treatment for most anxiety disorders 0 Other antidepressants are used but the side effects are often undesirable John is a 24 year old law student that becomes paralyzed whenever he encounters dogs John avoids going to any house that has a dog no matter the size In the last 6 months he has been unable to visit his girlfriend at her home because she owns a dog 0 Specific Phobia Antonio is an 18 year old undergraduate student that has been having problems sleeping at night for the past year He spends most of the time in bed worrying about bad things that might happen When awake he cannot control his worry over every little thing For example he frequently worries about being on time losing his friends getting bad grades making his parents angry whether people like him his appearance whether he will find a romantic partner in college whether he will graduate on time about jobs after graduation o Generalized Anxiety Disorder Amy is a 38 yearold single librarian who almost always chooses solitary activities lacks close friends and has never had an intimate relationship When asked about why she has never dated anyone she reports that she feels socially incompetent and feels anxious in relationships 0 Social Anxiety Disorder Dissociative Personality and Somatoform Disorders 0 Dissociative Disorders 0 Dissociative identity disorder 0 Understanding dissociative identity disorder 0 Personality Disorders 0 Schizotypal Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder 0 O O o Narcissistic Personality Disorder Somatoform Disorders 0 Conversion Disorder 0 Hypochondriasis 0 Body Dysmorphic Disorder Dissociative Disorders Conscious awareness becomes separated dissociated from previous memories thoughts and feelings Symptoms having a sense of being unreal being separated from the body watching yourself as if in a movie Dissociative Identity Disorder DID o A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities formerly called multiple personality disorder DID Critics 0 Critics argue that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20 h century DID has not been found in other countries 0 Critics arguments I Roleplaying by people open to a therapist s suggestion I Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety I Diagnosis increased following media attention Personality Disorders PD Personality disorders are characterized by in exible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning You must be at least 18yrs of age to be diagnosed with a PD Schizotypal Personality Disorder 0 Odd beliefs or unusual perceptual experiences 0 Odd behavior thought and emotions o Magical thinking eccentric 0 Example Kramer from Seinfeld Borderline Personality Disorder 0 Affective instability o Frantic efforts to avoid abandonment unstable relationships impulsivity suicidal behavior instable emotions 0 Examples Glenn Close Fatal Attraction Girl Interrupted Antisocial Personality Disorder 0 A disorder in which the person usually men exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward friends and family members 0 Disregard for others 0 Failure to abide by laws lying aggressiveness recklessness lack of remorse 0 Examples Ted Bundy Clockwork Orange Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder 0 Like mood disorders and schizophrenia antisocial personality disorder has biological and psychological reasons Youngsters before committing a crime respond with lower levels of stress hormones than others do at their age 0 PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced activity in the frontal lobes In a followup study repeat offenders had 11 less frontal lobe activity Histrionic Personality Disorder 0 Excessive emotions o Uncomfortable not being the center of attention inappropriate sexual behavior dramatic theatrical and exaggerated 0 Example Robin Williams and Lady Gaga Narcissistic Personality Disorder 0 Grandiosity and selffocus o Grandiose sense of importance interpersonally exploitive arrogant sense of entitlement 0 Example Bill Lumbergh Office Space Personality Disorders Treatment 0 No well validated treatment for personality disorders 0 One quotprobably efficacious treatment for borderline disorder 0 Dialectical Behavioral Therapy DBT Linehan I Psychiatryappointments I Group Therapy I Individual Therapy I Oncall 24hr support Therapy Interfering Behaviors o Behaviors that interfere with the client receiving therapy 0 Missing being late to sessions 0 Behaviors that interfere with other clients receiving or benefitting from therapy 0 Inappropriate comment 0 Behaviors that result in therapist burnout 0 Calling to frequently threatening therapist Somatoform Disorders 0 Psychological symptoms take a physical form 0 Example person experiences pain with no known cause 0 Patients often become distressed when doctor is unable to find physiological cause 0 Hysterical blindness o More common upset stomach chronic pain dizziness 0 Conversion Disorder 0 Neurological condition without physiological cause Typically a limited number of symptoms 0 Psychological distress is quotconvertedquot to physical distress 0 Symptoms often don t make sense numbness in the middle of nerves but not at end Blindness to most but not all stimuli 0 La belle indifference not especially concerned about symptoms 0 Hypochondriasis 0 Fear of rigidly held belief that one is suffering from a physical illness 0 Last at least 6 months 0 Medical evaluations do not alleviate concerns 0 Body Dysmorphic Disorder 0 Preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance Often involves a facial feature 0 More than just one concern but constant worry 0 People are prone to U 39 U their through multiple surgeries Epidemiology 0 Prevalence rates are relatively low lt1 0 Some argue that the bar is set too high 11 of people may have a reduced form of somatoform disorder meeting most but not all criteria 0 With the exception of hypochondriasis more common in women 10x 0 Attributed by some to sexual abuse 0 More common among lower SES and people with low education ltHS 0 4x more likely in African Americans than EuroAmericans Treatment 0 Cognitive treatments designed to understand the link stress and symptoms 0 Operantbased behavioral therapies concentrate on altering contingencies of illness eg avoid rewarding the quotsickquot role and antidepressant medications Jeff is admitted to the hospital following threats to hurt his girlfriend Upon interviewing him you discover that he displays little emotion and appears to not be concerned about the possible harm he was going to do his girlfriend Jeff has a history of getting in fights and harming animals Which PD is most consistent with Jeff s behaviors o Antisocial aggressive Upon first meeting with Jamie you notice her promiscuous clothing and bright makeup Upon interviewing her you learn that she is not in one romantic relationship but prefers to maintain several casual sexual relationships It is difficult to interview her as she constantly changes the subject to talk about what she wants to instead of answering your questions What PD is most consistent with Jamie s behaviors o Histrionic center of attention When you interview Michelle she reports her mood as an llemotional rollercoasterquot She reports having several friends but that she can t always trust them She reports that they often purposefully do things to upset her at which point she breaks off the friendship for about a week She has a history of cutting behavior and has attempted suicide twice Which PD is most consistent with Michelle s behavior 0 borderline Mood Disorders 0 Emotion broad term referring to subjective states of feeling 0 Affect observable displays of emotion facial expression speech rate 0 Mood sustained emotions Emotional Symptoms o The way people feel 0 Dysphoria most common symptom of depression Euphoria found in those with mania Irritability may be directed at self or others Anxiety common in those with depression 000 Cognitive Symptoms o Mood disorders also involve changes in the way people view themselves and their surroundings 0 Trouble concentrating Slowed thinking Difficulty making decisions Guilt Worthlessness Self destructive ideas Suicidal ideation OOOOOO Somatic Symptoms 0 Related to basic physiological or bodily functions 0 Fatigue 0 Changes in appetite 0 Changes in sleep Behavioral Symptoms 0 Changes in the behaviors people engage in and the way that they engage in them 0 Psychomotor retardationagitation 0 Lose interest in previously enjoyable activities 0 Mania 39 Energetic 39 Gregarious Dysphoria Major Depressive Epidsode underlies most Dysphoric disorders 0 2 week period of 6 depressive symptoms most of the day every day I Depressed mood I Reduced pleasure for activities I Sleeping problems I Eating problems I Low selfesteem I Concentration problems I Inappropriate feelings of guilt I Psychomotor problems I Suicidality Major Depression at least 1 major depressive episode 0 Not bereavement related for 2 months 0 Must have social or occupational impairment Dysthymia chronic mild depression present more often than not for at least 2 years 0 Characterized by 2 or more I Appetite problems I Sleeping problems I Low energy I Low selfesteem I Poor concentration or decision making I Hopelessness Double Depression both major depression and dysthymia Seasonal Affective Disorder depressive episodes confined to a particular season typically winter Presumably due to reduce sunlight 0 Eating problems particularly carbs 0 Fatigue 0 Hypersomnia Euphoria Manic episode distinct period of time at least 1 week of abnormally and persistent elevated expansive or irritable mood characterized by 3 of the following o Inflated selfesteem or grandiosity Hyposomnia Increased talkativeness Racing thoughts Distractibility Increase in goal directed activities work 0 Excessive involvement in risky behaviors spending money sex etc Hypomanic episode present for 4 days but does not cause social or occupational dysfunctions Bipolar 1 0 At least one manic episode 0 Most have also experienced a major depressive episode as well but not necessarily o Psychosis is common symptoms tend to have grandiose content Bipolar 2 0 One or more hypomanic episodes and one or more major depressive episodes Cyclothymia 0 One or more hypomanic episodes and dysphoria that does not meet full criteria 0 Symptoms occur for most of 2 years Bipolar Disorder 0 Many great writers poets and composers suffered from bipolar disorder During their manic phase creativity surged but not during their depressed phase OOOOO Suicide Epidemiology o In 2007 suicide was the 11th leading cause of death in the US 0 3rd leading cause of death for youth 0 34598 total suicides or 14 of all deaths 0 Suicides outnumber homicides by 5 to 3 0 Estimated 25 attempted suicides per every suicide death 0 Women attempt suicide 3 times more often than men 0 Men are more likely to complete suicide Gender Females 23x more likely to report depression Ethnicity depression higher in Caucasians than Hispanics or AfricanAmericans Genetics 0 Depressive Disorders genetic contribution 52 o Bipolar Disorders genetic contribution 80 o Bipolar has the greatest genetic component of any of the mental health disorders Neurotransmitters o Serotonin 5HT reduced potency of serotonin neurotransmitters 0 Best evidence of serotenergic abnormalities is the pilal 0 Newest generation block reuptake of serotonin 39 effects of Social Factors 0 Life Events Research generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression 0 Rationale stressful event seem to occur in people that are depressed 0 We know that stress causes depression but could it be that depressed people create environments that breed stressful events 0 Stressful event ltgt depression Psychological Factors 0 Attribution Theory stressful events don t affect all the same It is the perception of stressful events that leads to mental illness Cognitive Differences some people have a cognitive vulnerability to depression Beck s Depressive Triad 0 Negative views of the I Self quotI am a useless person I World quotThe world is falling apart I Future llNothing will change Breakupwith a romantic partner Temporary quotThis 5 hard in take butl stable I nevergel wenhls Wm gel mumsquot my Global 5mm External Inle39nal quotn takes two m make a relationship Depression Successful coping Depression Cycle a Negative stressful events a Pessimistic explanatory style a Hopeless depressed state a These hamper the way the individual thinks and acts fueling personal rejection SocialCognitive Perspective a The socialcognitive perspective suggests that depression arises partly from selfdefeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles Treatment a Psychotherapies for Depression a Cognitive Therapy focuses on challenging and modifying maladaptive cognitions eg quotI will never succeedquot a Internal Therapy focuses on relationships contemporary dynamic in orientation a ElectroConvulsive Therapy electrical current applied to temporal lobe Severe side effects amnesia muscle and bone damage Muscle relaxant and unilateral application improve this Used in chronic and severe cases that are nonresponsive to other treatments a Light Therapy used to improve Seasonal Affective symptoms a Tricyclics developed in 1950s inhibits the reuptake of a broad range of neurotransmitters including serotonin Potential for severe side effects Often used for cases nonresponsive to other meds a MAO Inhibitors inhibit the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters Often used for certain types of depression however user has to avoid foods with tyramine eg cheese chocolate a SSRI eg paxil Prozac inhibit the reuptake of serotonin Side effects tend to be more mild but there is question of increased suicidality a Bipolar Disorder 0 Psychoeducation used to improve medication adherence and promote harm reduction Many interventions attempt to involve family 0 Pharmacotherapy o Lithium salt pharmaco action is largely unknown Line of treatment but high potential for lithium toxicity so treatment must be closely monitore I Many patients do not respond 40 and compliance is an issue 0 Anticonvulsants newer treatment that requires less observation Side effects are generally less severe Controversy Do Medications provide any unique effects a Both medication and placebo seem to improve depression in a series of wellcontrolled studies a The placebo response was approx 75 that ofthe medication effect suggesting that medication response is in large part due to placebo effects o quotI have always felt kind of down It never really affected my work and I can still take care of my kids but it never really seems to go away 0 Dysthymia doesn t affect work or social life but is always there never really goes away quotDr Smith has always been amazingly productive He seems to work 20 hours a day Occasionally he will disappear from the public eye for a few days and seem terribly down but these episodes are few and far between 0 Cyclothymia not that impairment to him can still function at work and with family Erica has experienced depressed mood for most of the day nearly every day for the past 3 weeks She also reports a decrease in appetite problems sleeping difficulty concentrating low selfesteem and mild suicidal ideation She also reports missing work more often 0 Major Depressive Disorder Sean reports experiencing periods of time where for about 4 days his mood is elevated such that he becomes very talkative is easily distracted occasionally engages in odd behaviors such as taking apart his car engine only to put it back together again He reports that these behaviors rarely interfere with his social or occupational life He also noted that he has periods of time when he feels depressed such that he has decreased interest in normal activities increased need for sleep and decreased appetite He reported that these periods do interfere with work productivity and with his marriage 0 Bipolar one or more hypomanic episodes and one or more major depressive episodes Lauren has periods of intense excitability that last for about 2 weeks These episodes include Lauren not needing sleep for several days engagement in activities such as traveling unexpectedly and using illicit substances and being easily distracted These behaviors impair her work and social life When not experiencing these periods Lauren reports normal mood and behaviors o Bipolar I at least one manic episode most have also experienced a major depressive episode as well but not necessarily psychosis is common symptoms tend to have grandiose content Schizophrenia Schizophrenia a potpourri of symptoms 0 Positive symptoms 0 Delusions hallucinations o Disorganized symptoms 0 Inappropriate behavior disorganized behavior disorganized speech 0 Negative symptoms 0 Blunt affect anhedonia apathy alogia The quotPositivequot Symptom Cluster 0 What is a positive symptom o The presence of inappropriate behaviors o Delusions 0 Gross misrepresentations of reality 0 Delusions of grandeur persecution o Hallucinations 0 Experience of sensory events without environmental input 0 Auditory most prevalent followed by visual The quotDisorganizedquot Symptom Cluster 0 What is disorganized symptom o Disorganized Speech 0 Cognitive slippage usually confused listscategories o Tangentiality 0 Word salad 0 Disorganized Behavior 0 Includes a variety of unusual behaviors o Inappropriate affect o Catatonia 0 Disorganized and Delusional Thinking 0 quotthis morning when Iwas at Hillside Hospital I was making a movie Iwas surrounded by movie stars I m Mary Poppins IS this room painted blue to get me upset My grandmother died four weeks after my 18 h birthdayquot The quotNegativequot Symptom Cluster 0 What is a negative symptom o The absence of appropriate behaviors 0 Spectrum of Negative Symptoms o Alogia relative absence of speech 0 Anhedonia lack of pleasure or indifference o Affective flattening little expressed emotion o Asociality lack of interest in social relationships Schizophrenia Key Terms 0 Schizophrenia is a disorder of cognitive emotional and behavioralmotivational neurobiological systems 0 Cognitive o Involves reality testing odd perceptual experiences 0 Occasional odd perceptual experiences that do not impact life I Ex mistaken shadows for people noises for voices o Perceptual experiences not based in reality hallucinations but individual has insight and does not adversely affect life I Ex hears voices but benign in nature 0 Perceptual experiences not bases in reality intense hallucinations with no insight and affects life I Ex hears voices and follows what they say convinced they are the devil o Emotion o Diminished intensityrange I Absence of emotions I Expression blunt affect I Experience anhedonia 0 Increased or bizarre intensityrange I Bizarre range of emotions inappropriate affect I Abnormally intense paranoia delusional intensity 0 Behaviors and Motivations o Diminished behavior I Diminished motivations avolition I Diminished interest apathy I Diminished communication alogia 0 Increased or bizarre behavior I Bizarre motivations and interests bizarre behavior Catatonia I Bizarre communication disorganized speech Diagnoses 0 Schizophrenia 0 2 of the following during a 1 month period with signs of disturbance for 6 months I Delusions I Hallucinations I Disorganized speech I Disorganized behavior I Negative symptoms blunt affect alogia or avolition o Schizophreniform disorder 0 Social or occupational dysfunction 0 2 of the following during a 1 month period with signs of disturbance for 1 month I Delusions I Hallucinations I Disorganized speech I Disorganized behavior I Negative symptoms blunt affect alogia or avolition 0 Brief Psychotic Disorder 0 1 of the following for 1 day but less than 1 month I Delusions I Hallucinations I Disorganized speech I Disorganized behavior I Negative symptoms blunt affect alogia or avolition 0 Typically follows emotional turmoil or stress Progression of Diagnoses o Schizophrenia 6 months 0 Schizophreniform disorder 1 month 6 months 0 Brief Psychotic Episode 1 day 1 month Schizoaffective Disorder 0 Based on the observation of high comorbity between mood disorders and schizophrenia 0 Both schizophrenia and mood disorder symptoms are present at the same time o How to distinguish schizoaffective disorder from comorbid depressionmania and schizophrenia o Schizophrenia symptoms occur outside of the mood episode of comorbid disorders Schizophrenia Disorders Heterogeneity 0 Like most disorders schizophrenia defined by a variety of symptoms But few disorders show the breadth of symptoms seen in schizophrenia o Attempts to reduce heterogeneity subtypes o DSMapproach o Paranoid systematic delusions with persecutory or grandiose content 0 Disorganized disorganized speech behavior and inappropriate behavior 0 Catatonic motor immobility or excessive and purposeless activity Schizophrenia o Paranoid Type 0 Intact cognitive skills and affect 0 Do not show disorganized behavior 0 Hallucinations and delusions grandeur or persecution o The best prognosis of all types of schizophrenia o Disorganized Type 0 Marked disruptions in speech and behavior 0 Flat or inappropriate affect o Hallucinations and delusions tend to be fragmented o Develops early tends to be chronic lacks remissions o Catatonic 0 Show unusual motor responses and odd mannerisms 0 Examples include echolalia and echopraxia o Tends to be severe and quite rare Epidemiology 0 Lifetime US prevalence about 1 o Is this a US phenomenon 0 International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia IPSS examined 1200 patients in 6 countries for Syrs 0 Collaborative Study on the Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders DOS 1500 patients in 10 countries 0 Both studies found similar prevalence across all countries 0 Demographic Factors 0 Sex equal frequency for both males and females I Males tend to have earlier onset worse premorbid functioning poorer response to treatment worse outcome more negative symptoms I Females tend to have later onset better premorbid functioning better response to treatment better outcome more positive symptoms 0 Socioeconomic status Schizophrenia is more prevalent in those with a loss SES Biological Factors 0 The likelihood ofan individual suffering from schizophrenia is 50 if their identical twin has the disease Course of the Disorder 0 Prodromal Phase 0 Beginning of social withdrawal and odd behavior and thinking 0 Active phase 0 Symptoms become apparent and cause dysfunction 0 Medication and treatment are necessary 0 Residual phase symptoms dissipate 0 Chronic cycle through active and residual phases for rest of life Abnormal Brain Activity 0 Brain scans show abnormal activity in the frontal cortex thalamus and amygdale of schizophrenic patients 0 Ventricle Example 0 Enlarged ventricles present in many patients even at 1st admission Schizophrenia Disorders Biology 0 Neurotransmitter Explanations o Dopamine Hypothesis Dopaminergic DA hyperactivity in limbic structure responsible for positive symptoms DA underactivity in frontal lobe responsible for negative symptoms I Antipsychotic medications work on DA receptors I DA functioning altered in schizophrenia I Methamphetamine psychosis resembles schizophrenia o Other Causal Factors 0 The COMT gene a gene that helps regulate dopamine in the brain 30 of individuals without this gene develop schizophrenia or related disorder 0 Pregnancy and Birth Complications obstetric complications and perhaps maternal stress are associated with increased rates of schizophrenia 0 Environmental Toxins exposure to leaded exhaust in the womb was associated with 2x risk of schizophrenia o Cannabis or PsychoActive Substances use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic disorder Paternal Age men 32 and higher tend to produce a higher incidence of schizophrenia in their offspring due to sperm mutations 0 Viral Infections viral infection during prenatal development is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia O Treatment Antipsychotic medication primarily helps decrease positive symptoms Medication does not target negative symptoms Social Skills Treatment behavioral treatment for improving social functioning Psychoeducation provide information about illness medications healthy living Assertive Community Treatment interdisciplinary team that provides outreach efforts in community FamilyOriented Therapy work with family to reduce stigma reduce inappropriate llexpressed emotion Cognitive Therapy encourages patient to question delusions and hallucinations Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive substances substance that alters mood or behavior Substance use moderate use of substance that does not interfere with normal functioning Substance intoxication physiological reaction to substance ingestion Bill Wilson founder of Alcoholics Anonymous Diagnoses Substance use disorders 0 Substance abuse 0 Substance dependence Substanceinduced disorders 0 Substance intoxication 0 Substance withdrawal 0 Substanceinduced delirium dementia amnesia psychotic mood anxiety sexual dysfunction and sleep disorders Depressants Alcohol Result in behavioral sedation Includes alcohol sedatives hypnotics anxiolytics 23 of Americans report binge drinking in the past month 15 million US adults are alcohol depression Drinking at an early age 1114 is predictive of later alcohol use disorders Rate of absorption depends on many factors food in stomach weight gender alcohol concentration Alcohol is metabolized in the liver liver can metabolize 1 drink per hour one drink 0 12 oz beer 0 4 oz wine 0 15 oz liquor Short term effects relaxed slurred speech lack of coordination unsteady gait Blood Alcohol Content BAC of total blood 0 0308 eurphoric judgment fine motor and attention affected 0 0925 sensory problems vision blurry judgment motor and attention disrupted o 1830 confusion dizziness agitation o 2540 stupor movement severely impairment lapse in and out of consciousness o 3550 unconsciousness and death Initially a stimulant then becomes depressant Health problemslong term effects 0 Liver disease 0 Pancreatitis 0 Cardiovascular disorders 0 Brain damage o Dementia o WernickeKorsakoff syndrome 0 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS o Withdrawal symptoms very severe Sedatives Hypnotics and Anxiolytics 0 Results in calming effect 0 Prescribed for sleeping and anxietyrelated problems 0 Common types 0 Barbiturates o Benzodiazepines Stimulants 0 Cause people to be more active and alert and can elevate mood 0 Includes 0 Amphetamines o Cocaine o Nicotine o Caffeine 0 Most commonly used class of psychoactive drugs in the US Amphetamines 0 Drugs include o Ritalin o MethylenedioxymethamphetamineMDMA 0 Crystal meth 0 quotspeedquot 0 Diet pills Initially feel elevated mood but then quotcrashquot and become depressed or tired Symptoms dilation of pupils chills nausea confusion impaired judgment and functioning euphoria seizures Often used to help lose weight or stay awake for a period of time Tolerance builds quickly Cocaine 0 Effects and symptoms very similar to amphetamines 0 Additional symptoms 0 Causes paranoia in at least 23 of users 0 Can make heart beat irregularly o Shortlived effects 0 Withdrawal 0 Extreme apathy and boredom o Bored with everyday activities 0 Cocaine was originally an ingredient in CocaCola Nicotine o 25 of all Americans smoke today 0 385 of adults ages 1824 smoke o Inhaled into the lungs and then enters bloodstream 0 719 seconds after nicotine is inhaled it enters the brain 0 Withdrawal depressed mood insomnia irritability anxiety pxs concentrating increased appetite o Cue Reactivity how much an individual s urge increases when exposed to a cue related to smoking 0 Urge increases when exposed to o Relapse 0 6098 of quit attempts result in relapse o Urge increases around cues o Inability to cope with negative effect 0 Considered the easiest substance to become addicted to and the most difficult to quit Caffeine o 90 of Americans use caffeine 0 Most commonly used stimulant o Elevates mood and prevents fatigue 0 Withdrawal headache drowsiness unpleasant mood 0 Usually injected but can be smoked sniffed or taken orally 0 Examples morphine heroin and oxycodone 0 Immediate effects dreamlike euphoria 0 Long term changes in mood and sleep 0 High doses can lead to comatose state convulsions 0 Increased risk of AIDS violence and suicide Hallucinogens LSD o Psychedelic mindmanifesting drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input 0 Strong chemical resemblance to serotonin achieves effects by interacting with serotonin receptors 0 Responses to drug range from euphoria to anxietypanic Mari39uana 0 Most commonly used illegal drug 0 Immediate effects relaxed happy some feel anxious panicky Shortterm memory pxs 0 Currently illegal in almost every country in the world but sometimes decriminalized K2Spice 0 Synthetic cannabis dried herbal blend 0 Effects increased heart rate respiratory problems panic hallucinations seizures o In 2010 there were a total of 2874 calls to Poison Control Centers in US 0 As of May 12 2011 2052 calls have been made Epidemiology o What demographic variables predict substance abuse disorder 0 Highest risk group previously married Caucasian men with less than high school education 0 Females much less likely than men African Americans less likely than Caucasian Biological Factors 0 Disease theory alcohol is a genetic affliction thus making controlled use an illusion o Selfmedication theory serotonin under activity in the limbic structure reduced mood 0 Alcohol and other drugs temporarily increase serotonin activity 0 However serotonin is abnormally lowered following use particularly prolonged use Psychological Factors o Cloninger s personality model those with quotnovelty seekingquot traits significant predictor of alcohol problems 0 Antisocial Personality Disorder highly comorbid with substance abuse 0 Tensionreduction hypothesis Conger 1956 based on negative reinforcement Consumption relieves unpleasant emotional states eg stress Social Factors 0 Expectancy people often act how they think they are expected to act beyond the effects of the drug action 0 Eg people act more drunk in the laboratory when told they are give alcohol actually given tonic water 0 Two main types of expectancies 0 Positive expectancies alcohol will have favorable effec13eg reduces tension enhances social ability 0 Negative expectancies alcohol will have unfavorable effects eg will lead to uncontrollable behavior Importance of Context 0 Locationsituation that person administers drug can trigger urges for future drug use 0 Ash trays needle bar people stress negative effect etc can all be cues that trigger drug urge o Situational specifity oftolerance how an environment can contribute to level of drug tolerance o Rats and heroin overdose 0 When given drug in new environment different from where tolerance developed rats demonstrated a 643 morality rate 0 OD in humans Tolerance 0 Continued use of a psychoactive drug produces tolerance With repeated exposure to a drug the drug s effect lessens Thus it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect Treatment 0 Overcoming Physiological dependence 0 Particularly difficult for depressants alcohol hypnotics and sedatives nicotine and opiates 0 Emergency detoxification emergency treatment to eliminate drug from body eg vomiting charcoal o Detoxi cation individual overcomes initial effects of physiological dependence Typically inpatient to monitor medical status Can involve pharmacotherapy o Pharmacotherapy o Disulfiram Antabuse blocks the chemical breakdown of alcohol leading to violent illness when alcohol is ingested o Naltrexone may work by reducing rewarding effects of alcohol blocks opioid receptors 0 SSRI seem to be effective in individuals with comorbid depression 0 Therapy 0 Alcoholics Anonymous 12 step program based on the disease model Asserts that people are powerless over their addiction and thus need help 0 Group format with 24 hour sponsorsupport Abstinencefocused Evaluation of treatment difficult appears to work for some people but it is unclear who these people are Cognitive Behavioral Strategies view substance abuse as a problematic behavior that arises from environmental and cognitive stimuli Emphasis on restructuring these stimuli to reduce impact of drinking Coping skill training focus on developing more adaptive ways of dealing with stress eg anger management Relapse prevention focuses on the realities of reducing use Lapse transient period of increased use Relapse return to prior use behaviors Motivational Interviewing based on the notion that people are ambivalent about their use 00 O O 0000 I Openly discuss motivation in a nonjudgmental and nonthreatenting way eg strengths and weaknesses of use Project MATCH o Largest ef cacy study to date Multisite study examining o CBT 12 sessions 0 12step 12 sessions 0 Motivational interviewing 4 sessions in a longitudinal randomly assignment study of 1700 individuals at 27 different facilities All 3 groups demonstrated decreased rates of drinking at the 1 year followup such that overall use decreased 5fold Those in 12step treatment had longerterm abstinence rates CBT was most effective for those with comorbid psychopathology or who were more severe regarding alcohol use Biological in uences Psychulvgical in uences 39 genetic tendencles sense of purpose dopamine reward circuit 39 signi ganl stress psymlngical disorders such as depression a Drug use 7 Socialcultural In uences urban erw ronrne ll 0 belnnglng to a drugusing culture group I peer in uences Mike is a 20 year old college student who often goes out drinking with friends on the weekends He reports drinking an average of 6 bottles of beer each time he goes out He also reports smoking marijuana once a week and has tried Crystal Meth on one occasion Mike has been referred to you for an alcohol assessment following a DUI he received on campus last month this was his 3rd DUI 0 Alcohol Abuse Amy is a 38year old waitress who has 2 children and has been divorced for 4 years She is selfreferred and seeking therapy for her cocaine use She reports that she has been using for the past 5 years She initially only used with friends on weekends but she now uses daily She reported that she has tried to quit in the past but has been unsuccessful because of the extreme withdrawal symptoms She wants to get clean so she can regain custody of her 2 kids Amy reports also smoking about 2 packs of cigarettes daily which has also increased from when she initially began smoking She has been unsuccessful at quitting because of withdrawal symptoms She also drinks alcohol occasionally and has received two DUls this past year after driving while intoxicated When asking about past drug use she reported using prescription drugs and crack cocaine she has not used these in the past 10 years 0 Cocaine Dependence Nicotine Dependence Alcohol Abuse Psychological Therapies History of Insane Treatment 0 Maltreatment of the insane throughout the ages was the result of irrational views Many patients were subjected to strange debilitating and downright dangerous treatments 0 Philippe Pinel in France and Dorthea Dix in America founded humane movements to care for the mentally sick Therapies 0 Psychotherapy involves an emotionally charged confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient o Biomedical therapy uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient s nervous system curing him of psychological disorders 0 In practice many therapists take an eclectic approach using a blend of techniques from different perspectives 0 Can tailor therapy depending upon the client s unique problems Psychological Therapies 0 Psychoanalysis o The first formal psychotherapy to emerge was psychoanalysis developed by Sigmund Freud 0 Aims I Since psychological problems originate from childhood repressed impulses and conflicts the aim of psychoanalysis is to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can deal with them I When energy devoted to idegosuperego conflicts is released the patient s anxiety lessens 0 Methods I Dissatisfied with hypnosis Freud developed the method of free association to unravel the unconscious mind and its conflicts I The patient lies on a couch and speaks about whatever comes to his or her mind 0 Resistance 0 Transference o Criticisms I Psychoanalysis is hard to refute because it cannot be proven or disproven I Psychoanalysis takes a long time and is very expensive 0 Several sessions a week 0 Up to several years 0 SlOOhr o Psychodynamic Therapy 0 Influenced by Freud in a facetoface setting psychodynamic therapists understand symptoms and themes across important relationships in a patient s life I Once a week I A few weeks or months 0 Interpersonal Psychotherapy a variation of psychodynamic therapy is effective in treating depression It focuses on symptom relief in the here and now not an overall personality change 0 Humanistic Therapies 0 Humanistic therapies aims to boost selffulfillment by helping people grow in selfawareness and self acceptance I The therapist engages in active listening and echoes restates and clarifies patient s thinking acknowledging expressed feelings o Clientcentered Therapy is a form of humanistic therapy I The therapist listens to the needs of the patient in an accepting and nonjudgmental way I Seeks to refrain from directing clients toward certain insights I Aka personcentered therapy 0 Behavior Therapy 0 therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors o to treat phobias or sexual disorders behavior therapists do not delve deeply below the surface looking for inner causes 0 ClassicalConditioningTechniques I Counterconditioning is a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors I It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning 0 Exposure I Expose patients to things they fear and avoid I Through repeated exposures anxiety lessens because they habituate to the things feared 0 Systematic Desensitization a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias o Aversive Conditioning I A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior With this technique temporary conditioned aversion to alcohol as been reported 0 Operant Conditioning enable therapists to use behavior modi cation in which desired behaviors are rewareded and undesired behaviors are either unrewarded or punished I Token economy 0 Cognitive Therapies 0 Based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions 0 Teaches people more adaptive ways of thinking and acting through gentle questioning of these beliefs and assumptions 0 Beck s Therapy for Depression I Aaron Beck suggests that depressed patients believe that they can never be happy thinking and thus associated minor failings failing a test in life as major causes for their depression Beck believes that cognitions such as quotI can never be happy need to change in order for depressed patients to recover This change is brought about by gently questioning patients 0 Group and Family Therapies 0 Group Therapy normally consists of 69 people attending a 90min session that can help more people and costs less Clients benefit from knowing others have similar problems 0 Family Therapy treats the family as a system Therapy guides family members toward positive relationships and improved communication While focusing on several intrusive thoughts that had been bothering her recently Jenny was instructed by her therapist to report any ideas or memories stimulated by these thoughts Jenny39s therapist was making use of a technique known as Free Association Evaluating Psychotherapies s Psychotherapy Effective o Client s Perception 0 Enter during a crisis 0 Need to believe it was worth the effort 0 Speak kindly of their therapist 0 Make judgments that confirm our beliefs 0 Clinician s Perceptions o Therapists use clients success as testament to their success 0 Most therapists testify to therapy s success because client s wellbeing is greater when they leave 0 Outcome Research 0 Hans Eysenck I 24 studies I 23 clients improved I BUT same results for those who didn t receive treatment 0 Metaanalysis combines the results of many studies 0 1st Metaanalysis I 475 studies I 80 of clients receiving therapy were better off than untreated Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies 0 Effectiveness 0 Little connection between I Clinician s experience training supervision licensing I Client s outcomes 0 Some therapies work better for specific problems I Phobias and behavioral conditioning therapy 0 Therapy is most effective when problem is clear cut I Panic instead of depression 0 EvidenceBased Practice 0 How do we pick the best method 0 Clinicians should integrate I Best available research I Clinical expertise I Patient characteristics and preferences 0 Ineffective therapies no scientific support for I Energy therapies recovered memory therapies rebirthing therapies facilitated communication crisis debriefing Evaluating Alternative Therapies 0 Eye T quot 39 and 39gEMDR o Singletrauma patients 0 Imagine traumatic scenes 0 Therapist triggers eye movements 0 O Allows client to unlock and reprocess frozen memories 84 of clients say it works 0 BUT you are repeatedly exposing the client to the memories in a safe environment 0 Light Exposure Therapy 0 Used to treat seasonal affective disorder SAD o Expose the client to bright light 0 Light influences arousal and hormones Common Among Psychotherapies 0 Hope for Demoralized People and a New Perspective 0 Things can and will get better I Improves morale I Increases selfefficacy I Diminishes symptoms 0 Offers a plausible explanation for symptoms 0 New way to look at yourself and the world 0 An Empathic Trusting Caring Relationship 0 Good therapists I Seek to understand I Communicate concern I Earn client s respect 0 Therapeutic alliance I Emotional bond between the client and therapist o Selfhelp and support groups offer the same three qualities Biomedical Therapy What is Biomedical Therapy 0 Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient s nervous system 0 Used with more serious disorders 0 Changing brain function and chemistry 0 Only offered by psychiatrists Drug Therapies 0 Psychopharmacology o The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior 0 Several types of drugs that are effective in treating psychological disorders I Antipsychotics I Anxiolytics I Antidepressants I Mood stabilizers 0 With the advent ofdrugs hospitalization in mental institutions has rapidly declined o Antipsychotic Drugs 0 Used to treat schizophrenia and other severe thought disorders 0 Conventional typical antipsychotics I Remove a number of 39 Iwith 39 39 39 39 like agitation delusions and hallucinations o Atypicalantipsychotics I Remove negative 39 Iwith 39 39 39 39 like apathy jumbled thoughts concentration difficulties difficulty in interacting with others 0 How do they work 0 Conventional antipsychotics I Block dopamine receptors I Side effects 0 Sluggishness o Tremors o Twitches o Tardive dyskinesia irreversible o Involuntary movement of the facial muscles tongue and limbs o Atypicalantipsychotics I Target dopamine and serotonin receptors I Fewer side effects but I Increase the risk of obesity and diabetes 0 Anxiolytics 0 Control anxiety and agitation o Depress CNS activity 0 Often used in combination with psychotherapy to help patients cope with frightening stimuli o Criticism I Reduce symptoms without targeting underlying issue I Can be both psychologically and physically addictive 0 Antidepressants 0 Used for depression Also used for anxiety Target norepinephrine and serotonin Elevate arousal and mood 4 weeks to take effect Side effects I Dry mouth I Weight gain I Hypertension I Dizzy spells o MoodStabilizing Medications 0 Used to treat bipolar disorders I Lithium o A common salt used to stabilize manic episodes 0 Moderates levels of norepinephrine and glutamate OOOOO 0 Cheap 0 Risk of suicide is 16 of those who do not take it Brain Stimulation o Electroconvulsive Thera ECT o Introduced in 1938 a brief electric current is sent through the brain to provide relief for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs 0 Today the patient is anesthetized and is given a muscle relaxant to prevent physical convulsions o Reduces suicidal thoughts and patients usually do not remember the treatment 0 Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation rTMS 0 Repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain 0 Stimulate or suppresses brain activity 0 Used to treat depression and produces no side effects 0 Deep Brain Stimulation 0 Can be used to treat depression and OCD o Excite neurons that inhibit negative emotional thinking 0 Patients became more talkative engaged more aware What is Psychosurgery o Irreversible surgery that alters brain tissue 0 Least commonly used 0 Lobotomy 0 Used primarily in the 1950s to calm uncontrollable emotional or violent patients 0 Cut nerves connecting the frontal lobes and emotion controlling centers of the brain 0 Today only used in seizure disorders severe OCD Introduction to the History and Science of Psychology PSYC 2000 Spring 2012 The Story of Psychology Module 391 What is Psychology 0 Psychology a5 a Science 0 From the beginning to the 192059 the science of mental life Wilhelm Wundt Sigmund Freud 0 19205 to 196059 the scientific study of observable behavior John BWatson B F Skinner 0 TODAY9 the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology of Today 39 The scientific study of behavior and mental processes 0 Scientific study experimental analysis 0 Behavior anything an organism does that we can observe and record E g eating sleeping playing sweating talking 0 Mental processes internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior E g sensations perceptions dreams thoughts Contemporary Psychology Psychology s Big Debate Nature versus Nurture zssr osr uwwo Darwin states that nature selects those traits that and reproduce in a particular environment Nature vs Nurture 0 Scenario 0 The nature only side states that personalities are and remain consistent across the life span 0 The nurture only side states that we are all essentially the same at birth and we 0 Experiences makes us who we are 0 Anything is possible Psychology s Three Main Levels of Analysis Biopsyohosooial Approach Biological influences Psychological influences 0 natural selection of adaptive learned fears and other learned traits expectations 0 genetic predispositions responding 0 emotional responses to GHVironment 0 cognitive processing and 0 brain mechanisms perceptual interpretations I hormonal influences Behavior or mental process Socialcultural in uences presence of others 0 cultural societal and family expectations 0 peer and other group influences compelling models such as in the media Clinical Psychology vs Psychiatry PhD study assess and treat people with disorders using psychotherapy MD medical professionals who use treatments like drugs and sometimes psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients MP clinical psychologists who have earned their master s degree in psychopharmacology and can prescribe psychotropic medications Research Psychologists Psychologist What she does Explore the links between brain and Biological mind Developmental Study Changmg ab111t1es from womb to tomb Study how we perceive think and solve Cogmtive problems Personality Investigate our persistent traits Explore how we View and affect one Soc1al another Applied Psychologists Psychologist What she does Studies assesses and treats people with Clinlcal psychological dlsorders Counseling Helps people cope vvrth academic vocational and marital challenges Studies and helps individuals in school Educatlonal and educational settlngs Industrial Studies and advises on behavior in the Organizational workplace Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Module 2 The limits of intuition amp common sense 0 Remember psychology is the scientific study of behavioral and mental processes 0 In other words psychology through and 0 HOW DOES PSYCHOLOGY COMPARE AGAINST COMMON SENSE The Need for Psychological Research 0 Fallibility of intuition 0 Hindsight Bias 0 Judgmental Overcon dence 0 Illusory Correlation 0 The Scienti c Attitude 0 Curiosity Skepticism Humility 0 Critical Thinking oThe hindsight bias is a tendency to believe after learning about an outcome that we would have foreseen it EX2 We knew that the dotcom stocks would plummet only after they did II oAlso known as the phenomenon I knew LSU was going to Win that game I knew it was going to rain once I started h 393 was 111g my car Overconfidence Definition As individuals we tend to think we know more than we actually do How long do you think would it take to unscramble these anagrams ETYRN ENTRY GRABE BARGE Overconfidence People said about 10 seconds On average they took about 3 minutes Goranson 1978 ETYRN ENTRY GRABE BARGE Psychological Science 0 TWO reliable phenomena hindsight bias and judgmental overconficlence and our need for scientific inquiry and critical thinking The Need for Psychological Research 0 Fallibility of intuition 0 Hindsight Bias I knew it all along 0 Judgmental Overconfidence 0 Illusory Correlation 0 The Scientific Attitude 0 Curiosity Skepticism Humility 0 Critical Thinking Illusory Correlation Does a stereotype exist 0 A psychologist sought to discover whether research would support the stereotype that females are more emotional than males 0 The psychologist found 16 studies in which either males or females were observed to be either quite emotional or non emotional Review the next slideYou will be asked to indicate what these data suggest about the relationship between gender and emotionality 1 yes 2 no 3 yes 4 yes 5 yes 6 no 7 no 8 yes 9 yes 10 yes 11 yes 12 no 13 yes 14 yes 15 yes 16 yes The chart below shows a psychologist s review of 16 studies in which either males or females were observed to be quite emotional or nonemotional Study Number Were the subjects Were the subjects women emotional yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes no yes yes yes no yes no yes Which conclusion do you agree with MOST A Women were somewhat more likely to be emotional B Women were slightly more likely to be emotional C Women and men were equally likely to be emotional D Women were slightly less likely to be emotional E Women were somewhat less likely to be emotional Study Number Were the subjects Were the subjects women emotional 1 2 3 yes yes 4 yes yes 5 s 39 a a 7 EIID39 no 8 yes yes 9 yes no 10 yes yes 11 12 13 yes no 14 yes yes 15 yes no 16 yes yes Interpretation 0 Most people conclude that the overall results of these studies show that in comparison to men women are slightly or moderately more likely to be emotional 0 That is an illusory correlation that is seeing a relationship where none exists 0 In comparison to men women were neither more nor less likely to be emotional Can you identify other popular beliefs that may reflect illusory correlations The Need for Psychological Research 0 Fallibility of intuition 0 Hindsight Bias I knew it all along 0 Judgmental Overconfidence 0 Illusory Correlation 0 The Scientific Attitude 0 Curiosity Skepticism Humility 0 Critical Thinking 0 W 11V 10 e0 le believe stranoe thincrs Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Module 3 How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions 0 The Scienti c Method 0 Description 0 Correlation 0 Experimentation The Scientific Method predicts behavior or events through an integrated set of principles 9 Example low self esteem contributes to depression 0 Must lead to Eg People with lower self esteem are more likely to feel depressed 0 Predictions that are Eg the lower your self esteem the more likely you are to be depressed 0 Replicable 0 Disprovable 0 Research The Research Process 1 Theories Example Low selfesteem feeds depression con rm reject or revise lead to 3 Research and observations Example Administer tests of selfesteem and depression See if a low score on one predicts a high score on the other 2 Hypotheses Example People with 7 low selfesteem will score higher on a depression scale lead to j Research Strategies Description 0 Case Study 0 Survey 0 Wording effects 0 Random sampling 0 Naturalistic Observation 0 These strategies DESCRIBE behavior Research Strategies Description 0 Case Study 0 Survey 0 Wording effects 0 Random sampling 0 Naturalistic Observation 0 These strategies DESCRIBE behavior Example of Wording Effect 0 Do you think the 18 should forbid public speeches against democracy 54 saidYES 0 Do you think the 18 should allow public speeches against democracy 75 said no Random Sampling Random sample unbiased If the survey sample is biased the results are questionable The fastest way to know about the mar le color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count t em j Research Strategies Description 0 Case Study 0 Survey 0 Wording effects 0 Random sampling 0 Naturalistic Observation 0 These strategies DESCRIBE behavior Research Strategies Correlation 0 How two variables change together 0 Correlation coefficient r 0 10to10 a indicates direction of relationship positive or negative l gt r 037 i Indicates strength of relationship 000 to 100 Correlation coef cient Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationshi between two varia les K Scatterplots 0 is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables The slope of the points depicts the direction while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship C no 0 a o quot 390 0 0 I Q o o o o 39 o 039 0 0 0 g 39 on o o 9 Perfect positive correlation 100 W No relationship loco Perfert negative correlation 100 j The Scatterplot below shows the relationship between height and temperament in people Temperament 0 scores 80 55 60 65 70 75 80 8 Height in inches The previous graph demonstrated a 1 Positive correlation 2 Negative correlation 3 No correlation There is a moderate positive correlation of 063 9O Temperament 5C0 res Height in inches Mean Annual Temp C M 391 U1 D II D U1 Nevada U SUD 1UDU 1500 Elevation m 2000 25GB Which correlation coefficient is the strongest 1 005 2 O25 3 075 4 O95 Correlation and Causation 1 could cause D Low selfesteem 39 epress39on or Id 2 CCU cause gt Low selfesteem Depresswn or Low selfesteem 3 Distressing events could cause d or biological an predisposition Depression Correlation does NOT imply Causationmml K Main points 0 Correlation is useful 39 Correlation does 0 Just because two things are related does not mean that one causes the other 39 The closer to 10 the stronger the relationship between two variables is 0 The only indicates the direction not strength of the relationship Research Strategies Experimental 0 Looking for CAUSE and EFFECT relationships 0 Manipulate the and observe its effect on the Exploring Cause amp Effect Many factors in uence our behavior Experiments 1 that interest us While keeping other factors under 2 Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships Independent vs Dependent Variables IndependentVariable is and Whose effect is being studied DependentVariable is a factor that In psychology it is usuallv a behavior or a mental process think ofit as the outcome ofinterest For example to study the effect of breast feeding on intelligence breast feeding is the independent variable Introducing the Experiment 0 E g A word pleasantness experiment 0 Hypothesis Pleasant stimuli are more likely to be recalled than unpleasant stimuli 0 Method Participants are shown a list of words and asked to rate the pleasantness of those words A few minutes later they are asked to recall as many of the words as possible 0 Results On average participants recalled significantly more pleasant words than unpleasant words From the previous example which of the following is the independent variable 1 The number of words that the participants recalled 2 The type of words that were presented pleasant versus unpleasant 3 The amount of time given to recall the words Experimental Research Strategy 0 Hold other factors constant 0 Random assignment to 0 Experimental condition 0 Control condition 0 EX Does cognitive therapy improve depression 0 One group assigned to cognitive therapy 0 One group assigned to spend an equal amount of time with a therapist but without cognitive therapy strategies Reporting Statistics 0 Correlation 0 Measures of central tendency 0 Mode 0 Mean 0 Median 0 Variation 0 Range 0 Standard deviation Reporting Statistics Set 1 73 75 76 78 78 Mode 78 Mean 76 Median 76 Range 73 78 Standard Deviation 152 Set 2 30 70 80 80 120 Mode 80 Mean 76 Median 80 Range 30 120 Standard Deviation 32 09 Questions PUPPJNEquot 90gt NNNNNNNNHHHHHHHHHHo IGNU39liIBUJNHoxomVGNU39liPUJNHO39 N on WU WWN WM HO 0 030303030 D oo1ltU1Igt ABtPABtPuhtPuh G U lpBUJNHO What is the need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal What can strengthen or weaken your motivation What are four perspectives theories to explain motivation Explain the Instinct Theory What theory explains the physiological need that creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need What is another name for the Replaces Instinct Theory What is an example of Drive Reduction Theory What is the physiological aim of drive reduction theory What is the maintenance of steady body temperature or food intake an example of What are incentives When our needs push what pulls us in reducing our drives What is an example of the use of incentives in the DriveReduction Theory What does the DriveReduction Theory fail to explain How do we in ways increase a drive rather than reduce a drive What is the Arousal Theory Who is associated with the Hierarchy of Needs What did quotheshe suggest Explain the Hierarchy of Needs What is the order of Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs What sends signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger What two things make us feel hungry What happens if a stomach is removed How do we know this What decreases the glucose in the blood partly by converting it to stored fat What happens if our glucose level drops Explain Set Point Theory SetPoint Theory is in uenced by heredity True or False Humans regulate weight through control of food intake energy output and basal metabolic rate What theory does this go along with What is the rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest What is the measure of number of calories you burn a day What are three eating disorders Which eating disorder is characterized by a normalweight person usually adolescent women losing weight continuously until significantly below normal weight and yet feeling overweight Which eating disorder does the BMI drop signi cantly low Which eating disorder is characterized by episodes of overeating usually highcalorie foods followed by vomiting using laxatives fasting or excessive exercise An individual of normal weight could possibly be suffering from which eating disorder What happens to a person39s BMI that has Bulimia What is Bingeeating disorder What is the disorder characterized by being excessively overweight What increases the risk for health issues like cardiovascular disease diabetes hypertension arthritis and back problems ofAmericans are overweight fBMI 2535 and are obese EMT 30 What are the two reasons for eating disorders What do twin studies show about eating disorders Explain the nurture side of eating disorders What does the western culture say about a woman39s body image What is nature39s clever way of making people procreate enabling our species to survive Who 2 people describe the human sexual response cycle as consisting of four phases What are the four phases of the sexual response cycle RBIB 13 D 1 01010101 WNHO Which phase of sexual response has contractions occur all over the body increase breathing pulse and blood pressure and is considered sexual release Which phase has increased blood ow to the genitals In which phase does the vagina expand and secrete lubricant and the penis enlarges Explain plateau phase of sexual response Explain the resolution phase of sexual response When can sexual dysfunctions sexual aversion disorder male erectile disorder occur What sexual problems do men face What sexual problems do women face Sex hormones effect what What does hunger respond to It is common knowledge that women become sexually aroused when browsing through erotic material True or False What is the potential bias for sexual behavior studies Women experience similar different heightened arousal under controlled conditions What is an example of External Stimuli What is Imagined Stimuli Can people with spinal cord injuries and no genital sensations still feel sexual desire What are three factors that play into sexual motivation What refers to a person39s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex the other sex and or either sex As members of a minority often struggle with their sexual orientation In Europe and America based on many national surveys homosexuality in men is and in women is Homosexuality is more likely based on what biological factors A number of animal species are devoted to same sex partners suggesting what What are three reasons that suggest that homosexuality may be due to genetic factors How does family twin studies and fruit ies affect sexual orientation Explain the need to belong Separation from others increase decrease our need to belong What did the social bonds that are boosted by our ancestors39 survival rates lead to 3 What is the need to belong that colors our thinking and emotions What is social acceptance What is it called when we resist breaking social bonds even bad ones What is ostracism Emotions are a mix of what three things How do these three things quotquot fit together What is an example of physiological activation What is an example of expressive behaviors What is an example of conscious experience What are four theories of emotion Which theory of emotion answers the question why do you cryquot List the steps of CommonSense Theory Give an example of the CommonSense Theory What is the main idea of the CommonSense Theo Who proposed the idea that was diametrically opposed to the commonsense view What does the IamesLange theory propose List the steps of IamesLange Theory Give an example of IamesLange Theo What theory is basically the thought that our emotions were based on our body39s reaction What is the main idea of the IamesLange Theory What is the main idea of the CannonBard Theory Who questioned IamesLange Theory Who said the body changes too slow to trigger an emotion 97 Walter Cannon and Philip Bard proposed emotiontriggering stimulus and body39s arousal take place how 98 List the steps of the CannonBard Theory 99 What theory has the bodily reaction and emotion happening at the same time 100 What is the main idea of the TwoFactor Theory 101 Who is Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer 102 Emotions have two factors What are they 103 How we39re looking at the situation and thinking about it will control how we respond True or False 104 What are the steps of TwoFactor Theory 105 Explain the Two Bridge Experiment 106 What type of arousal taxes the body 107 What is adaptive arousal 108 We perform better under moderate arousal however optimal performance varies with task difficulty True or False 109 Can cognition define emotion 110 Arousal response to one event spills over into what 111 Who will reach with more hostility in angerprovoking situations 112 Arousal that lingers after an intense argument or a fighting experience maylmay not intensify sexual passion 113 Arousal fuels emotions and cognition does what 114 What is nonverbal communication 115 In a crowd what type of face will pop out faster 116 Men tend to read nonverbal cues more accurately than women True or False 117 What can sensitize people to certain emotions 118 What is an example of how quotquot can sensitize people to emotions 119 Gestures are not culturally speci c True or False 120 What nonverbal communication is more consistent across cultures and the most universally understood way of expressing emotion 121 How do cultures differ in expression 122 In individualistic cultures how are emotions displayed 123 Watching a gruesome film grimace whether alone or with others but participants hide their emotion when in the presence of others 124 What is the behavior feedback phenomenon 125 What is the facial feedback phenomenon 126 Who isolated 10 emotions most present in infancy 127 Describe the two dimensions people generally describe emotions along 128 What are the gender differences in coping 129 Individualized cultures tend to encourage people who do what with their anger 130 How do communal cultures tend to see anger 131 What is the catharsis hypothesis 132 Controlled expressions of anger are more less adaptive than hostile outbursts or pentup anger 133 When we feel good what is more likely 134 What is relative deprivation 135 What is stress 136 How can stress be adaptive 137 How can stress be maladaptive 138 Stress can be the stimulus or the response Give an example of both situations 139 What is a process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges 40 Who proposed the ghtor ight response 141 The outpouring of and from the inner adrenal glands marks ghtorFlight response 142 What is the response of the fightor ight response 143 The stressed individual goes through how many phases 144 What are three stressful life events 145 What is an example of a catastrophic event 146 What do individuals experience after a catastrophic event 147 What is an example of a signi cant life chan e 148 What may some individuals experience after significant life changes 149 What is an example of daily hassles 150 What do some individuals experience after daily hassles 151 Sarah39s daughter just left for college which is across the country This type of stressor would be considered 152 Stress that leads to elevated blood pressure may result in what 153 What is the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle 154 Explain Type A personality type 155 Explain Type B personality type 156 Which personality type is more likely to develop coronary heart disease 157 Who is twice as likely to develop heart disease over a 10year period 158 High life stress levels correlate with what 159 What may accelerate the progression from HIV to AIDS 160 Stress can have a variety of healthrelated consequences True or False 161 Psychologists and physicians have developed an interdisciplinary field of that integrates behavioral knowledge with medical knowledge 162 How is promoting health generally defined 163 What do health psychologists say about promoting health 164 What is problemfocused coping 165 What is emotionfocused coping 166 What is an example of problemfocused coping 167 What is an example of emotionfocused coping 168 What does research with rats and humans indicate 169 Who tends to have more control over stressors cope better with stressful events have better moods and have a stronger immune system 170 Who help people cope with stress 171 What calms the cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure 172 Who tend to live longer healthier lives 173 What impact do pets have on people 174 Can aerobic exercise boost spirits 175 What uses electronic devices to inform people about they39re physiological responses and gives them the chance to bring their response to a healthier range 176 and have similar effects in reducing tension and anxiety but at a letter cost than biofeedback 177 Modifying a TypeA lifestyle may reduce the recurrence of what 178 Regular religious attendance had been a reliable predictor of what 179 De ne personality 180 What is the pattern of behavior that we generally see over the course of our life 181 Who encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders whose complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes 182 What did this quotquot lead Freud to develop 183 What is an example of the different levels of the mind 184 What type of mind is hidden below the surface 185 What type of mind is above the surface 186 What type of mind is not totally hidden below or above the surface 187 What type of mind is outside awareness but Is still accessible 188 What is the unconscious mind 189 What did Freud observe that thought could be explained by unconscious con icts 190 What were the two techniques that Freud developed that he thought would tap into repressed desires and unconscious con icts 191 What is free association 192 What is dream interpretation 193 What is an example of dream interpretation 194 What is a Freudian slip 195 Give an example of a Freudian slip 196 What unconsciously strived to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operating 0 the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification 197 What is I want it know and don39t want to waitquot an example of 198 What does superego provide 199 What is behaving in moral ways 200 Ego is consciouslunconscious 201 What does the ego function as 202 Example of ego 203 Example of superego 204 Personality develops as a result of our efforts to between biological impulses and social restraints 205 What are biological impulses 206 What are social restraints 207 Freud believed that personality formed during life39s rst few years divided into what stages 208 What happened during these stages 209 Who believed that con icts unresolved during one of these stages could lead a person to xate pleasureseeking energies during that stage 210 Example of quotquot 211 Freud divided J I ofr quot through how many 1 212 Name these stagesquotquot 213 Which psychosexual stage focuses on pleasure centered on the mouth sucking biting chewing 214 Which psychosexual stage focuses on the bowel and bladder elimination coping with demands for control 215 What does phallic psychosexual stage 36 years focus on 216 What does the latency psychosexual stage 6 to puberty focus on 217 Which psychosexual stage focuses on maturation of sexual interests 218 What does projection lead to 219 What offers selfjustifying explanation in place of the real more threatening unconscious reasons for one39s action 220 What does displacement shift 221 What is an example of displacement 222 What protects the person from painful events either by rejecting a fact or its seriousness 223 What is Thematic Apperception Test TAT 224 What is Rorschach Inkblot Test 225 Critics argue that projective tests lack both and 226 What are the three things that support the unconscious mind 227 What does the humanistic perspective offer 228 Who were the two pioneers of the humanistic perspective 229 Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by what 230 What do we call it when we are ful lling our potential 231 What type of person is selfaccepting and selfaware open and spontaneous loving and caring and self secure 232 Who believed that unconditional positive regard nurtures our growth and helps us develop a positive selfconcept 233 What is unconditional positive regard 234 What is the trait perspective 235 What did Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggest 236 What are the questionnaires often with truefalse or agreedisagree items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once 237 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI is what I stages 254 255 256 What are the big ve factors What is organized disorganized careful careless disciplined impulsive What is softhearted ruthless trusting suspicious helpful uncooperative What is calm anxious secureinsecure selfsatis edselfpityin What is imaginative practical preference for variety routine independent conforming What is sociable retiring funloving sober affectionate reserved Traits are not good predictors of individual instances of behaviors in particular situations True or False Average behavior over many situations is more stable and predictable thus What is the Barnum Effect What did bandura believe What are the three factors that are interlocking determinants of each other What is the process of interacting with the environment called What is it called when either we control 39L or 39L What does external locus of control refer to What refers to the perception that we can control our own fate When unable to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness True or False What is the self serving bias What is it called when we may presume too readily that others are noticing and evaluating us when fewer people notice than we presume What do people with good selfesteem experience rnntrnlc us Answers NF F H WN 300 HHHHHH mqswtxM xcr gt gt gt mum H D NNNNNN U39lpBUJNHO Motivation Your emotions Instinct Theory DriveReduction Theory Arousal Theory Hierarchy of Motives Instincts are unlearned and fixed patterns of behavior common to all members of a species DriveReduction Theory DriveReduction Theory The need for food or water9 the drive when you get hungry or thirsty9 drive reducing behaviors eating and drinking Homeostasis the maintenance of a steady internal state DriveReduc tion Theory Positive or negative stimuli Incentives A fooddeprives person who smells baking bread incentive and feels a strong hunger drive It does not provide a comprehensive framework for understanding motivation When dieting you may skip a meal which will only increase your drive Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal neither too high nor too low Abraham Maslow 1970 That certain needs have priority over others Physiological needs like breathing thirst and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement selfesteem and the need for recognition Physiological needs9safety needs9belongingness and love needs9esteem needs9self ac tualization needs Stomach contractions pangs Stomach pangs and glucose levels You will still feel hungry and continue to want to eat food Tsang 1938 removed a rats stomach and it still felt hungry and ate food Hormone insulin We feel hungry WWWUJUJWWWNNNN lG U lt PUJNHOD IG we gt990 ABtPPAB WNHO U39lU39lU39ltPPuhPuh NHOD 10U I U39lU39lU39l G U ltP U1 l 0101 woo G G G G G U39lpPUJNHO G G G G comm IVG HO The hypothalamus acts as the body39s weight thermostatquot maintaining a set point True Set Point Theory Basal Metabolic Rate BMR Basal Metabolic Rate Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa and Binge eating disorder Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa It does not typically drop very low Characterized by significant bingeeating episodes followed by distress disgust or guilt but without the compensatory purging fasting or excessive exerc1se Nature genetics and nurture family That eating disorders are more likely to occur in identical twins rather than fraternal twins Familyyounger generations develop eating disorders when raised in families in which weight is an excessive concern if parent continues to stress being healthy and dieting Western culture tends to place more emphasis on a thin body image in comparison to other cultures Sexual motivation Masters ad ohnson 1966 Excitement plateau orgasm resolution Orgasm Excitement Excitement Excitement peaks such as breaking pulse and blood pressure Engorged genital release blood male goes through refractory phase and women resolve slower At any point in the cycle Premature ejaculation and erectile disorder Orgasmic disorders The development of sexual characteristics and activate sexual behavior A need if we don39t eat we die sex is not a need because if we do not have sex we wont die False Men become more sexually aroused Who are these people that are going in to participate in this study probably more sexually Erotic materials video pictures Our imagination in our brain can in uence sexual arousal and desire Yes Physiological readiness imagined stimuli and external stimuli e 11 al orientatlo Homosexuals 34 1 2 Differing brain centers genetics and parental hormone exposure rather than environmental factors Suggesting that homosexuality exists in the animal world Family twin studies and fruit ies Family homosexuality seems to run in families twin studies homosexuality is more common in identical twins than fraternal twins mixed results fruit flies genetic engineers
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