INTR TO PSYC
INTR TO PSYC PSYC 2000
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This 75 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Marisa Sullivan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/222952/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION PART ONE February 1st 2011 TQAE T PCg o Introduction to Sensation and Perception o Vision 6 Hearing MODULE 17 INTRODUCTION TO SENSATION AND PERCEPTION W TQPC o Introduction o Thresholds o Sensory Adaptation NTQUQTUQ WHAT HS SENSATHQN oThe process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment WHAT HS EQETHQN The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information o Enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events Qll l U QESHNQ o Begins with sensory receptors Works up to the brain s integration of sensory information o Example Frog eye receptor cells TQ WN RQQESHQ nfo processing f guided by higher level mental processes 9 Constructing perceptions drawing on our experience and Expectations TH EH L AQLUTE THESHQLS Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 of the time What is our awareness of faint stimuli SHQNAL ETETHQN THEQY o How and when we detect a faint stimulus amid stimulation 9 Detection depends on experience expectations motivation and alertness I SU MAL TULATHQN 9 Below one s absolute threshold for conscious awareness 9 Have suggestive powers Will talk more about it later in the semester HFFENQE THEHQL Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time Just noticeable difference SNS RY AATAT N WHAT HS ENS RY AEDAPTATHCDN Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation Nerve cells fire Less frequently MODULE 18 VISION V QN TQPHCS The Stimulus Input Light Energy Visual Information Processing 6 Color Vision THE STHMULUS NPUT LGHT ENEGY T UQTH N Conversion of light energy into neural impulses that the brain can understand 91A u 7 Lu drum I I I I mu mu mm V I I I I I I I I 10quot 0quot 10quot 1039 10 10 10 10quot 1039 Wave enth in nanometers billionth ofa meter WAVELENGTH amp HUE Short wavelength high frequency bluish colors highpitched sounds Long wavelength low frequency reddish colors lowpitched sounds m 9 Distance from one peak of light or sound wave to the next peak Determines the hue o What Color we experience Red Green Blue HTENSH Amount of energy in light waves Determined by the wave s amplitude or height Influences brightness Great amplitude bright colors loud sounds Small amplitude dull colors soft sounds ATHQN The process by Distantfocus the eye s quotquotquotquotquot393939 lens Changes quot Shage to focus near or far objects on the retina Changing curvature of the eye V UAL HNFQ N PCEgg NG WSUAL RMHQQN CESglNG Optic nerves connect to the Thalamus in the middle of the g brain and the 353 U c thalamus to the visual cortex located in the occipital lobe Visualarea ofthe thalamus FEUE ETEQTHQN Feature detectors Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus Shape Angle Movement 9 Specific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at shoes faces chairs and houses LLEL PQQES HN 6 Our brain can do many things at once 9 Works on what we see simultaneously Inte rates information Color Depth Form Movement CLR V H N L R W H N Color blindness Genetic disorder in which people are blind to green or red colors o How do we see the world in color YQUNQEHELMHQLTZ TRHQHQTHQ TH EQY Retina contains g different receptors Red Green Blue When stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color PQNENTQQESg THEQY o Opposing retinal processes enable color vision Redm Yellowblue Whiteblack MODULE 19 HEARING HEAHNG TQPHQS The Stimulus Input Sound Waves THE STHMULU NPUT S UN ES FEQUENQ The number of Monwm Sauna meanry complete wavelengths that pass a point in a 39 quot given time mamam E r 1 M A What produces V V i 7 w I 39 I V gt gt i loudness e A tone s a snowstorm experienced highness or 1 1 k zlone 41 2 kn lone Determined by the frequency EQEWHNG PHTQH o m theorylinks o Freguency theory rate the pitch with what of nerve impulses we hear where the traveling up the cochlea s membrane auditory nerve is stimulated matches the frequency of the tone that conducts sound waves to the cochlea Best explains how we perceive low pitched sounds Intro to Motivation 11302010 15200 AM Motivationa need or desire that energizes and directs behavior In attempt to understand motivated behaviors used four perspectives Instinct theoryevolutionary perspective focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors Drivereduction theory focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact Arousal theory focuses on finding the right level of stimulation Hierarchy ofneeds describes how some of our needs take priority over others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology Influence of evolutionary theory grew it became fashionable to classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts o Selfabasement instinct people criticized themselves 0 Selfassertion instinct people boasted Instinct complex behavior must have a fixed pattern throughout a species and be unlearned o Newly hatched ducks first moving object seen is mother 0 Mature salmon return to place born to mate and die 0 Infants innate reflexes for rooting and sucking View human behavior as directed by physiological needs and psychological wants Explanation for our human similarities animal s biological predispositions to learn certain behaviors influence of evolution on our phobias our helping behaviors and our romantic attractions Drives and Incentives Original instinct theory collapsed and was replaced by Drive reduction theory idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need When physiological need increasese psychological drive aroused motivated state also increases Physiological aim push is homeostasis maintenance of a steady internal state ie body s temperatureregulation system Pulled by incentives positivenegative stimuli that lurerepel us Aroma of good food or sight of those attractive or threatening can motivate our behavior o Food deprived person smells bread feels a strong hunger drive That drive becomes a compelling incentive o For each motive ask How is it pushed by our inborn physiological needs and pulled by incentives in the environment o Need food9Drive hunger9Drivereducing behavioreating Optimum Arousal o Some motivated behaviors increase arousal curiosity drives o Those who enjoy high arousal are more likely to enjoy intense music novel foods and risky behaviors o Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but seek optimum levels of arousal o Lacking stimulation fell bored and look for a way to increase arousal to some optimum level o Too much causes stress then look for way to decrease arousal A Hierarchy of Motives o Hierarchy of needs pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higherlevel safety needs and the psychological needs become active o Physiological needs to satisfy hunger amp thirstesafety needs to feel the world is organized amp predictable to feel safe Belongingness and love needs to love amp be loved belong be accepted avoid loneliness amp separationeEsteem needsself esteem achievement competence and independence recognition amp respect form otherseselfactualization needs to live up to our fullest amp unique potentialeselftranscendence needs to find meaning and identity beyond the self o Poor nations lack easy access to money food amp shelter financial satisfaction more strongly predicts feelings of wellbeing o Wealthy nations most meet basic needs homelife satisfaction is a better predictor o Selfesteem matters most in individualist nations focus on personal achievements instead of family and community identity Hunger 11302010 15200 AM Demonstration of the supremacy of physiological needs came from starvation experiences in World War II prison camps Mandel explained Hunger does something to you that s hard to describe The semistarved men s preoccupations illustrate the power of activated motives to hijack our consciousness The Physiology of Hunger o Cannon Washburn swallowed a balloon amp inflated it to fill his stomach the balloon transmitted his stomach contractions to a recording device He pressed a key each time he felt hungry Discovery Have stomach contractions when you feel hungry Body Chemistry and the Brain o Blood sugarglucose Increases in the hormoneinsuindiminish blood glucose partly by converting it to stored fat If glucose level drops brain will automatically trigger hunger o Signals from stomach intestines and liver all signal the brain to motivate eating or not o Hunger controls within hypothalamus small complex neural traffic intersection deep in the brain 2 centers influence eating Lateral hypothalamus along the sides brings on hunger if electrically stimulated wellfed begin to eat Hungertriggering hormone orexin Ventromedial hypothalamus lower midhypothalamus depresses hunger stimulate and will stop eating destroy and stomach amp intestines will process food more rapidly causing it to become extremely fat Discovery patients with tumors near the base of the brain eat excessively and become very overweight Appetite hormones ghrelin hungerarousing secreted by empty stomach obestatinsister to ghrelin sends out fullness signaldepresses hunger PYY appetite suppressant secreted by digestive tract leptin appetite suppressant protein secreted by fat cells amp diminish rewarding pleasure of food Set point settling pointstable weight semistarved overweight return toResponse to caloric intake amp expenditure Heredity influences body type and set point 0 O O O O o Bodies regulate weight through control of food intake energy output and Basal metabolic rate rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when body is at rest Psychology of Hunger Eagerness to eat pushed by physiological statebody chemistry and hypothalamic activity Tested 2 amnesia patients who lost memory every minute ate 3 times with only 20 minute intervals between Part of knowing when to eat is our memory of our last meal As time passes we anticipate eating again and start feeling hungry Taste Preferences Biology and Culture Body chemistry and environmental factors together influence hunger and what we are hungry fortaste preferences Carbs help boost serotoninhas calming effects Culture affects taste Bedouinseye of camel North Americans amp Europeans shun horse dog and rat meat Repeated exposure appreciation of new taste increasesexposure to one set of novel foods increases willingness to try another Neophobia dislike of unfamiliar things adaptive for our ancestors protecting them from toxic substances Ecology of Eating Situation control our eating Eat more when eating with others Social facilitation explains why after a party or feast we realize we have overeaten Unit biasoccurs with similar mindlessness For cultures struggling with rising obesity ecology influences eating reduce portion sizes and serve food with smaller bowls plates and utensils Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa begins as weightloss diet usually adolescent females Below normal weight yet feel fat fear gaining weight and remain obsessed with losing weight Bingepurge depression cycle Bulimia nervosa diet broken by gorging on forbidden foods Bingepurge eaters mostly women in late teensZOS eat in spurts overeating followed by compensatory purging fasting or excessive exercise Experience bouts of depression and anxiety Easy to hide Bingeeating disordersignificant binge eatingremorsedon t purge fast or exercise excessively Family environment may provide fertile ground for eating disorders 0 Mothers who focus on their own weight and their daughters weight and appearance Familiesbulimiahigher than usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative selfevaluation o Familiesanorexiacompetitive highachieving amp protective Anorexia low selfevaluations set perfectionist standards fret about falling short of expectations and concerned with how other perceive them Genetics influence susceptibilitytwins share if identical Cultural and gender components India women rate ideals as close to their actual shape Africa plumpness means prosperous thinnesspoverty AIDS and hunger Those most vulnerable are those who idealize thinness and have the greatest body dissatisfaction Sickness lies in part within weightobsessed culture Fat is bad motivates women to always diet and encourages binges O Obesity and Weight Control Fat is ideal form of stored energy feast or famine existence global epidemic of diabetes fitness matters more than being overweight Obesity increases risk of diabetes high blood pressure heart disease gallstones arthritis and certain cancers Linked with late life Alzheimer s and brain tissue loss Risks greater for appleshaped who carry weight in potbellies than for pearshaped with ample hips and thighs Social Effects of Obesity Socially toxic affecting both how you are treated and how you feel about yourself Stereotypes slow lazy sloppy less sincere less friendly meaner more obnoxious Weight discrimination is greater than race amp gender discrimination Physiology of Obesity Dieters told they will lose a pound for every 3500calorie reduction in their diets FALSE Fat Cells Once fat cells increase it never decreases They may shrink on a diet but number does not Set Point and Metabolism Fat has lower metabolic rate less food energy to maintain when overweight body drops below its set point hunger increases metabolism decreases Body adapts to starvation mode Furth weight loss comes slowly following rapid weight loss during initial 3 weeks or so Lean naturally disposed to fidget and move about more burn calories than energyconserving overweight sit still longer Genetic Factor Genetic influence on body weight 0 Weights resemble those of biological parents Identical twins have similar weights even when separated Obese parent boy3x and girl6x more likely to be obese Many different genes influence body weight FFO nearly doubles the risk of becoming obese O O 0 Food and Activity Factors Environmental factors important Sleep loss levels of leptin fall and ghrelin rise Social influence most likely to become obese when a friend became obese Changing food consumption and activity levels are at work Compared to early 19005 we are eating higherfat and sugar diets expending fewer calories and suffering higher rates of diabetes Bottom line new stadiums theaters and subways are widening their own seats to accommodate Environmental reforms 0 Fast food free zone around schools 0 Extra tax on junk food and soft drinks 0 Subsidize healthy foods and finance healthsupportive nutritional advertising Losing Weight Most important point permanent weight loss is not easy Most who succeed on weightloss program eventually regain the weight or more Pursuit of thinness risk for binge eating amp food obsession weight fluctuations malnutrition smoking depression amp harm from drugs It is better to accept oneself as heavy than to diet and binge and fell continually out of control and guilty Module 38 11302010 15200 AM Sexual motivation is nature s clever way of making people procreate thus enabling our species survival The Physiology of Sex Sexual arousal depends on the interplay and external stimuli The Sexual Response Cycle four stages Excitement phase genital areas become engorged with blood Plateau phase excitement peaks as breathing pulse and blood pressure rates continue to increase Orgasm accompanied by further increases in breathing pulse and blood pressure rates Resolution phase Refractory period resting period after orgasm male incapable of another orgasm female s much shorter may enable more orgasms Sexual disorders problems that consistently impair sexual arousal or functioning 0 Sexual motivationlack of sexual energy or arousability 0 Men premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction 0 Women orgasmic dysfunction Women s orgasm frequency is genetically influenced Partner emotional closeness security and intimacy also matter Sexual disorders often helped with behaviorally oriented therapy Hormones and Sexual Behavior Sex hormones have two effects direct physical development of male and female sex characteristics and activate sexual behavior Most mammals nature neatly synchronizes sex with fertility Female becomes sexually receptive in heat when secretion of female hormones estrogens peak during ovulation Male hormones are more constant testosterone woman s natural testosterone level drops sexual interest may wane mennormal fluctuations has little effect on sex drive response to sexual stimulation Psychology of Sex Hunger and sex are different sorts of motivations Hunger responds to need sex is not a need Both depend on physiological factors amp influenced by external and imagined stimulus and cultural expectations External Stimuli o Studies confirm men become aroused when they see hear or read erotic materialas do most women o Repeated exposure the emotional response to any erotic stimulus often lessens or habituates Imagined Stimuli o Brainmost significant sex organ o Imagination influences sexual arousal and desire o Spinal cord injury no genital sensation can still feel sexual desire o Wideawake become aroused by memories or fantasies o Men fantasize about sex more often more physically less romantically less personal and fasterpaced content c Sexually active have more sexual fantasies Adolescent Sexuality o Sexual expression varies dramatically with time and culture o Family and cultural values matter Teen pregnancy o American teens lower contraceptive higher pregnancy amp abortion o Counter ignorance with sex ed doesn t increase adolescent sexual activity but does increase intention to practice safer sex and may delay rather than hasten the onset of sexual activity o Minimal communication about birth control o Guilt related to sexual activity o Alcohol use o Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity Sexual Transmitted Infections o Teen girls not fully mature lower levels of protective antibodies seem especially vulnerable o Several predictors of sexual restraint 0 High intelligence 0 Religious engagement 0 Father presence 0 Participation in service learning programs Sexual Orientation c To motivate is to energize and direct behavior o Direction of sexual interestsexual orientation our enduring sexual attraction toward members of our own sex homosexual or the other sex heterosexual Sexual Orientation Statistics o Sexual orientation not an indicator of mental health o Homosexuality in and of itself not associated with mental disorders or emotional or social problems o Some homosexuals especially adolescent struggle with their attractions and increased risk for attempting suicide o Most strongly established for men women more changing o Men arousal from preferred sex Women male or females 0 Gender difference in erotic plasticity Origins of Sexual Orientation o Homos are no more likely than heteros to have been smother by maternal love neglected by father or sexually abused o Homos appear more often in certain populations o Men who have older brothers are more likely to be gay 0 Fraternal birthorder effect only in men o Orientation unaffected by adoptive brothers o One theory people develop samesex erotic attachments if segregated by gender at the time their sex drives mature o Tribal cultures homo behavior expected before marriage hetero SameSex Attraction in Animals o Identified several hundred species grizzlies gorillas monkeys flamingos and owls Rams sheepbreeding ranchers duds o Some degrees of homosexuality seems to be natural The Brain and Sexual Orientation o One cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men o Gays amp straight women brain hemispheres similar size Lesbians amp straight men right hemisphere is larger o Maxim everything psychological is simultaneously biological o Gays and lesbians differ from straight males and females in other brain studies Response to sexrelated sweat odors and to pictures of male and female faces Genes and Sexual Orientation o Evidence indicates a genetic influence on sexual orientation o Homos appear to run in families o Twins studies have established genes play a role o Homo men have more homo relatives on mom s side o Maternal relatives of homo men produce more offspring Prenatal Hormones and Sexual Orientation o Shared genetics and prenatal environment may be a factor o Abnormal prenatal hormone conditions altered a fetus orientation o Critical period for brain s neuralhormonal control system may exist in middle of 2nd and 5th months after conception o Exposure to hormone levels typically females during this time appears to predispose the person to be attracted to males o Fingerprint ridges differ o Gays spatial abilities resemble straight women o Mental rotation tasks straight men outscore women o Straight women and gays outperform straight men at remembering objects spatial locations memory tasks o BBC internet study same gaystraight differences worldwide Sex and Human Values o Label certain sexual behaviors as perversions or alternative sexual lifestyle Labels describe and evaluate o Sex ed separated from context of human values may also give some students the idea that intercourse is simply recreational o Values should be stated enabling debate and reflection o Sex is a socially significant act o Sex at its human best is lifeuniting and loverenewing The Need to Belong o Social animal without friends we have a need to affiliate with others even to become strongly attached to other in enduring close relationships Aiding Survival o Social bonds boosted ancestor s survival rate keeping children close to their caregivers attachments were powerful survival impulses o Wretched means to be without kin nearby o Survival also enhanced by cooperation o People who feel supported are happier healthier low risk for psychological disorder and premature death o Married people less at risk for depression suicide and early death Wanting to Belong o Need to belong colors our thoughts and emotions o Satisfaction of selfesteem and relatednessbelonging needs were the top two contributors to the peak moment o Balance of autonomy and competence deep sense of wellbeing o Ubuntu my humanity is caught up is inextricably bound up in yours o Much social behavior aims to increase our belonging c we loving families faithful friendships team spirit teen gangs ethnic rivalries fanatic nationalism Sustaining Relationships o Familiarity breeds liking not contempt o Attachments can keep people in abusive relationships o Fear of being alone has some basis in reality o Children who more through foster care may have difficulty forming deep attachments o Children in institutions without a sense of belonging or locked away under extreme neglect become pathetic creatures withdrawn frightened speechless o Negative emotions anxiety loneliness jealousy guilt when something threatens or dissolves our social ties The Pain of Ostracism o The need to belong is denied o Ostracismof social exclusion in both natural and lab settings o Sever ostracism exile imprisonment solitary confinement o Elicits increased activity in brain area anterior cingulate cortex that also activated in response to physical pain o Rejected and unable to remedy the situation people may seek new friends or may turn nasty Module 40 11302010 15200 AM Theories of Emotion o Emotions are a mix of 0 Physiological arousal heart pounding o Expressive behaviors quickened pace 0 Consciously experienced thoughts is this a kidnapping 0 Feeling sense of fear and laterjoy o Two controversies over the interplay of physiology expressions and experience in emotions o 1 Chickenandegg debate old Does your physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience ie first notice racing heart and faster step and then feel anxious dread or viceversa o 2 Interaction between thinking and feeling Does cognition always precede emotion ie think about the kidnapping threat before reacting emotionally o JamesLange theory our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotionarousing stimuli 0 1st arousal pounding heart 2nd emotion fear o CannonBard theory an emotionarousing stimulus simultaneously triggers 1 physiological responses and 2 the subjective experience of emotion o Arousal as you experience emotion pounding heart same time as fear 0 Physiological response and experienced emotion are separate o SchachterSinger TwoFactor theory to experience emotion one must 1 be physically aroused and 2 cognitively label the arousal o Believed emotions are physiologically similar 0 Emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal 0 1st Simultaneouse arousal pounding heart and Cognitive label I m afraid 2nd emotion fear Embodied Emotion o Emotions and theAutonomic Nervous System o In a crisis it is your ANS that mobilizes your body for action and calms it when the crisis passes o Sympathetic divisionarousing directs adrenal glands to release the stress hormones epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine noradrenaline Pupils dilate salivationdecreases skin perspires respiration increases heart accelerates digestion inhibited adrenal glands secrete stress hormones blood pressure increases quick blood clotting o Parasympathetic division calming when the crisis passes the ANS takes over calming your body Pupils contract salivation increases skin dries respiration decreases heart slows digestion activates adrenal glands decrease secretion of stress hormones blood pressure decreases o Arousal is adaptive ie taking an exam pays to be moderately aroused alert but not trembling with nervousness Too little arousal can be disruptive and prolonged high arousal can tax the body Physiological similarities among specific emotions 0 Watching movies 1 Horror film 2 Angerprovoking film 3 Sexually arousing film 3 Utterly boring film 0 From control center monitor physiological responses perspiration breathing and heart rates 0 With training could pick the board viewer Much more difficult to distinguish among fear anger and sexual arousal 0 Different emotions do not have sharply distinct biological signatures Physiological differences among specific emotions 0 Fear and joy similar increased heart rate stimulate different facial muscles fear brow muscles tense joy cheeks and under eyes pull into a smile o Fearful faces show more activity in their amygdala emotional control center in brain s limbic system 0 Brain scans and EEF recordings show emotions activate different areas of the brain cortex with tendency for negative emotionse right hemisphere and positive emotionse left hemisphere Positive personalities exuberant infants and alert enthusiastic energized and persistently goaldirected adults show more activity in the left frontal lobe ie man lost part of his right frontal lobe in brain surgery became less irritable and more affectionate ie right hemi stroke lived life with happy gratitude and nary a complaint or negative emotion 0 left frontal lobe rich supply of dopamine receptors Nucleus accumbens cluster of neurons Region lights up when people experience natural or drug induced pleasures ie case study electrical stimulation to nucleus accumbens of depressed patients triggered smiles laughter and giddy euphoria o evidence of real distinctions among emotions makes James Lange theory plausible o 25 WWII soldiers with severed spinal cords asked to recall emotionarousing incidents from before and after injuries lowerspine lost legs little change in emotions Upperspine no feeling below neck decrease in emotional intensity increase in weeping lumps in throat getting chocked up saying goodbye worshipping watching a touching movie 0 James and Lange can say our body s reactions are an important ingredient of emotion o Cannon and bard can say there is more to the experience of emotion than reading our body s responses If that were not the case lie detectors would be foolproofthey aren t o Lie Detection o Polygraphs measure the changes in breathing cardiovascular activity and perspiration that accompany emotion Control questions aim to make anyone a little nervous in last 20 yrs Have you ever taken something that didn t belong to you many people lie and say no Critical questions if your reactions are weaker than control reactionsthen it is inferred you are telling the truth Did you ever steal anything from your previous employer 0 Guiltyknowledge tests more effective Assesses a suspects physiological responses to crimescene details known only to the police and the guilty person 0 Developing computer software that compares language of truth tellers and liars Other software analyzes facial micro expressions linked with lying o EEG recordingsrevealed brain waves indicating familiarity with crime scenes 0 fMRI scans shown liars brains lighting up in places honest people s brains do not Cognition and Emotion o Cognition can define emotion o Spillover effect occurs when our arousal from one event influences our response to other events Emotional arousal is sometimes general enough to require us to define the emotion we are experiencing Arousal fuels emotion cognition channels it ie epi injection go to waiting room with someone in it acting euphoric or irritatede those told about effects felt little emotion those told there were no effects did what was called catching the apparent emotion of the person you are with happy if person is euphoric testy if person is irritated ie insult people who have just been aroused pedaling a bike or watching rock videos and they will find it easy to misattribute their arousal to the provocation Their anger will exceed people of similar provocation but not aroused ie viceversa sexually aroused more hostility in angerprovoking situations arousal that lingers after argumentscary experience may intensify sexual passion Cognition does not always precede emotion O O O 0 Imagine receive unsettling newse ongoing convo distracts attentionamp lose awareness of newsefeeling still churns amp feel a little bad cant put finger on reason arousal lingers but without a label ie Amsterdam study confirms that we have an acutely sensitive automatic radar for emotionally significant information subliminally flashed stimulus smilingangry facegross scene can prime a mood or specific emotion and lead us to feel betterworse about a followup stimulus ie thirsty people given juice view subliminally flashed face happyneutralangry9happy drank 50 more than neutrale angry drank substantially less low road speedy via neural pathways bypass the cortex ie pathway runs from the eye or ear via the thalamus to the amygdala bypassing the cortex Shortcut enables greasedlightening emotional response before our intellectual intervenes Amygdala activity increased when triggered by fear Amygdala send more neural projections up to the cortex than it receives back This makes it easier to hijack our thinking than our thinking to rule our feelings ie in forest jump at the sound of rusting bushes some of our emotional reactions involve no deliberate thinking Lazarus conceded that our brains process and react to vast amounts of info without our conscious awareness and willingly granted that some emotional responses don t require conscious thinking Most emotions operate via the autonomic effortless speedy low road Even instantaneously felt emotions require some sort of cognitive appraisal of the situation Thus emotions arise when we appraise an event as beneficialharmful to wellbeing ie forest continued we appraise the sound of rustling bushes as a threat Later realize it was just the wind 0 Some emotional responses likes dislikes fears involve no conscious thinking ie fear a spider even if it is harmless emotional brain influences political decisions ie voters under brain imaging while watching candidates emotion circuits are more engaged than rational frontal lobes like others depression hatred guilt happiness love our feelings about politicians are greatly influenced by our memories expectations and interpretations Highly emotional people intense because of interpretations May personalize events as being directed at themamp may generalize experiences by blowing single incidents out of proportion 0 Thinking high road allows us to retake some control over our emotional life 0 Antonio Damasio braindamaged emotionless patient study of the interplay of emotion and cognition Simple cardgame task could make or lose moneyeno brain damage most make money emotions from unconscious figure things out ahead of their conscious reasoningeemotionless lose money 9 demonstrate our twotrack minds include smart unconsciousness Automatic emotion and conscious thinking together weave the fabric of our minds 0 Quiz Questions Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal JamesLange theory Activation of sympathetic nervous system decreases salivation and increases blood pressure A lie detector test is used to monitor a persons respiration If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are then insulted their feelings of anger will be greater than those people who have been similarly provoked but were not previous aroused This is best explained by the Twofactor theory The instantaneous and autonomic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the amygdala When Mr Morgan misinterpreted his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack he suffered an unusually intense level of fear His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the twofactor theory Antonios car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by dilation of his pupils Exuberant infants and alert energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the left frontal lobe The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion This best illustrates the spillover effect An approach to lie detection that assesses a suspects physiological response to details of a crime known only to police investigators is called The guilty knowledge test Who suggested that very similar physiological reactions are associated with a variety of different emotions Walter Cannon Julie will be competing in a basketball free throw contest Her performance is likely to be best is her physiological arousal during the performance is moderate Whether we feel angry or depressed in response to a low exam grade depends on whether we attribute the poor grade to an unfair test or to our own lack of academic ability This best illustrates that emotions are influenced by cognitiveappraisals Evidence that emotion precedes physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with JamesLange theory Evidence that emotion precedes mentally labeling our physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the twofactor theory Shondra an experienced member of her high school swimming team has just recently joined her high school debate team A high level of physiological arousal during team competition is likely to enhance her swimming performance but disrupt her debate performance Module 41 11302010 15200 AM Expressed Emotion o Simple methods of deciphering people s emotions read their bodies listen to their tone of voice and study their faces o People s expressive behavior reveals their emotion Detecting Emotion o All of us communicate nonverbally and verbally o Westerners firm handshake outgoing expressive personality o Gaze averted glance or a stare we can communicate intimacy submission or dominance o Kellerman Lewis and Laird wondered if intimate gazes would stir such feelings between stranger59 pairs gaze intently for two minutese after separating the eye gazers reported feeling a tingle of attraction and affection o Nonverbal cues decipher emotions in old silent film good at detecting threats 0 When viewing subliminally flashed words more often sense negative words snake or bomb 0 In a crowd of faces a single angry face will pop out faster than a single happy one o Experience can sensitize us to particular emotions abused children s perceptions become sensitively attuned to glimmers of danger that nonabused children miss o Hardtocontrol facial muscles reveal emotion you may be trying to conceal Lifting inner part of eyebrow distress or worry Eyebrows raised an pulled together fear Activated muscles under eyes amp raised cheeks natural smile Feigned smile photo continues more than 45 seconds can be switched onoff more abruptly than a genuine smile o Brains are amazing detectors of subtle expressions o Averting gaze sign of lying o Introverts tend to excel at reading others emotions although extraverts are generally easier to read o Email and internet discussions lack nonverbal cues to status personality and age Gender Emotion and Nonverbal Behavior 0 O O O Women generally surpass men at reading people s emotional cues Women s nonverbal sensitivity also gives then an edge in spotting lies Women s skill at decoding others emotions may also contribute to their greater emotional responsiveness in both positive and negative situations When surveyed women are far more likely than men to describe themselves as empathic Empathy identify with others and imagine what it must be like to walk in their shoes Rejoice with those who rejoice and weep with those who weep 0 Physiological measures of empathy heart rate Females more likely to express empathy cry and report distress when observing distress Womenexperience emotional events more deeply more brain activation in areas sensitive to emotionand remember scenes better three weeks later Culture and Emotional Expression Chines clapped to express worry or disappointment laughed to express anger stuck out tongue to express surprise North Americanthumbs up and AOK considered insults in certain cultures North Korea photos Emotional display rules cross world cultures Children and bind have universal facial expressions Sneer animal baring teeth in a snarl Surprise raise eyebrows and widen eyes Disgust winkle nose Cultures individualitymostly visible emotions Chinese others less visibly displayed When thinking japan looks down to display respect Canadians look UP Emotion best understood by biological cognitive and socialcultural phenomenon Effects of Facial Expressions o Expressions not only communicate emotion also amplify and regulate it o Face feeds our feelings o In absence of competing emotions facial feedback effect is subtle yet detectable o 2 studies demonstrate power of facial feedback pencilinthelips procedure to induce happiness black rather than white faces Botox 9 in 10 were no longer depressed o Snodgrass observed behavior feedback phenomenon with walking 0 Going through motions awakens emotions o Small way to be more empathetic let face mimic others Quiz Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one anothers eyes By exposing different parts of emotionladen faces reasearchers found that we detect anger mostly from the eyes and happiness mostly from the mouth Compared with men women are more effective in dicernign whether someone is telling a lie and they are more effective in discerning which of two people in a photo is the others supervisor Country people are most likely to convey visible facial expressions of their inner feelings Austrailia If you mimic another persons facial expressions of emotion you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person Best explained in terms of the JamesLange theory Module 42 11302010 15200 AM Experienced Emotion o 10 basic emotions joy interestexcitement surprise sadness anger disgust contempt fear shame and guilt more present in infancy o emotion include physiology and expressive behavior and conscious experience o Valence and arousal dimensions terrifiedmore frightened than afraid enraged is angrier than angry delighted is happier than haPPY Fear o Fear can be poisonous and contagious o Fear is adaptive Alarm system c Fear of real or imagined enemies binds people together as families tribes and nations o Fear of injury protects us from harm o Fear helps us focus on a problem and rehearse coping strategies o Fearful expressions improve peripheral vision and speedeye movements thus boosting sensory input Learning Fear o Through conditioning short list of naturally painful and frightening events can multiply into a long list of human fears o Learning by observation extends the list The Biology of Fear o May be biologically prepared to learn some fears more quickly than others o One key to fear learning lies in the amygdala limbic system neural center deep in the brain o Amygdala plays a key role in associating various emotions including fear with certain situations o Amygdala is similarly involved in human fears o Damage to hippocampusshow emotion reaction implicit memory but wont be able to remember why o Suffer amygdala damage consciously remember conditioning but will show no emotional effect usually trust scarylooking people o Phobias intense fear of an object and disrupt ability to cope o Experience helps shape fearfulness or fearlessness so do our genes Genes influence our temperamentemotional reactivity Anger o Anger short madness carries the mind away and many time more hurtful than the injury that caused it o Anger can harm us chronic hostility in linked to heart disease o Boys walk away from situation girls talk with a friend listen to music o Catharsis vent your anger emotional release o Expressing anger can be temporarily calming if it doesn t leave us feeling guilty or anxious o Expressing anger breeds more anger o Behavior feedback indicates acting angry can make us feel angrier o Verbally aggressive acts we late regret becomes maladaptive o Anger primes prejudice o Best way to handle anger 2 0 Bring down level of physiological arousal of anger by waiting 0 Deal with anger in a way that involves neither being chronically angry over every little annoyance not sulking and rehearsing your grievances o Anger doesn t communicate strength and competence Can benefit relationship when expresses grievance in way to promote reconciliation rather than retaliation o Controlled expressions of anger are more adaptive o Civility keeping silent about trivial irritations and communicating important ones clearly and assertively o Research commends forgiveness Happiness Happy people perceive world as safer feel more confident make decisions easily rate job applicants more favorably more cooperative and tolerant and live healthier more energize and satisfied lives Positive fuel upward spirals Feelgood dogood phenomenon feel happy more often help others Negative emotions make our live miserable and drive us to seek help Subjective wellbeing assessed as feelings of happiness or a sense of satisfaction with life New positive psychology on the rise The short life of Emotional Ups and Downs Watson discovered positive emotion rises over the early middle oart of most days Stressful events argument sick child car problem trigger bad moods Rebound form bad day to a better than usual good mood next day Major disability of leaves people less happy than average yet happier ablebodies people with depression We overestimate the duration of our emotions and underestimate our capacity to adapt Wealth and wellbeing Eviden that wealth to a point correlates with well being Diminishing returns phenomenon is familiar to economist as diminishing marginal utility and to you as the second piece of dessert satisfying you less than the first Raising low incomes increase well being than raising high incomes Incomehappiness correlation seemingly occur because more income produces greated happiness Europe austrailia japan people enjoy better nutrition health care education and science and they are somewhat happier than those in very poor countries Yet increasing real incomes have not produced increasing happiness Economic growth in affluent countries has provided no apparent boost to morale or social wellbeing Policymakers interested in subjective wellbeing because of inherent value to citizens and individuals subjective wellbeing can have positive spillover benefits for the society as a whole Happiness and prior experience Adaptationlevel phenomenon tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced Adjust neutral levels the points at which sounds seem neigh loud nor sold temperature neither hot nor cold events neith pleasant nor unpleasant based on our experience React to variations up and down from these levels Point to remember satisfaction and dissatisfaction success and failure all relative to our recent experience Happiness and Others Attainments Happiness past experience and our comparisons with others Slow witted or clumsy only when others are smarter or more agile Relative deprivation sense that we are worse off than other with whole we compare ourselves wwII promotion rate increased frustrated when expectations soar above attainments the result is disappointment just as comparing ourselves with those who are better off creates envy so counting our blessing boosts our contentment how to be happier o happiness is influenced genetically diet and exercise enduring happiness may not come from financial success take control of your time act happy seek work and leisure that engage your skills join the movement sleep priority to close relationships focus beyond self count blessing and record gratitude o nurture your spiritual self 0 O O O O O O O O Predictors of Happiness Estimated 50 of the difference among people s happiness ratings is heritable Genes influence the personality traits that mark happy lives Satisfaction may rise or fall happiness can be influence by factors that are under control Studies of happiness remind us that emotions combine physiological activation left hemisphere especially expressive behaviorssmies conscious thoughts I was ready for that testgt and feelings pride satisfaction Fear anger happiness and so much else have this in common biopsychosocial phenomena Module 43 11302010 15200 AM Stress a nd Health Stress can bring on skin rashes asthma attacks high blood pressure increase our risk for serious illness and death Behavioral n39ieducme study how stress and healthy and unhealthy behaviors influence health and illness integrating behavioral and medical knowledge Health psychology provides psychology s contribution to behavioral medicine Stress a nd Illness Stress informally describes threats or challenges and our responses Example wheelchair getting driven Dangerous truck ride was a stresser Ben s physical and emotional responses we a stress reduction Process he related to the threat was stress Stress not just a stimulus or a response a process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges Arises less from events themselves than from how we appraise them Stressors can have positive effects when shortlived or perceived as challenges They can also threaten us and sever or prolonged may harm us Momentary stress can mobilize the immune system for fending off infections and healing wounds Stress also arouses and motivates us to conquer problems Adversity can beget growth Abused children are later at risk of chronic diseases Posttraumatic stress reactions heavy to combat suffer greatly elevated rates of circulatory digestive respiratory and infectious diseases Stress Response System Cannon stress responses part of a unified mindbody system extreme cold lack of oxygen and emotionarousing incidents all trigger stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the central core of adrenal glands Sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration diverts blood from digestions to muscles dulls pain and releases sugar and fat from storage to prepare the body for fight or flight Outer adrenal secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol Two systems work at different speeds epinephrinehanding out guns glucocorticoids drawing blueprints Withdraw pull back and conserve energy is common response to death of loved ones Some paralyzed when faced with an extreme disaster Seek and give support tend and befriend common for women Facing stress socially withdraw turn to alcohol or become aggressive men nurturing or banding together women oxytocin General adaptation syndrome GAS3 phase adaptive response to stress 0 Alarm reaction sudden activation of your sympathetic nervous system heart rate zooms blood diverted to muscles feel faintness of shocke now ready to fight the challengeereslstance temperature blood pressure and respiration remain high and sudden outpouring of hormones if persistent the stress may eventually deplete body s reserve59exhaustionmore vulnerable to illness or even collapse and death Body designed to cope with temporary stress prolonged stress can produce physical deterioration Women suffered stress as caregivers of disabled displayed symptom of aging process telomeres get too short cell can no longer divide and it ultimately dies Stressful Life Events c three types of stressors catastrophes significant life changes and daily hassles Catastrophes o Catastrophes are unpredictable largescale events war and natural disasters appraised as threatening o Healthy consequences can be significant o Stress is two fold trauma of uprootingancl family separation and the challenges of adjusting to a foreign culture s new language ethnicity climate and social norms Significant Llfe Changes Significant personal life change death of loved ones loss of a job leaving home marriage or divorce Life transitions and insecurities often felt during young adulthood Americans half under age 50 report frequent stress People widowed fired or divorced more vulnerable to disease Daily Hassles Happiness stems less from enduring good fortune than from our response to daily events hoped for medical result perfect score gratifying email team winning Negative events too everyday annoyances rushhour traffic aggravating housemates long lines too many things to do spam obnoxious cellphone talkers most significant sources of stress Little stressors can add up and take a toll on our health Hypertension high in impoverished areas inadequate income unemployment solo parenting overcrowding Europe hypertension high where people express least satisfaction with their lives Minority daily pressures may be compounded by racism both psychological and physical consequences 0 African Americas stress9 high blood pressure Stress and the heart Coronary disease closing of the vessels that nourish the heart elevated blood pressure is a factor than increases the risk 0 Leading cause of death Factors Hypertension family history smoking obesity highfat diet physical inactivity elevated cholesterol stress and personality Friedman and Rosenman study stress increases vulnerability to heart disease measure cholesterol and clotting speed of tax accountants began scramming to finish and cholesterol and clotting measures rose to dangerous levels after deadline returned back to normal Stress predicted heart attack risk Type A most reactive competitive harddriving impatient time conscious supermotivated verbally aggressive easily angered Type 8 more easy going Type A s toxic core is negative emotions especially anger Combat ready blood contain excess cholesterol and fat brought on by abrasiveness may trigger altered heart rhythm Hostility correlates with other risk factors Important minds and hearts interact Angerprone personalityasses verbal assertiveness and emotional intensity Spielberger and London rage seems to lash back and strike us in the heart muscle Pessimism seems to be similarly toxic Depression can be lethal unnatural causes and cardiovascular disease Stress disrupts immune system enabling body to focus energy on fleeing or fighting the threat Stress hormones enhance one immune response production of proteins contribute to inflammation Inflammation helps fight infections persistent can produce problems asthma clogged arteries depression Stress and Susceptibility to Disease Psychosomatic described psychologically caused physical symptoms 0 To laypeople implied symptoms were unreal merely psychosomatic Psyci iophysmlogical Illnessesto avoid connotations and to better describe the genuine physiological effects of psychological states hypertension and some headaches Psychoneuroimmunology PNljstudies how psychological neural and endocrine processes affect our immune system and how the factors influence our health and wellness Psychoneuroimmunology Nervous and endocrine systems influence immune system immune system defend body by isolating and destroying bacteria viruses and other foreign substances two types of white blood cells lymphocytes B lymphocytes form in bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections T lymphocytes form in thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells viruses and foreign substances even goodorgans macrophage big eater identifies pursues and ingests invaders natural killer cells pursue diseased cells age nutrition body temperature and stress influence isystem response too strong attack body tissue arthritis or allergic reaction underreaction allow dormant herpes to erupt or cancer cells to multiply women immunologically stronger than men more susceptible to self attacking diseases lupus and multiple sclerosis stress depresses immune system stress effect on immunity makes physiological sense Bottom line stress does not make us sick but it does alter out immune functioning making us less able to resist infection and more prone to heart disease Stress and AIDS AIDS 4th leading cause of death in the world 1St in Africa AIDS immune disorder caused by HIV which spreads by fluids When is becomes AIDS person has difficulty fighting off other diseases such as pneumonia Stress and negative emotions correlate with progression from HIV to AIDS and the speed of decline in those infected Small benefits compared to drugs but reducing stress can help control the disease ABC abstinence being faithful condom use Stress and Cancer Stress and negative emotion linked to cancer progression Stress weakens immune systemtumors developed sooner and grew larger After a year depression helplessness or bereavement increased risk for cancer Momentary stressnegligible persistent uncontrollable stress cost may become considerable Mind and body interact everything psychological is simultaneously physiological mental disorders arise from physical causes amp physical disorders arise from mental causes interplay between heads and health biopsychosocial systems Module 44 11302010 15200 AM Promoting Health o Health maintenance alleviates stress prevents illness and promotes wellbeing Coping with Stress o Need to cope with stress in our lives o Problemfocused coping address stressors directly Example family fight go directly to family member and work things out o Emotionfocused coping reaching out to friends to help our emotional needs if can t get along with family member Believe we can t change a situation Can be nonadaptive o Sometimes problemfocused more effectively reduces stress and promotes long term health and satisfaction o Factors that affect coping feelings of personal control our explanatory style and our supportive connections Perceived Control o Perceiving loss of control become more vulnerable to ill health o More control workers have longer they live o Control link between economic status and longevity o Economic status reduced ricks of infant mortality low birth weight smoking violence heart and respiratory diseases o Povertyphysiologically measurable stress even among children o Losing control provokes outpouring of stress hormones o Captive animal more stress and vulnerability to disease than wild Optimism and health o Optimists expect the best perceive more control cope better with stressful events and enjoy better health 0 Respond to stress with smaller increases in blood pressure and recover more quickly from heart bypass surgery o laughter is the best medicine Social Support o Soothing benefit greatest for highest quality marriages o Close relationships predict health o Middleaged and older adults who live alone are more likely to smoke be obese high cholesterol double risk of heart attacks o Environmental support stronger immune function Social support calms the cardio system lowering blood pressure and stress hormones Close relationships confide painful feelings open heart therapy Suppressing emotions can be detrimental to physical health Stress temporary arouse long run calms by calming the limbic system Managing stress Aerobic exercise biofeedback relaxation meditation and spirituality help gather inner strength and lessen stress effects Aerobic exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness Jogging swimming and biking are common examples Exercise and Mood Aerobic exercise can reduce stress depression and anxiety Vigorous exercise immediate mood boost Exercise is a useful adjunct to antidepressants and psychotherapy Exercise better prevents symptom recurrence Mood boosting chemicals norepinephrine epinephrine serotonin Emotional benefitsincreased warmth and body arousal or of the muscle relaxation and sounder sleep that occur after 0 Sense of accomplishment and improved physique Exercise and Health Exercise boosts and strengthens the heart increases blood flow keeps blood vessels open lowers blood pressure Better cognitive functioning and reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer s disease Inactivity is thus potentially toxic Less exercise less brain activitymotivation reward coping Moderate exercise adds quantity and quality to life Biofeedback Relaxation and Meditation Biofeedbackrecording amplifying and feeding back information about subtle physiological responses 0 Works bests on tension headaches Relaxation produce many similar results as biofeedback 0 Help alleviate headaches hypertension anxiety and insomnia Meditationdecrease blood pressure heart rate and oxygen consumption and raise finger temperaturerelaxation response 0 More lefthemi activity and improved immune functioning after meditation training Complementary and alternative medicine CAM includes relaxation acupuncture massage therapy homeopathy spiritual healing herbal remedies chiropractic and aromatherapy Domains of complementary and alternative medicine 0 Alternative medical systemsinstead of conventional medicine homeopathy traditional Chinese medicine ayurveda Mindbody systems enhance minds capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms meditation prayer mental healing therapies outlets art music or dance Biologically basednatural substances herbs foods vitamins Manipulative and bodybasedmanipulation of onemore parts of the body chiropractic osteopathic massage o Energybiofield and therapeutic touch affect energy fields that surround and penetrate the human body Bioelectromagneticpulsed or magnetic fields 0 O O Spirituality and Faith Communities Medical science matured healing and religion diverged belonging to a religious collective was associated with a strong protective effect social support helps explain the faith factor religion encourages another predictor of health and longevity marriage panic disorder 11302010 15200 AM Barlow psychology amp psychiatry founder of Center for Anxiety amp Related Disorders Most articles on the nature and treatment of emotional disorders He now continues to attempt to develop a deeper understanding of emotional disorders as well as improved treatments What got you interested Fascination developed in high school with why people do the things they do Many people had fears and anxieties focused on objects or situations even though they knew there was nothing to be afraid of neurotic paradox Real world impact clinicians and health services around the world have adopted our new treatments for panic and related disorders based on our deeper understanding of the nature of the chronic problems Panic disorder with agoraphobia condition in which people experience sudden surges of fear for no apparent reason at unpredictable times o Increased heart rate blood pressure muscle tension and other physical signs of flightfight syndrome panic attack if the fear is groundless Agoraphobia avoidant behavior Causes of Panic Disorder seems to be caused by an interaction of three factors triple vulnerabilities o 1 Biological vulnerability heritable contribution to negative affect 0 glass is half empty irritable driven o 2 Specific psychological vulnerability physical sensations are potentially dangerous 0 hypochondriac nonclinical panic o 3 Generalized psychological vulnerability sense that events are uncontrollableunpredictable o tendency toward lack of selfconfidence low selfesteem inability to cope Initially occur stressful events trigger panic attacks o Panic is a common reaction to stress Psychological treatments c 19805 physical problem some kind of brain dysfunction was thought to cause panic disorder Leading candidate chemical imbalance caused heightened sensitivity in the brain stem o 1990s ruled out as the sole cause it was agreed that biological and psychological factors contribute to onset panic disorder o drugs were the first choice of treatment 80s most popular drugs were highpotency tranquilizers Patients developed dependence o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs have become the preferred drugs for treating panic disorder o 1990 developed psychological treatment that focused directly on the sensitivity of these individuals to their own physical sensations such as fluctuating heart rate skin temperature and dizziness o Extinction sensations don t lead to terrible outcome heart attack o Calming techniques breathing and meditation to help cope with stress and anxiety o Cognitive behavioral approach panic control treatment PCT effective for panic disorder Combined psychological and pharmacological treatment o Combination treatment was not any better than the individual treatments o Preference was for psychological treatment because it is more durable and less intrusive o Drug treatment is a good alternative Keeping people healthy o Best strategy for maintaining longterm health after treatment o Advantage to having booster sessions
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