DEVELOPMENTAL PSYC PSYC 4070
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy Piaget s Approach to Cognitive Development 0 Infants How do they acquire knowledge 0 Through direct motor behavior 0 Le Infants learn by doing they touch taste smell etc o Differs from older individuals like us 0 We typically learn by have facts communicated to us 0 Piaget s Theory 0 Says children pass through series of universal stages 0 Stages are I Sensorimotor I Preoperational I Concrete operational I Formal operational o Says quotFixed order to stages cant skip any 0 Both Physical Maturation and Relevant Experiences allow movement between stages I With development infants experience changes in understanding about what cancan t occur in the world I Says development is a gradual process 0 Steady shift of behavior as child mores to next stage of cognitive development behavior changes as one cognitively advances o Sensorimotor Stage I Initially re exessenses determine interaction with world 0 ie they are the center of cognitive life 0 ex Sucking re ex suck provides information about objects Soon cognitive processes shift to curiosity of outside world 0 ie want to explore their environment Achieve object permanence during this stage 0 Object permanence infants realize objects exist even when they cannot be seen 0 Ex Previously if hid ball from their view it ceased to exist now ifyou try to hide it they will search for it Infants conduct miniature experiments with objects 0 Ex Will drop spoon several times 0 Each time they will observe the sounds it makesobserving what happens to it I That is bounces scares crap out of dog etc Near end of stage beginnings of thought emerge 1824 months I They form mental representations internal images ofpast eventspeopleobjects I This allows them to have memory for things like their toys friends and play activities Memory during Infancy Do infants have memory 0 Yes Know this because can distinguish a new stimuli from old Implies some memory Ex They can recognize familiar faces from new ones and will smile at familiar faces and express fear for new ones Memory increases with age 0 Ex Experiment with crib mobile and learning I Could move mobile by kicking leg I 2 month olds forgot after a few days6 month olds remembered for weeks Reminders cues hints work with infants but more effective with older infants 0 If they were shown a moving mobile it brought the memory back for them and they began to kick to move mobile Controversy over memory 0 Researchers disagree on age from which memories can be retrieved 0 Many cite quotInfantile amnesia I Lack of memory for experiences prior to age 3 I Some say they have memories for events prior to age 3 0 Current findings memories for personal experiences not accurate before 1824 months Forgetting 0 Why do we forget I Newer information may displaceblock outcorrupt older infomemories I Ie newer memories become incorporated and make older memories less valid I This is a problem with recovered memories in regards to victims of abuse also eyewitness testimony Intelligence 0 Earliest Measures ofIntelligence I Gesell studied several children of different ages I Determined behaviors typical for given ages I If child tested and did not perform behaviors typical for their age then diagnosed as atypical or DD 0 Gesell s Developmental Scales I Led to developmental quotient I DQ overall score related to performance in four domains OOO Language Allows us to convey thought to other Motor skills balance sitting walking Language use communication written vs spoken Adaptive behavior alertness exploration Personalsocial feeding dressing oneself interacting with others Scales help identify delayed individuals DD or ifa person was ahead ofpeers giftedadvanced Still used in determining DD and for state services 0 Give example of CAHSD job Scales don t tell us future course of development 0 Le if slow development at age 5 not necessarily so at age 12 or 25 thus must reevaluate development is uid 0 Can surmise that an association between infant and adult intelligence is minimal Development of Language Two Major Principles Linguistic Comprehension understanding of speech Linguistic Production use oflanguage to communicate o Comprehension precedes and outpaces production during infancy 0 Le 17 months can understand instruction to pick up toys not usually able to string two word together until later Infant expands comprehension at rate of 2 2 new wordsmonth World production expands at rate of 9 new wordsmonth Roots of Language Cooing crying gurgling murmuring 0 Fave way for true language Prelinguistic communication 0 Comm unication through sounds facial expressions gestures imitation and other nonlinguistic means 0 Babbli ng is prelingistic communication Making speechlike but meaningless sounds Starts at age 23 months Continues to age 12 months Repeat same vowel sounds over and over quoteeeeee Change pitch from high re ects excitement to low distress At 5 months expands to include consonants quotbeebee Is universal same in all cultures Interesting Aside when first babbling sounds in infants the babbling are sounds from every language after 6 months the babbling contains sounds only from language ofpeople around them 0 First words 0 1014 months may be around 9 months 1St words are uttered Typically are quotmamaquot quotdadaquot quotkittyquot dog At least 15 months typically know approximately 10 words Increases rapidly from 1624 months I Increase to approximately 500 words 1st word may be holophrases I Holophrase one word utterances that stand for whole phrases 0 Ex quotWetquot 0 Usually depends on conteXt but ifinfants standing in a strange way has distressed look and says quotWetquot probably is letting you known that heshe is wet and wants to be changed Infants will linkwords to form simple sentences maybe as early as 18 19 months but often around 24 months I EX quotMa come means Mama is coming I quotMe go sees Daddy with car keys and wants to leave Two year olds use Telegraphic speech I Speech in which words not critical to message are left out I Think about when you teXt message a friend 0 EX Lets get together at the Varsity at 630 9 becomes Dude Varsity 63 0 000 O O O Origins of Language Development 0 Learning Theory Approach 0 Language acquisition with basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning I EX Child says quotdaquot father hugs and praises child 0 Child will repeat the word 0 Children learn to speak by being rewarded for making sounds that approximate speech 0 Criticism of Theory I Doesn t adequately explain how to speak properly 0 Nativist Approach 0 Theory says language is innate uniquely a human ability 0 Individuals have genetically determined innate mechanisms I LAD Learning Acquisition Devise directs language development 0 Says capacity to speak emerges automatically with maturation 0 Theory supported by identification of specific gene related to speech production 0 Criticism of Theory Some primate can learn at least basics of language Interactionist Approach 0 O O Combines both Learning Theory and Nativist Approaches Says language development is a combo Genetically determined predisposition and environmental circumstances both teach language Course oflanguage development determined by language to which children are exposed and reinforced I So social factors experiences are key to development Chapter 3 Birth and the Newborn Infant Labor The Process of Birth Begins Labor typically begins p approx 266 days p conception Labor begins when hormones like oxytocin are released Uterus begins to contract Contractions force fetus slowly down birth canal 3 Stages of Labor Em Longest Stage Contractions are 810 minutes apart amp last about 30 seconds each Toward end of labor contractions come every 2 minutes amp last almost 2 minutes Transition Final part of Stage 1 Dilation of cervix 2 approx 10 centimeters Allows baby s head to pass thru cervix to birth canal g Stag Lasts usually 90 minutes or so Baby s head emerges further from mother Wea contraction This increases size of vaginal opening Crowning top of baby s head emerges from mother Stage 2 ends with complete passage of the baby Babyis neck can t support their head so that s Why it is important to hold the head g Stage Shortest stage lasts a few minutes Occurs when placenta amp umbilical cord expelled from mother Labor usually takes 1624 hours there are variations Longer for 15t time mothers shorter for subsequent births Why do babies cry at birth Spontaneous act allows them 2 clear uid from lungs Can then start to breathe on own APGAR Scale Standard measurement looks for indicators of good health in neonate newborn 5 Indicators 7 skin color being blue or pink and how much Pulse Grimace Activit muscle tone 7 flexin or resisti extension and Respiration Scores range from 0 7 2 on each indicator Low scores equate with more distress 7 Score under 7 10 might require help to start breathing 11 under 4 then neonate needs life saving intervention Anoxia Results from complications during birth process Restriction of oxygen ex Umbilical cord wrapped around neck of neonate If lasts a few minutes it can lead to cognitive deficits language delays even mental retardation Bonding Previously said bonding is necessary immediately postbirth for healthy development Now developmental psychologists say there is a lack of scientific evidence for this Not saying is not important just not as detrimental as originally thought No lingering reactions due to separation 7 even if occurred for several days Good news for those who adopt Birth Complications Infant mortality U S does not fair well when compared to other industrialized nations Some much poorer countries fair better US rate over 7 deaths per 1000 live births Some reasons why Premature Births Poor Prenatal Care E 39 Factors drug use poor nutrition etc Genetic Factors birth defects PretermPremature Infants Too Soon Too Small Born prior to 38 weeks following conception 1011 of all babies are born preterm Higher risk for illnessdeath One of the last organ systems to develop is the lungs premature lungs respiratory distress Weight determines extent of danger they face Especially if under 5pounds 5 ounces low birthweight Problems sometimes emerge later not as apparent at first 38 of preterm infants have mild problems calling for special education intervention by age 6 State Program Early Steps ST OT PT etc Early Steps 7 when infants are preterm there is follow up with a clinician to determine if they are behind Provides services such as speech therapy occupational therapy physical therapy At age 3 they move out of Early Steps into a different program Age of Viability Time at which an infant can survive prematurely Bc of med advances now at 22 weeks little over 5 months Low Birthweight Infants Under 225 pounds 50 die Strategies to help increase chance of survival Kangaroo Care holding baby skintoskin against parent s chesti helpful to development Massaging releases hormones helpful to weight gain muscle development ability to cope with stress Causes of Preterm and Low Birthweight Deliveries 2 50 are unexplained Poor nutrition of mother Stress level Added stress leads to release of hormones contractions and then early delivery Immaturity very young mothers are at risk of premature delive Women who become pregnant within 6 months of previous pregnancy are more likely to deliver premature or low birthweight infants Their reproductive system has not had a chance to recover Father s age matters wives of older fathers are more likely to have premature birth Postmature Infants Infants still unborn 2 weeks after mother s due date Face several risks Blood supply may be insufficient for nourishment less blood supply to brain of fetus Leads to brain dama e Labor becomes riskier because the fetus will be larger sometimes equivalent to a 1 month old Can do a C section or induce labor Cesarean Delive Intervening in the Process of Birth Over 1 millionyear Usually used with older women or if baby is in distress Distress indicated by elevated heart rate vaginal bleeding or breech birth head isn t first to come out Cord compressed lack of OZ Risks of Csection Higher risk of infection for mother obvious with surgery Breathing problems Hormones usually released during delivery and are helpful to the baby are not released Infant Mortali and Stillbirth Infant mortality Death within lst year of life Is declining inUS due to better health care promoting better prenatal care Stillbirth Delivery of a dead child Less than 1 in 100 Could be dead before delivery begins could have died during trip through birth canal Depression very common for parents Postpartum Depression lO of all new mothers Possibly caused by changes in hormones associated with pregnancy Brooke Shields high profile person who came out and talked about this experience Studies say children sense the depression act detached or withdrawn Postpartum Psychosis l in 500 of all new mothers Mom experiences a break with reality Ex think the child is possessed39 safety of child is serious issue Andrea Yates high profile person who drowned her children because she thought they were demons Physical F Meeting the Demands of a New 39 t Major organ systems sometimes get off to a rough start Liver doesn t always function properly jaundice yellowish tinge to eyes amp skin Treat jaundice with meds or put under uorescent lights or near sunny window Sensopy Capabilities Vision Can newborns see Yes to some extent Can differentiate different levels of brightness respond more positively to bright objects Can distinguish primary colors red blue yellow green 7 Prefer blue amp green Hearing Newborns can hear but like vision acuity is not as great will advance with age TouchI Taste Smell Respond to sweet amp sour tastes prefer sweet At birth taste smell amp touch are more developed than vision amp hearing Chapter 4 thsical T 39 t in Tnfancv lnf v 7 period of life from birth to age 2 Growth amp Stability Rapid pace over the first 2 years of life Ex By age 5 months birthweight has tripled If 6 pounds at birth would be 18 pounds by 5 months Eventually slows until adolescence when there is another time of rapid growth Weight gains usually matched by increases in height 4 Principles of Growth 1 Cephalocaudal growth that begins with head and upper body parts Head of baby much bigger than rest of body 2 Proximodistal growth from center of body outward Trunk of body grows before extremities then armslegs before fingers amp toes So trunk is longer than armslegs Also fingerstoes will look like nubs on handsfeet 3 Principle of Hierarchical Integration simple skills develop separately and independently of each other Simple skills later integrated into more complex skills Ex Grabs cup with hands and then grab with fingers pincer grasp 4 Principle of Independence of Systems different body systems grow and develop at different rates Nervous system is more developed at birth than body size and sexual characteristics matures in adolescence Nervous Svstem and Brain39 39 39 ofT 39 Nervous system 7 consists of brain amp spinal cord Have 100200 million at birth there are very few connections between neurons at birth Part of Why babies are so ierky at first Some people with certain NS diseases such as ALS they have degeneration of m yelin sheath 9 jerky robotic movements Neurons basic cells of nervous system Are like all other cells but they have the distinctive ability to communicate with each other Parts of the neuron 1 Cell body has nucleus 7 life center of nerve cell 2 Dendrites receive messages from other nerve cells 3 Axons opposite end of neuron from dendrites they send messages to other neurons Neurons don t touch each other gaps synaptic clefts Terminal buttons at end of axon emit chemical substance neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter is absorbed by the next neuron This allows for neural impulse to travel from 1 nerve cell to the next all the way up to the brain Brain processes info and sends message thru nerve cells back to organs EX the brain tells heart to beat faster or slower or muscles to act telling you to swat mosquito biting you 100200 billion neurons at birth produce more and more up to a certain point very few connections between the neurons We lose neurons throughout life I am sure some of you might kill a few tonight after class Varsity Chimes has good selection of beer Brain studies show that 90 year olds have significantly less neurons although there are still billions of them At birth few neural connections between neurons Why are infants movements unorganized amp clumsy Because few neural connections for transferring impulses to and from brain Brain is not fully developed cerebellum involved in motor coordination isn t developed yet Low muscle strength By adulthood more elaborate communicative network Single neuron can have 5000 connections to other neurons or body parts ALS 7 the myelin sheath on the axons starts to deteriorate and the people start to have very jerky movements Brain Development Brain triples in weight during first 2 years of life 34 of adult weight by age 2 Subcortical areas lower levels of brain breathing heart rate are the most developed at birth Cerebral cortex upper layer of brain higher order functions like thinking reasoning develops with time into the teens and early adulthood anironmental In uences on Brain 1quot 39 Brain development strongly influenced by environmental factors Cases of environmental deprivation Lack of stimulation leads to lack of brain development Wild Child Nell movie about environmental deprivation 7 some never fully recover Suggests unless infant receives certain level of early environmental stimuli during a sensitive period child likely to fail to develop capabilities that can never be fully remedied Bodily Systems Neonates on average sleep l6 l7 hoursday not all at once There are wide variations Sleep initially comes in spurts usually around 2 hours at a time With time they sleep more at night and for longer periods By 4 months usually 6 continuous hours per night Typically don t sleep thru night until end of lst year REMlike sleep similar but not same as adults Period of active sleep heart rate increases breathe rapidly eyes move backandforth 50 of total sleep for newborns decreases to l3 by 6 months Adults only 20 total sleep Do infants dream According to brain wave recordings NO not like those of adults Some say REM sleep in babies is involved in brain stimulation for growthdevelopment SIDS 7 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome When seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep Leading cause of death in children under age 1 l in 1000 infants in US Don t smother or choke just stop breathin Seems to be peaceful death little consolation Boys and AfricanAmerican are more at risk 7 not sure why Most occur between 25 months Backtosleep Less risk when placed on back not on stomach or side Helpful but to date nothing has been found to reliably prevent SIDS Motor Development Babies born with re exes Re ex involuntary automatic response to certain stimuli Represent behavior with survival value Ex Eye blink protects eye from too much direct light prevents damage to retina Moro startle extend arms and kick legs is activated when support for neck and head is suddenly removed Evolutionists say this primitive re ex is comparable to behavior seen in baby monkeys who fall off back of mothers extending arms 7 cling to tree branch to prevent falling Suckinngooting re ex food intake Babinski function is unknown wrgglrng extendmg oflhe toes Some re exes remain thru out life eyeblink and others disappear swimming reflex because we gain control 01 our muscles Reason they disappear voluntary control over behavior gain control over muscles r con professionals MotorT 39 t in lnfancv I andmarks of thsical A 39 39 Gross Motor Skills 3 months sits supported ex With pillow behind their back 6 months sits without support 68 months crawlin 9 months walking with support holds onto furniture 12 months walking without support Give or take a little bit Fine Motor Skills Infants seems to be able to reach at birth disappears at 4 weeksreappears 4 mos By 11 months they can manipulate fingers to be able to pick up small objects Cultural Factors and MotorDevelopment Cultural factors help determine the rate at which specific motor skills appear US Westem civilization typically walk around 12 months Ache people in South America infants remain close to mom don t walk until 23 months Kipsigis in Kenya put infants in holes so they are in upright position done so they can walk early they usually walk some weeks earlier than US infants Research shows that differences tend to disappear in early childhood and motor development gains of some are not usually maintained Has implications 9 some parents put children in programs so they Can be more advanced than peers Nutrition in Infancy Fueling Motor Development Good nourishment essential to healthy development Chronic malnourishment in infancy lower scores on IQ tests amp do less well in school WIC Women Infants Children government program Nonorganic Failure to Thrive Nonorganic implies that it is not physical condition Condition where children stop growing Not result of undernourishment Results from emotional factors Lack significant love and emotional support from parents Can be reversed through intensive parent training or foster home placement Rets disorder in women Healthy growth and then it stops Typically have mental retardation and severely impaired mobility Genetic component to that difference Obesity Weight 20 above the average for given height Has become an epidemic Consumption of high calorie foods and not getting enough exercise Both parents working now and not cooking wellbalanced meals Amount of time in PE has decreased to increase time in other subjects Prevalent Theory Overfeeding in infancy leads to excess of fat cells in body this then predisposes person to being overweight Development of the Senses Vision Infants vision less developed than adults See visual material at 20 feet that adults with normal vision see at 200600ft ie 110 to 13 of adult Develops quickly is identical to human vision 2020 at 6 months Depth perception can acknowledge heights and avoid falls Famous study with visual cliff 7 floor with checkerboard pattern 7 simulated a dropoff 7 infants crawling stayed away from the dropo Established that depth perception is developed as early as 6 months now some say earlier Shortly after birth preference for certain visual stimuli Curved over straight lines human faces over nonfaces Conclusion genetically preprogrammed for this response HOWEVER we know that not all preferences are genetically preprogrammed Shortly after birth they prefer mom s faces to other faces even dad s they see mom s face more often Auditogy Perception Sound Can discriminate between sounds as young as 1 month Can recognize voices attend to mother s voice over others Believed to be due to Prenatal Exposure Because they don t show preference for father s voice over other male voices Smell Well developed in infants can distinguish mother on basis of smell alone When offered mom s breast milk or breast milk of others they will choose mom s m Study found that taste preference based on what mom drank while they were in the womb m Infants experience pain In past MDs thought differently 7 they did surgical procedures without anesthesia Display distress at slower rate when first born than few months later hhhthx Do blood test on newborn infant prick the heel and there is distress response but it takes several seconds 7 only a few months later same procedure brings a much more immediate response WHY They have a less developed nervous system Until recently it was believed that people with mental retardation don t experience pain Less than 10 years ago this was occuring Psyc 4070 test 1 de nitions Chapter 1 lifespan development the eld of study that examines patterns of growth change and stability in behavior that occurs physical development development involving the body s physical makeup including the brain nervous system muscles senses and the need for food drink and sleep cognitive development development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities in uence a person s behavior I 39 d I involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span social development the way in which individuals interactions with others and their social relationships grow change and remain stable over the course of life bioecological approach the perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously in uence individuals cohort a group of people born at around the same time in the same place or more generally a class of people sharing similar characteristics history graded in uences in uences biological and environmental associated with a particular historical movement agegraded in uences biological and environmental in uences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group regardless of when or where they re raised socioculturalgraded in uences social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual continuous change gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels change at each stage is quantitative discontinuous change development that occurs in distinct steps or stages with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages critical period a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally sensitive period a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment but the absence of those stimuli doesn t always produce irreversible consequences maturation the predetermined unfolding of genetic information theories explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles psychodynamic perspective the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces memories and con icts that are generally beyond people s awareness and control psychoanalytic theory the theory proposed by Freud that suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior N E gt1 9 V39 9 Fquot 9 0 H o H o D ID I LAN 4 UI a id unorganized inborn part of personality present at birth represents primitive drives related to hunger sex aggression and irrational impulses operates on pleasure principle maximize satisfaction and reduce tension b ego part of personality that s rational and reasonable serves as buffer bw real world and primitive id reality principle maintain safety and integrate person into society c superego person s conscience incorporating distinctions between right and wrong 16 psychosexual development according to Freud a series of stages that kids pass through in which pleasure or grati cation is focused on a particular biological function and body part a f1xation behavior re ecting an earlier stage of development due to an unresolved con ict psychosocial development the approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society behavioral perspective the approach that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment classical conditioning a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally doesn t bring about that type of response 20 operant conditioning a form of learning in which a voluntary response is 4 J or 39 J by its 39 quot with positive or negative consequences 2l behavior modification a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones 22 socialcognitive learning theory learning by observing the behavior of another person called a model 23 cognitive perspective the approach that focuses on the processes that allow people to know understand and think about the world 24 information processing approaches the model that seeks to identify the ways individuals take in use and store info sociocultural theory the approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions bw members of a culture Vygotsky cognitive neuroscience approaches the approach that examines cognitive development through the lens of brain processes humanistic perspective the theory that contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior a selfactualization important concept it s a state of selffulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way evolutionary perspective the theory that seeks to identify behavior that s a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors scientific method the process of posing and answering questions using careful controlled techniques that include systematic orderly observation and the collection of data 30 hypothesis a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested 00 O N UI N O N l N 00 N O 3 l correlational research research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship bw two factors exist 32 experimental research research designed to discover causal relationships bw various factors 3 naturalistic observation a type of correlational study in which some naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation 4 cases studies studies that involve extensive indepth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals 35 survey research a type of study where a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes behavior or thinking on a given topic 36 experiment a process in which an investigator called an experimenter devises two different experiences for participants 37 independent variable the variable that researchers manipulate in an experiment 38 dependent variable the variable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as aresult of the experimental manipulation 39 sample the group of participants chosen for the experiment 40 field study a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting 41 laboratory study a research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant 42 applied research research meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems 43 longitudinal research research in which the behavior of one or more participants in a study is measured as they age 44 crosssectional research research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time 45 sequential studies research in which researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time 46 nature traits abilities and capacities inherited from one s parents 47 nurture refers to the environmental in uences that shape behavior 48 reinforcement process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated 49 punishment introduction of unpleasant or painful stimulus or removal of desirable stimulus to decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will occur in the future LA LA chapter 2 l gametes the sex cells from the mother and father that form a new cell at conception 2 zygote the new cell formed by the process of fertilization genes the basic unit of genetic info 4 DNA the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of every cell in the body and how it will function 5 chromosomes rodshaped portions of DNA that are organized into 23 pairs 6 monozygotic twins twins who are genetically identical E 9 gt1 t O O D ID ID ID I th I N H H H H H o o oo 1 o u N N N N L N 4 N UI N O N l N 00 N O dizygotic twins twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time dominant trait the one trait that s expressed when two competing traits are present recessive trait a trait within an organism that s present but it isn t expressed genotype the underlying combo of genetic material present but not outwardly visible in an organism phenotype an observable trait the trait that s actually seen homozygous inheriting form parents similar genes for a given trait heterozygous inheriting from parents different forms of a gene for a given trait polygenic inheritance inheritance in which a combo of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular trait xlinked genes genes that are considered recessive and located only on the X chromosome behavioral genetics the study of the effects of heredity on behavior and psychological characteristics down syndrome a disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21St pair once referred to as mongolism most frequent cause of MR fragile X syndrome a disorder produced by injury to a gene on the X chromosome producing mild to moderate mental retardation sicklecell anemia a blood disorder that gets its name form the shape of the red blood cells in those who have it TaySachs disease a disorder that produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death there is no treatment Klinefelter s syndrome a disorder resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome that produces underdeveloped genitals extreme height and enlarged breasts genetic counseling the discipline that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders ultrasound sonography a process in which highfrequency sound waves scan the mother s womb to produce an image of the unborn baby whose size and shape can be assessed chorionic villus sampling CVS a test used to find genetic defects that involves taking samples of hairlike material that surrounds the embryo amniocentesis the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic uid surrounding the unborn fetus temperament patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual multifactorial transmission the determination of traits by a combo of both genetic and environmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed fertilization the process by which a sperm and an ovum the male and female gametes join to form a single new cell germinal stage the first and shortest stage of the prenatal period which takes place during the first 2 weeks following conception 30 placenta a conduit between the mother and fetus providing nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord 3 l embryonic stage the period from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major organs and body systems 2 fetal stage the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth 33 fetus a developing child from 8 weeks after conception until birth 34 infertility the inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant 35 arti cial insemination a process of fertilization in which the man s sperm is placed directly into a woman s vagina by a physician 36 in vitro fertilization IVF a procedure in which a woman s ova are removed from her ovaries and a man s sperm are used to fertilize the ova in a lab 37 fetal alcohol syndrome FAS a disorder caused by the pregnant mother consuming substantial quantities of alcohol during pregnancy potentially resulting in mental retardation and delayed growth in the child 8 fetal alcohol effects FAE a condition in which children display some although not all of the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome due to the mother s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy 39 mitosis replication of most types of cells 40 miscarriage spontaneous abortion 4l teratogen can be a drug chemical virus etc that produces a birth defect LA LA chapter 3 l neonate the term used for newborns 2 episiotomy an incision sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass 3 Apgar scale a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns 4 anoxia a restriction of oxygen to the baby lasting a few minutes during the birth process which can produce brain damage 5 bonding close physical and emotional contact between parent and child during the period immediately following birth argued by some to affect later relationship strength 6 preterm infants infants who are born prior to 38 weeks after conception also known as premature infants 7 lowbirthweight infants infants who weigh less that 2500 grams at birth around 5 12 lbs 8 smallforgestationalage infants infants who because of delayed fetal growth weigh 90 percent or less of the average weight of infants of the same gestational age 9 verylowbirthweight infants infants who weigh less than 1250 grams around 2 1A lbs or regardless ofweight have been in the womb less than 30 weeks 10 postmature infants infants still unborn 2 weeks after the mother s due date 11 cesarean delivery a birth in which the baby is surgically removed from the uterus rather than traveling through the birth canal 12 fetal monitor a device that measures the baby s heartbeat during labor 13 stillbirth the delivery of a child who is not alive occurring in less than 1 delivery in 100 14 infant mortality death within the first year of life 15 re exes unleamed organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli 16 habituation the decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus 17 states of arousal different degrees of sleep and wakefulness through which newborns cycle ranging form deep sleep to great agitation 18 age of viability time at which an infant can survive prematurely 22 weeks chapter 4 1 cephalocaudal principle the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins w the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body 2 proximodistal principle the principle that development proceeds from the center of the body outward 3 principle of hierarchical integration the principle that states simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills 4 neuron the basic cell of the nervous system 5 synapse the gap at the connection bw neurons through which neurons chemically communicate with one another 6 myelin a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses 7 cerebral cortex the upper layer of the brain 8 plasticity the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience 9 sensitive period a specific but limited time usually early in an organism s life during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental in uences relating to some particular facet of development 10 rhythms repetitive cyclical patterns of behavior 11 state the degree of awareness that an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation 12 rapid eye movement REM sleep the period of sleep that s found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming 13 sudden infant death syndrome SIDS the unexplained death while sleeping of a seemingly healthy baby 14 re exes unleamed organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli 15 dynamic systems theory a theory of how motor skills develop and are coordinated 16 norms the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age 17 18 19 20 21 22 Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale NBAS a measure designed to determine infants 39 39 r to their environment nonorganic failure to thrive a disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting sensation the physical stimulation of the sense organs perception the sorting out interpretation analysis and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs and brain multimodal approach to perception the approach that considers how info that s collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated affordances the action possibilities that a given situation or stimulus provides chapter 5 1 scheme an organized pattern of functioning that adapts and changes during development 2 assimilation the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking 3 accommodation changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events 4 sensorimotor stage of cognitive development Piaget s initial major stage of cognitive development which can be broken down into six substages 5 goaldirected behavior behavior in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem 6 object permanence the realization that people and objects exist even when they can t be seen 7 mental representation an internal image of a past object 8 deferred imitation an act in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act 9 informationprocessing approaches the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in use and store info 10 memory the process by which info is initially recorded stored and retrieved 11 infantile amnesia the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age 12 developmental quotient an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains motor skills language use adaptive behavior and personalsocial Gesell 13 Bayley Scales of Infant Development a measure that evaluates an infant s development from 2 to 42 months 14 language the systematic meaningful arrangement of symbols which provides the basis for communication 15 babbling making speechlike but meaningless sounds 16 holophrases oneword utterances that stand for a whole phrase whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used 17 telegraphic speech speech in which words not critical to the message are left out ex text messaging 18 underextension the overly restrictive use of words common among children just mastering spoken language 19 overextension the overly broad use of words overgeneralizing their meaning 20 referential style a style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects 21 expressive style a style of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others 22 learning theory approach the theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning 23 nativist approach the theory that a genetically determined innate mechanism directs language development 24 universal grammar Noam Chomsky s theory that all the world s languages share a similar underlying structure 25 languageacquisition device LAD a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language 26 infantdirected speech a type of speech directed toward infants characterized by short simple sentences chapter 6 1 stranger anxiety the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person 2 separation anxiety the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs 3 social smile smiling in response to other individuals 4 social referencing the intentional search for info about others feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events 5 selfawareness knowledge of oneself 6 theory of mind knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and how it in uences behavior 7 empathy an emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of another person 8 attachment the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual 9 Ainsworth strange situation a sequence of staged episodes that illustrate the strength of attachment between a child and typically his or her mother 10 secure attachment pattem a style of attachment in which children use the mother as a kind of home base and are at ease when she is present when she leaves they become upset and go to her as soon as she returns 11 avoidant attachment pattem a style of attachment in which children do not seek proximity to the mother 12 ambivalent attachment pattem a style of attachment in which children display a combo of positive and negative reactions to their mothers 13 disorganizeddisoriented attachment pattem a style of attachment in which children show inconsistent often contradictory behavior 14 mutual regulation model the model in which infants and parents learn to communicate emotional states to one another and to respond appropriately ON N N N N 4 N reciprocal socialization a process in which infants behaviors invite further responses from parents and other caregivers which in turn bring about further responses from the infants personality the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another Erikson s theory of psychosocial development the theory that considers how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of other siand their ownibehavior trust vs mistrust stage according to Erikson the period during which infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caregivers autonomy vs shame and doubt stage the period during which according to Erikson toddlers aged 18 months to 3 years develop independence and autonomy if they are allowed the freedom to explore or shame and selfdoubt if they are restricted and overprotected temperament patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual easy babies babies who have a positive disposition their bodily functions operate regularly and they are adaptable difficult babies babies who have negative moods and are slow to adapt to new situations when confronted with a new situation they tend to withdraw slowtowarm babies babies who are inactive showing relatively calm reactions to their environment their moods are generally negative and they withdraw from new situations adapting slowly goodnessoff1t the notion that development is dependent on the degree of match between children s temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised gender the sense of being male or female Chapter 1 An t 39 quot to T 39 Across the Life Span Life span development major concern 1 1 growth amp change during the course of life also how they remain stable personality Ex When holding a baby you have to support their head because they don t have the muscle strength and coordination to keep it up on the 39 own Ex Phineas Gage was a mild mannered guy before he got a railroad stake thru his head then he became hard to tolerate Life spanDevelopmental Psychologists study how both BIOLOGICAL INHERITAN CE genesamp ENVIRONMENT jointly affect behavior NATURERole of genetics attempt to understand how genetic background can determine ow we lookphysical appearance such as hair color and eye color how we behave how relate to others in a consistent manner personality NURTURE Role of environment attempt to understand how the environment impacts us I For example why we behave the way we behave Examine how early environments amp current circumstances shape amp in uence behavior Ie if we grow up in a home witnessing aggressions do we act aggressively Some Developmentalists focus on heredity some on environment most acknowledge that MUST study joint effects of the interaction of heredity amp environment to acct for full range of human development amp change ORIENTATION to LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Lifespan Development field of study that examines pattern of r n stability in 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quot39 39 39 thru out the entire life span Major Assumption In some ways people continue to grow amp change right up tothe end of life while in other respects they remain stable Characteri7in T ifesnanT 39 The Scope of the Field Developmentalists focus on In some ways people continue to grow right to the end of life and remain stable in some other ways 1 physical development examine ways in which body s makeup brain CNS senses helps determine behavior Ex Study reaction time physical performance in individuals over the course of the life span In early life your nervous system is not that developed Reaction time gets faster through life but slower when you get old Leads to certain events when you get results like Mandatory Retirement Age for pilots 2 cognitive development examine ways in which growth and change in intellectual capabilities in uence a person examine learning memory problemsolving and intelligence Ex lIight want to see how intelligence changes over the course of life Last in brain to develop is pre frontal cortex logic 3 personality development study stability amp change in characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span Ex Might study whether introversion is a stable characteristic thruout life or if there is change 4 social development 7 study individuals interactions wothers amp if social relationships growchange or remain stable over the course of life Ex Might study the effects of divorce on development and relationship formation Friendships 7 do children who grow up in divorced homes have more difficulty creating relationships than other children in married homes Age Ranges and Individual Differences usually specialize in a particular topical area cog phys social typically look at a particular age range adolescence Life span usually divided into broad age ranges prenatal period conception to birth infancy and toddlerhood birth to age 3 preschool period ages 3 to 6 middle childhood ages 6 to 12 adolescence ages 12 to 20 young adulthood ages 20 to 40 middle adulthood ages 40 to 60 late adulthood age 60 to death Age ranges are arbitrary Other researchers tre different ages to this so don t need to know the age ranges KEY ISSUES in the FIELD 1 Critical and Sensitive Periods critical period 7 specific time in development when an event has its greatest consequences presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally Ex RubellaGerman measles in 11 11 week of pregnancy consequences blind deaf MR mental retardation Damage unlikely if strikes in 303911 wk ofpreg Romanian orphanages no emotional support caring Difficulties forming attachments rejected bonds with parents limited speech skills Early developmentalists placed lots of emphasis on idea of criticalperiods Current thinking suggests individuals R are m ore 7 flexible Ie increasing evidence tells us that people can use later experiences to their benefit and helping them overcome earlier deficitsDoesn t have to have immediate bonding prematures Thus developmentalists now are likely to speak of sensitive periods sensitive periods 7 point in development when organisms R particularly susceptible 2 certain kinds of stimuli but absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences Ex Adoption 2 Lifespan Approaches vs Focus on Particular Periods On which part of the life span should developmentalists focus their attention Early developmentalists focused on infancy amp adolescentsamp largely excluded other parts of life span Ex Freud s theory ofr p Believed 4 r ended in adolescence Piaget as well Currently belief is that entire life span is important reason being is that we now understand that developmental growthchange continues during every part of life Developmentalist Paul Bates says development across the life span involves both gains and losses ie as age increases certain capabilities become refined while others involve loss of skill and capacity Ex Vocab tends to grow thru out childhd and cont thru most of adulthd Certain physical capabilities such as reaction time improve until early and middle adulthood then begin to decline 3 In uence of Nature and Nurture on Development Controversy how much of people s behav is due to nature genetics amp how much is due to nurture environment Nature traitsamp abilities inherited from l s parents Nature influences whether our eyes R blue or brown39 whether we have thick hair R go bald etc Nurture refers 2 environmental influences that shape behavior Some environmental influ R biological preg woman using cocaine and what it does 2 developing fetus Some may be social effects of peer pressure on adolesbehav Most dvelopmentalists reject the either0r and accept hat behavior is the result solely of a combo of nature amp nurture Thus focus is on degree of influence how much of influ is genetics amp how much is environmt Theoretical I on I ifesnan 1quot 5 Major Theoretical Perspectives N Lifespan Development more than one theory can comprise a perspective 1 Psychodynamic Perspective Focusing on the Inner Person Frued s Psychoanalytic Theogv States that personality ampbehav motivated by Inner forces Memories Unconscious conflicts Inner forces continually influence behav thru out the life span the inner forces in uenced by certain events thru childhd Every personality has 3 aspects part of personality present at birth represents primitive drives related to hunger sex aggression and irrational impulses Operates on pleasure principle maximize satisfaction and reduce tension ggg part of personality that is rational amp reasonable Serves as buffer bt real world amp id Reality principle maintain safety and integrate person into society superego person s conscience incorporating distinctions between right and wrong Erikson s Psychosocial Theogy Focus of this theory is social interaction wother ppl Understanding of others and ourselves in relationship to others Emotional and social development 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development Stages emerge in fixed patterns amp are similar for all people Each stage presents crisis are conflict that individuals must resolveiintrm airy versus isolation 7 young adulthood Erikson suggested that growthchange continued throughout the life span unlike Freud who said relatively complete by adolescence 2 Behavioral Perspective Focusing on Observable Behavior Behavioral Perspective keys 2 p behavior amp stimuli in environment views nurture as more important to development than nature people are assumed to be affected by environmental stimuli to which they are exposed Important Figures Pavlov Watson Skinner SocialCognitive Learning Theogy Learning thru Imitation Emphasizes learning by observing behavior of another person a model thru a system of rewards and punishments Albert Bandura said a significant amount of behavior is learned by observing behavior of others thus in uenced in the environment Rewards and meishments were not shown in the experiment 3 Cognitive Perspective Examining the Roots of Understanding Focus is on processes that allow people toknowunderstandthink aboutthe world Emphasizes how people internally represent and think about the world Piaget s Theory of Cognitive 1 He said all people pass in fixed sequence thru a series of stages of cog development 1 1 Said as people advance stages not only does quantity of info increase but qualitv of knowledge amp changes as well Te become more sophisticated in way you think amp process info Information Processing Approaches Grew out of developments in electronic processing of info computers This approach seeks to identify ways individuals take inusestore info Ex Children are assumed to have ltd capacity for processing info ampas they develop they use sophisticated strategies that allow them to process info more efficientlydesktop vs supercomputer desktop is much more limited in its functioning just as younger people are more limited in their processing compared to older people Vygotsl y s Sociocultural Theogy Says cog development proceeds as a result of social interactions bt members of a culture le children s understanding of world is acquired thru their problemsolving interactions with adults and other children For example learns to tie a shoe by watching other childrenadults tie their shoes Thus people influence a child who in turn in uences people I Creates a loop where children are recipients of socialization influences amp sources of in uence Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches Examines cog development through lens of brain processes Cognitive neuroscientists seek to identify functions of certain areas of the brain amptheir impact on cognitive activity Ex hippocampus Involved in memory Done through brain mapping amp imaging 4 Humanistic Persnective39 F t quot 0n the Unique Qualities ofHuman Beings These theories focus on unique qualities of human beings Says people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior These theories are used to help us understand why people make the choices and decisions they do amp not make others These theories are useful in research on differences in motivation achievementsuccess orientations identity amppurpose in life etc A l 5 39 y Persnective39 39 39 Our Ancestors Contributions to Behavior Theories that seek to ID behavior that is result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors Says genetic inheritance not only determines physical traits but personality traits and social behavior as well le certain personality traits are genetically predisposed Twin studies show that genes do effect some personality traits no matter what environment they grow up in Summa of Approaches No one approach is the only right approach Each provides different point of view amp way of thinking Research Methods Scientific method 7 process of asking amp answering questions using controlled techniques includes systematic orderly observation amp collection of data Involves forming theories explanationspredictions about phenomena of interest Form hypotheses 7 a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested Choosing a Research Strategv Answering Questions 2 major categories of research correlational and experimental research I Correlational research research seeks to identify Whether association or relationship between 2 factors exists Establishes a relationship but not a causal one Ex Viewing aggressive television content amp acts of aggression Can t assume causality only association ie can t conclude that viewing televised aggression causes more aggressive behavior of the viewers only that they are associated 2 Experimental research designedto discover causal relationships between various factors Experiment 7 process in which investigatorexperimenter devises 2 different experiences known as conditions or treatments 4 participants Independent variable 7 the variable that researchers manipulate in an experiment Dependent variable 7 the variable that researchers measure in experiment amp expect tochange as a result of experimental manipulation Ex New drug Moj o to treat sexual dysfunction One group Group A gets the drug The other group Group B doesn t Measure reports of sex activity at end of 3 months of drug use Which group is experim entaltreatment group0ne With mojo control group one Without mojo What is the DV Sexual activityWhat is the IVIIojo drug Measuring Developmental Change Longitudinal Studies Measuring Individual Change Longitudinal research 7 Research in which behavior of l or participants in a study is measured as they age can last for years one such study started in late l92OSearly 305 by Terman to study children with high IQs study has provided info from intellect accomplishment topersonality to longevity provide wealth of info about change over time have several drawbacks tremendousinvestment of time bc must wait for people to age costly people drop out of the study bc lose interest move become ill or die Crosssectional research Research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time Provides info on diffs in developmentbetween different age groups Drawbacks cohort efr of info about change in individuals Cohort effects looking at intelligence we find that people aged 25 perform better than those aged 75 Is this because of decreased intelligence in older people Is probably more a result of the fact that members of the older cohort were less likely to have amount ampor quality of formal education than 25 year olds had Selective dropout participants in some age groups may be more likely to quit participating in study than others This skews data Crossseguential Studies Researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time ls combo of longitudinal amp crosssectional that combines advantages of both Chapter 2 The Start of Life Genetics and Prenatal Development Earliest Development We start as a single cell Created when male reproductive cell sperm pushes thru the membrane of the female reproductive cell ovum Sperm cell and ovum are known as gametes Hr p sperm enters the ovum two gametes fuse and become one cell a zygote Gametes contain huge amts of gen info When combined it is estimated that there are over 2 billion chemcoded messages that determine so much of what the resulting individual will be Genes and Chromosomes The Code ofLife Genes basic unit ofgen info blueprints for indiv are stored on genes Approx 25000 human genes Genes are composed of DNA molecules Arranged in spec locationsamp in spec order along 46 chromosomes which are arranged in 26 pairs Sex cells ova and sperm contain 2 this no these cells only receive one of two chromosomes that make up each pair So a child s father and mother each provide one of the two chromosomes in each of the 23 pairs Which member of the pair is contributed is largely a matter of chance are actually some 8 mill diff combos poss 46 chromo in 23 pairs in the new zygote contain the gen blueprint that will guide cell activity for the rest of the individ s life Mitosis replication of most types of cells allows nearly all the cells of the body to contain the same 46 chromosomes as the zygote spec genes determine which cells will become part of the heart and which will become part of the muscles of the leg etc they est how diff parts of the body will function how fast the heart will beat or how much strength a muscle will have Multiple Births Less than 3 of all pregnancies produce twins Less chance for 3 or more chi dren Multiple births occur when l A cluster of cells in the ovum split off within the first two weeks of fertilization results in monozygotic twins who are genetically identical bc they come from the same original zygote O 2 Two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time Bc they result from 2 separate ovumsperm combos no more genetically similar than two sibs born at diff times 7 dizygotic twins Can also have triplets quads or more Triplets may be some combo of monozygotic dizygotic or trizygotic Incidence of multiple birthsincreases with the use of fertility drugs is more common in some families and in older women who are pregnant BoV or Girl T quot 39 the Sex of the Child 23 matched pairs of chromosomes in all but one pair each chromosome is similar to the other member of its pair The 23quoti pair is the one that determines the sex of the child In females 23quoti pair consists of 2 matching large Xshaped chromosomes In males 23quoti pair consists of dissimilar members one is aX shaped and the other is a Yshaped chromosome Female s 23quoti pair are both Xs so ovum will always carry an X chromosome Male s 23quoti pair is XY so ea sperm could carry either X or Y chromosome If sperm contributes a Y the child will be male If contributes an X the child will be female Basics of Genetics Mixing and Matching of Traits What determined the color of your hair or your eye color Genetics Gregor Mendel crosspollinated pea plants He recognized the basics of genetic transmission of traits Dominant traiti l trait expressed when 2 competing traits are present Recessive traiti Trait within organism present but not expressed Genetic material from both parents is present in offspring even though it cannot be seen Gen info is known as the organism39s genotyge Genotype underlying combo info from both parents of genetic material present but outwardly invisible Phenotype is the observable trait the trait that is actually seen Genes form pairs called alleles a leel homozygous allele occurs if the genes in the pair are similar heterozygous allele occurs if the genes in the pair are dissimilar in this case the dominant gene is expressed Brown eyes or blue eyes Brown is dominant If it is present it will be expressed If no dom gene was contributed but only a recessive allele from ea parent then bc no dom characteristic reces characteristic blue eyes is expressed Transmission of Genetic Information Text pg 53 PKU 7 phenylketonuria inherited disorder in which child cant make use of the amino acid phenylalanine which is found in certain foods like milk eggs bread etc Phenylketonuria PKU is the condition in which a baby can39t break down the amino acid phenylalanine PKU is the inherited disorder we discussed It occurs when both parents pass on the recessive trait that leads to expression of the disorder due to the offspring missing an enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase needed to break down an amino acid phenylalanine found in many common foods that contain protein Without the enzyme levels of phenylalanine and two closely related substances build up in the body These substances are harmful to the central nervous system and cause brain damage usually leading to mental retardation by the end of the first year of life Results in a buildup of PKU lead to toxic levels that cause brain damage and mental retardation PKU caused by a single allele or pair of genes P dominant gene that allows normal production of phenylalanine p carries recessive gene that produces PKU Scenario 1 If neither parent is a PKU carrier then their pair of genes is PP and no matter which gene they contribute to the offspring the resulting pair of genes in the child will be PP and the child will not inherit PKU Scenario 2 If one of the parents has a recessive p gene then that parent would be symbolized as Pp The other parent is not a carrier and again would be symbolized as PP Result would be that no child will inherit PKU although two in four will carry the recessive gene Scenario 3 If both parents have a recessive p gene both parents are symbolized as Pp Result is that l in 4 children will inherit two dominant genes and will not have PKU 2 in 4 will inherit one recessive gene and be a carrier of the recessive gene but not be af icted with PKU and l in 4 will have PKU Polygenic Traits Transmission of PKU is a good way to explain genetic transmission although it is simpler than most cases of genetic transmission Relatively few traits are governed by a single pair of genes Most are result of polygenetic inheritance Polygenetic inheritance inheritance in which a combo of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular trait The Human Genome and Behavioral Genetics Cracking the Genetic Code In 2001 molecular biologists succeeded in mapping the specific sequence of genes on each chromosome Discovered the number of human genes to be 25000 Behavioral genetics Study the effects of heredity on behavioral 8 psychological characteristics Behavioral geneticists study things as psycho disorders such as depression ADHD and schizophrenia and look for behavioral links Hope is that if genetic links found then possible way to remedy the associated genetic defects could be found Inherited and Genetic Disorders When Development Goes Awry PKU is one several disorders that may be inherited Recessive genes are responsible for a disorder May be passed on unknowingly from one generation to the next Is revealed only paired with another recessive gene Reasons why Genetic Disorders Occur Genes may become physically damaged Break down due to wearand tear Spontaneous mutation gene changes forme no known reason Environmental factors exposure to X rays may produce malformation of genetic material Whatever the cause the results can be disastrous for physical and cognitive development Some Inherited Genetic Disorders Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 extra chromosome on the let pair Most frequent cause of mental retardationRisk higher in especially young or older mothersVery proue early onset of Alzheimer39s in 505 instead of 80 s something wrong with 21m chromosome implicates early onset Alzheimel s Fragile X Syndrome occurs when a particular gene is injured on the X chromosome Result is mild to moderate mental retardation Sickle Cell Anemia 110 ofAfrican Americans are carriers and 1 in 400 have the disease It39s a blood disorder Symptomsp00r appetite stunted growth swollen stomach yellowish eyes especially a ects AA TaySachs disease Symptoms Blindness and muscle degeneration Death usually occurs before school age Common among Eastern European Jewish people and French Canadians CajunsMigralion and horrible living condil ions without health care caused many to die leaving orphans Orphan trains operated for 50 years Move these kids from Cities and have them adopted all over the country more agricultural where high need for work 9 south Louisiana Genetic Counseling Predicting the Future from the Genes of the Present Genetic counselors use data family history etc to help determine the risks involved in future pregnancy PrenatalTesting Ultrasound sonogaphy amniocentesis etc Facts laid out options discussed up to the parents to decide how to proceed Screening for Future Problems Test people to identify if at risk for future disorders due to genetic abnormalities Can alert someone to the presence of the awed gene that produces Huntington39s disease Stud 39ng Development How Much Is Nature How Much Is Nurture Physical Traits Family Resemblances More genetically similar 2 people are more likely are to share phys characters tall parents have tall children Less obvious physical characteristics show strong genetic in uence BP Blood Pressure respiration rates age at death are more similar in closely related individuals than in those less genetically alike More Research More f Genetics is an important in uence on intelligence Increases with age dizygotic fraternal twins IQ scores less similar as move from infancy to adolescence The opposite is true for monozygotic identical twins Controversial subject Iensen s findings stated that as much as 80 of intelligence is a result of heredity other controversies Remember while heredity is important environment factors exposure to books good educational experiences etc are also in uent39 rpnprir and quot 39 on Identical twins raised apart certain person traits re ect the contribution of genetics more than others neuroticism degree of emotional stability and extroversion degree to which a person seeks to be with others Environmental factors also affect personality EX Some settings encourage higher activity others passivity r um I The RoleofGenetiCS Evidence that schizo brought about by genetic factors Most telling Can see multiple family members with schizophrenia Disorder runs in families some families greater propensity Monozygotic twin close to a 50 chance of developing schizowhen the other twin develops the do Niece nephew of a person with schizophrenia only a 5 chance However not genetics alone If so then 100 of identical twins would get the disease when the other twin evidenced it Other factors structural abnormalities of the brain biochemimbalance Schizophrenia predisposition present at birth but schizo typ does not evidence itself until adolescence or young adulthood Environment has in uence quotDoublebind communicationquot ii39only genetics than 100 of identical twins would get it not 50 People with schizophrenia usually live in these bad environments Government pays for programs where patients go to a hospital and get therapy and help to get them out of the home9 reduces the number of sch39Lzophrenic breaks Other disorders with strong genetic in uence Depression ETOHism Autism Prenatal Growth and Change Fertilization The Moment of Conception Fertilization 7 conception joining of sperm an ovum to create singlecelled zygote from which life begins The Stages of Prenatal Period The Onset of Development Prenatal period consists of 3 phases germinal embgonic and fetal stages Germinal Stage Fertilization to 2 Weeks after fertilization Germinal stage 7 l amp shortest stage of prenatal period Takes place during the first 2 weeks following conception During this stage Fertilized egg travels to uterus and is implanted in uterine wallzygote Rapid cell divisionrapid growth Emb onic Stage 2 to 8 Weeks During this stage Organism now called embryo Development of major organs and basic anatomy Head and brain undergo rapid growth Growth of nerve cells neurons is rapid about 100K every minute during the 2nd month of life I Nervous system begins to function 5 week Fetal Stage 8 Weeks to Birth Not until this stage that the child becomes recognizable During this stage Organism called a fetus Differentiation of the major organs Astoundineg rapid change increases in length some 20 times proportions change dramatically at 2 months 12 the fetus is what will ultimately be the head at 5 mos head accts for just over a 14 of total size wt increases substantiall Organs become more differentiated and start to work ex by 3 months fetus swallows and urinates Brain becomes increasing sophisticated hemispheres develop interconnections bt nerve cells become more complex neurons become coated withm e 39 Fetus will be able to hear and sense the vibrations of sounds Miscarriage Miscarriage quotspontaneous abortionH Embryo detaches from the uterine wall and is expelled Occurs in 1520 of all pregnancies Typically attributable to genetic abnormality The Prenatal anironment Threats to T Teratogen can be a drug chemical virus etc that produces a birth defect German measles Have their greatest impact at times of rapid development Placenta supposed to keep teratogen from reaching fetus 7 if does not then birth defect occurs Have greatest impact during periods of rapid prenatal development Differing organ systems are more susceptible at different times 7 Brain more susceptible 1525 days after 39 women don7t know they re pregnant at this point Heart 2040 days Mother39s Diet Less healthy amp nutritious diet more complications 2elivery tends to be more difficult amp baby not as healthy Can be complications if mother s diet is less healthy and nutritious Dietary supplementsenriched environment p birth can reverse some of problems caused by poor maternal diet Mother39s Age Women giving birth later in life Increased risk of complications premature birth low birth weight Down syndrome of 100 babies born to mothers over age 40 have Down syndrome There is a test to see if it is likely Problems assoc with young age of mother as well premature delivery higher infant mortality rate Mother39s Health Case of Rubella Chicken pox may produce birth defectsexpectant mothers who come down with chicken pox could have birth defects Mumps may increase risk of miscarriage Sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis can be passed to the fetus Gonorrhea communicated by passage thru birth canal HTVEAlDS can be transmitted to child If AZT is administered during pregnancy less than 5 are born with disease AZT is a lot of times delivered to women in Africa for free Mother39s Drug Use Legalillegal drugs pose health risks Even OTC meds aspirin can have negative consequences Aspirin fetal bleeding amp growth impairments Thalidomide l950smorning sickness serious birth defects 7 babies were born with stumps instead of arms and legs Marijuana decreased 02 to the fetus 7 learning amp memory deficits Cocaine restriction in arteries reduction in blood flow and 02 leads to birth defects and developmental disabilities Babies are often born addicted and go thru withdrawal are shorter and weigh less have respiratory problems seizures A sign of mental retardation distinct high pitched cry hypervigilanteasily startled Mother39s Use ofAlcohol and Tobacco Alcohol F AS 7 fetal alcohol syndrome consuming substantial quantities of alcohol during pregnancy Potential results mental retardation and delayed growth F etal Alcohol EffectsFAE even small amounts of alcohol place the child at risk Studies have found that maternal consumption of just 2 alcoholic drinks a day during pregnancy is assoc with lower IQ Consequences are thought to be long lasting Tobacco Tobacco use Reduces OZ Slows respiration rate Speeds up heart rate Increase risk of miscarriage Higher likelihood of death during infancy Annually 115K miscarriages and 5600 deaths related to tobacco usesmoking Smoking while pregnant babies have 7 Lower birthweight Shorter in height More likely to have MR Do Fathers Affect the Prenatal 39 9 Father39s smoking sec0ndhand smoke influences mom s healthhealth of the unborn child lower birthweight Alcohol and drug use impairs sperm Chromosomal damage that affects the fetus at conception birth defects Environmental toxins at the workplace lead or mercury may impair sperm also Physically or emotionally abusive fathers can damage their unborn children directly cause physical damage or indirectly increases maternal stress Chapter 6 Social and Personality Development in Infancy Emotions in Infancy 0 Infants display facial expressions 0 This is indicative of emotional stress 0 Ex Smile pleasure contentment feel full etc frown pain discomfort etc 0 Conclusions from research 0 We are born with capacity to display basic emotions 0 Infants display similar emotions interest disgust anger surprise as adults 0 Emotions are similar but degree of expressivity varies among infants cultures 0 Ex Chinese infants less expressive than American European Iapanese infants 0 Thus there is a sociocultural in uence on emotional expression 0 Smiling o Earliest smiles probably have little meaning 0 Purposefully use smiling to communicate by end of 2 101 year 0 Are sensitive to emotional expression of others by end of 2 101 year 0 Decoding Other s Facial and Vocal Expressions 0 Infants can interpret meaning of others facial and vocal expressions I Can interpret happiness pick up on worry or fear in faces of others I Can discriminate vocal expressions of emotion even earlier than facial expressions I This in uences their emotional states and expressions 0 SelfAwareness o Selfawareness knowledge of oneself I Involves knowledge that we exist separately indep endently from others I Develops around 12 months 0 1724 months show awareness of their own capabilities I Ex Study found infants will cry ifasked to do complex sequence of events and cant do it 0 Shows they are aware that they are aware they are incapable and sense they have failed 0 Forming relationships 0 Attachment emotional bond between child and particular individuals 0 When attaches to someone infant feels pleasure when with person and comforted by them when in distress 0 Formation of attachment most important aspect of social development taking place during infancy I Early attachment patterns effect relating in later life 0 Ainsworth Strange Situation Mary Ainsworth 0 Baby placed in a room and allowed to explore and at different times is either with mom with mom and stranger with stranger or alone 0 Ainsworth found four attachment patterns I Secure attachment pattern Explores independently Returns to mom occasionally for contact Maymay not be upset when mom leaves Always seeks contact when she returns 23 North American children I Avoidant Attachment Pattern Does not seek closeness to mom when present Not distressed when absent Avoids her when she returns Often times mother is inconsistent inattentive caregiver 15 of children I Ambivalent Attachment Pattern Displays combo of and reactions to mom Initially doesn t explore much Is anxious before mom leaves Shows great deal of distress when mom does leave Is ambivalent when she returns seeks to be close but also hits and kicks her out of anger 1015 of children I Disorganizeddisoriented Attachment Pattern Inconsistent contradictory confused behavior Runs to mom when she returns but does no look at her Calm initially then angry weeping Least securely attached Had very negligent caregivers 510 of children 0 Boys securely attached at one year show fewer psychological difficulties at older ages 0 If secure attachment in infancy more socially and emotionally competent I Just because secure attachment does not mean no problems with adjustment later in life I Also just because securely attached will there necessarily be difficulties later 0 Infants Sociability with peers 0 Infants don t form quotfriendshipquot in traditional sense 0 React positively to peers early in life 0 Engage in simple social interactions they will smile laugh vocalize while looking at peers 0 Personality 0 Sum total of enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from a nother o Origins of personality stem from infancy Erikson s theory of psychosocial development 0 Theory considers how individuals understand themselves and meaning of their own and other s behavior 0 Theory says person s personality is shaped though experiences 0 1st stag I o 2 1 sta I I e of theory Trust vs Mistrust Infants develop trust vs mistrust Largely depends on how well needs are met by caregivers If experience trust will experience sense ofhope Ie if they have good experiences needs are met they are nurtured by those close to them they will trust other s behaviors Toward end of infancy will experience stage 2 ge of theory Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Toddlers 18 months to 3 years develop Independence and autonomy if allowed freedom to explore Will try things out and being reinforced for such then will be more willing to try things Shame and selfdoubt if they are restricted and overprotected Will be less likely to try things out if they do parents often scold them which makes this less likely to explore in future
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