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by: Clementine Boehm


Clementine Boehm
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M. Hawkins

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M. Hawkins
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4008 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Hawkins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/222960/psyc-4008-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Test 2 Psychology 4008 Chapter 2 Descartes said some things that people didn t agree on These things were just as valuable as the things people did believe He identified some things as true which could not be experienced This is the concept of innate ideas 0 Perfection o Infinity 0 God as perfection and infinity His theories of hollow nerves and animal spirits were not based off of experience but upon reason and logical argument He impacted physiology and research 0 Nerves are not hollow Jan Swammerdam o Conducted an experiment targeting Descartes Animal Spirit theory 0 Used today called nerve muscle isolation 0 Determine what causes muscles to change their shapes 0 Separate the ventricles from the rest of the body movement still occurs proving animal spirits are not true 0 Take the muscle completely out of the body it will continue to move even if the nerve is not attached If you touch the nerve to it it will cause the muscle to change shape 0 Animal spirits are not important in the contraction of muscles but the nerve is important 0 Discovered the red blood cell 0 You don t need the ventricles in the brain in order for muscles to react and move think of decapitation Gottfried Leibniz 0 Mind is separate from the physical body AGREES with Descartes 0 Best way to come to understanding is to use the mind not the body through mathematics 0 Invented calculus with Newton 0 Leibniz s Calculating Machine 0 Advocated dualism based upon Monade concept he used to deal with the notion of separate mental and physical realms an individual unit that is not physical but not mental it is in between the Monads were all created by God to form everything physical and mental independent of one another and they do not affect each other because they all obey a pre established harmony that God has ordained 0 Position regarding mind and body mental and physical are separate things 0 Mind and body are independent of one another but each one obeys a preestablished harmony I Analogy of two perfect clocks that are set into motion at the same instant and they continue to express the same time forever 0 Referred to psychophysical parallelism o Deterministic in his POV life is played out according to God s preexisting harmony 0 When you think about sensation and perception now we think about them as separate concepts o Sensation is the more complex mental event and perception is the simple conscious awareness of something 0 When you have one of these simple conscious experiences this perception will only occur and reach consciousness if the intensity of the stimulus is great enough Made up of a number of individual unconscious events called petite perceptions we are not conscious of these perceptions but if enough come together we are conscious of them do not perceive one drop of water but do perceive many drops 0 We have an unconscious mental life we are unaware of o If it s true that we have to have a set number of unconscious elements before we can be aware of the stimulus could we find out how many do we need I Perceptions change in intensity we will become aware o This leads to psychodynamics looking at the relationship between strength of stimulus and our detection 0 Psychophysics was an attempt to indirectly quantify mental life Thomas Hobbes o Founder of modern empiricism Bacon was also empirical 0 Famous for his political theory which helped form our political government 0 Book he wrote on political theory that was like Plato s Republic What is the best form of government because of the way humans are Leviathan something that is big governmental system that we form based his theory about government on the nature of human beings as he saw friend of Descartes but disagreed with 1 the notion that mind and body are separate things and mind is somehow spiritual 2 reason does not assure you of truth best way to get to truth is experience like Bacon suggested 0 Advocate of science LIKE Descartes 0 Friends with Galileo materialistic monistic POV and this was a productive POV 0 Did not see us as fundamentally separated from the animal world Descartes did NOT believe this 0 Atheist we are not created in the image of God 0 Humans are creatures only out to survive o Fundamental believer in hedonism o If you take a big population of that kind of creature what is the best way to form a government 0 Dealt with the notion ofa monarchy 0 Charles I dethroned and beheaded 1st reigning monarch in Great Britain to have this done to them 0 King for 25 years and half of that time he was a monarch who was an absolute ruler and disbanded parliament There were people in the parliament that wanted to have Christianity as the state religion and he did not want this 0 Hobbes was dealing with a political climate in which Britain was trying to figure out what kind of government to have Based his ideas on human nature 0 Human beings because of their nature need to be controlled and if you put a lot of them in a room and ask them to work together chaos will ensue BEST FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN THE FORM OF A MONARCH IS TO HAVE CONTROL OF A POPULATION WITH THE PEOPLE S APPROVAL A social contract between the people and the monarch people will give up some of their liberties if they support the monarch King should rule the population and have power of the church 0 Hobbes thought if we didn t do this our lives we be nasty and short He rejected the notion that we are born with nothing and we acquire knowledge through sensation and this sensation is not spiritual or vitalistic it is a physical event in some form of motion of things in the environment that put our mind into motion After we have this sensory event we are left with the remnants of the prior sensation imagination and memory of the sensation PATTERNING HIMSELF AFTER GALIELO mental physics John Locke Gave things more thought than Hobbes Came up with an empiricism that was more refined than hobbes less nai39ve An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding deals with notions of innate ideas Are their some things we cannot understand or form a unified feeling of truth Yes Truths exceed the bases of human understanding The way we come to know is FROM EXPERIENCE Before experience we have nothing Two types 0 Reflection us going back through previous sensory experiences and revisiting memories reexperience things at another time see common things and category 0 Sensation Asked the question is experience always reliable 0 Conclusion all experiences are not the same and differ in nature 0 We have to lay truth based upon the type of experience Ideas in mind are organized and not random 0 Not all associations are equally valid 0 Something occurs with something else we link them A natural association occurs because of order in the universe Information we are exposed to in the world is derived from two categories proposed by Galileo 0 Primary qualities of objects inherent characteristics of physical things that have nothing to do with you and can be measured motion of something number of something weight solidity mass etc I These are still there when the secondary objects are not there Secondary qualities of objects rely on our experience and sensation of things subjective temperature Included things like color taste temperature sound etc Sensory systems I Best addressed by psychology because of this subjective component If we are not there to experience a tree falling does it make a sound still Yes because of primary qualities Senses have nothing to do with existence Tree has primary qualities still but not secondary qualities if someone is not around to experience the tree Information about subjective experience we should be more cautious rather than if it is based on primary qualities 0 O O O Paradox of the Basin one hand in hot the other in cold put hand in room temperature water temperature is now based on your experience as to how it feels warm or cool George Berkeley Empiricist only way to get to truth is through experience Softness sweetness tartness and bitterness all make up things of a cherry If you don t have those things you don t have a cherry o If you take away these secondary qualities is the cherry gone 0 No it is still there and has its primary qualities Esse Est Percipi to be is to be perceived Solipsist someone who makes the claim that if you don t personally experience it you cannot say it s true Our subjective experience is reducible to physical properties Difference between primary and secondary qualities He abolished the distinction between the qualities Existence is confirmed in the mind of God this is why they continue to exist Everything is always being experienced God does not want to fool or deceive us An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision 0 Things that give us information regarding depth perception are not a pure sensory experience and go beyond that into a past experience 0 Example carriage in the distance goes behind a tree but we know it s still there and when it is in the distances is not really tiny just perceive it to be Truth is not subjective David Hume Accepted the empirical POV entirely If you don t experience it it may be true but you cannot be sure Based on this extremism there are hypothetical things we cannot prove true If you want to develop a science of subjective experience or mind you need to question things that we will need to have Empiricism by now was a philosophical movement that was too extreme for us to go from that position into a science We went around philosophy to become science Questioned o Notion of the existence of mind 0 Causality cause and effect relationship Notion of mind said when you think about what mind is it is a vast collection of 1 impressions 2 ideas 0 Impressions are our current empirical experiences I Highly detailed vivid provide a lot of information 0 Ideas are the things that are left after the impression is finished We use the mind to explain our knowledge but its existence can t be confirmed to exist today If mind does not exist where does that get us He said cause and effect are related and connected to one another called a necessary connection Examine what you actually experience 0 Event A and Event B 0 You infer the necessary question without experience 0 This is hypothetical it may exist but you cannot say that it does for sure Notion of causality is something that is unsubstantiated from our mind If I don t personally experience it I cannot say it exists for sure This POV is too pessimistic and too skeptical Still use empiricism but don t use empirical philosophy In all these empiricists they all believed we get info from experience and the information is organized by experience association David Hartley A physician that brought together conceptions of association and called it associationism His POV was published in Observations on Man His Frame His Duty and His r 0 Correlation of mental and physical events Mental side sensations and ideas Physical side includes physical force suggested by Newton in Principia Mathematical Sensation and its remnant is from the physical force vibration OOO Sensations are occurring at the same time vibrations are I Called vibra tiuncle 0 Book calls it miniature vibration o Vibrations can outlast the sensory experience and when the sensation is over with we are left with diminished vibrations only occurring in the brain now I Exactly like what Hobbes proposed 100 years earlier sensation is strictly a physical thing and the cause of some kind of motion that is communicated to the mind drawing upon the physics of his time Trace patterns in the air because vibrations out last the sensation Sensations are caused by vibrations Ideas are caused by vibra tinucles o Occurring at the same time 0 He is saying they are correlated Sensations DO NOT cause vibrations they just occur at the same time MindBody position that is two clocks that run parallel to each other psychophysical parallelism Every sensation has a corresponding idea that goes with it In the mind there is no association the thing that causes the association to form is contiguity o The one thing that causes us to link things together Once we link ideas if we experience any one of them they come together as a group Successive continuity is him saying these things occur together in a closely spaced fashion 0 Closely spaced in time or in space If you experience sensations ABC and D then you have ideas abc and d with continuity o Eventually these ideas will be linked o Contiguity is the experiencing of events together Spatial Contiguity synchronized contiguity Temporal Contiguity successive contiguity With both processes the result is an association Contiguity successive contiguity Simultaneous when things occur together in space and time Successive when things occur in order of one another After the renaissance debates between empiricism and rationalism Associationsm continues founded by Hartley James Mill Simple ideas linked together by association Thought of as someone who is the epitome of this associationism view The mind is really complex but at heart the mind is made up of smaller units simple ideas and they are put together Info is out there you and I experience it as we live the mind takes it in and automatically puts it together and by the time we reach adulthood and we have a complex mind James Mill s view is sometimes referred to as simple compounds llBrick is a complex idea mortar is a complex idea Put those together and you ve got my idea of a wallquot James Mill o It is a passive view of mind John Stuart Mill He was the son of James and he was actually a bit smarter than his dad John Stuart Mill was a bit of a physicist Newton at this time had just shown that light could be broken up into colors John Stuart Mill drew an analogy of the mind to this Put two things together in mind the outcome may not be predictable from the parts Mind is not just this big compound of things added up He came up with the idea of mentalchemistry Things can be very different that the smaller things that make it up More complex type of associationism based on physics and Newton 0 If you take two simple ideas and put them together the product isn t always an additive product It produces something that is different The empiricist said mind is a passive thing that is built up by experience Today we know that no one uses experience or reason only as a way to know we use them both Immauel Kant 17241804 Known for his epistemology He is also known for being a person who bridged the gap between empiricism and rationalism Kant said that we use a little bit of both During his entire life he never left In his schooling he was interested in philosophy and theology He became a tutor for rich kids After a while he supplemented his income by drawing up treatises on more scientific issues He wrote on geology meteorology etc He later got a job at the university and he was average academia He was angered by Humes empiricism and theories of cause and effect He published a work that made him famousThe Critique ofPure Reason We don t experiences cause and effect We know thatcause and effect exist because the mind recognizes it When we know something almost always that knowledge is based on two things 0 We receive info form our environment experience and mind gets info 0 The mind is not passive it actively manipulates that info to make sense of it The mind acts on the info that we receive because we possess these innate mental abilities or categories of organizations ie forms in Plato These categories are mental functions that we have no choice but to perform on info that we are presented with because that is what the mind was designed to do 0 One of the categories he mentions is causality He even talks specifically about Hume s example of the billiard balls He said Hume is right we don t directly experience cause and effect but you and I know causality exists because the mind informs us of the fact Another category is time You and I don t directly experience time but we organize all of our experiences according to this Yet another category like this is space We may experienceindividual objects yet space is something we can t see These categories are inherent in the mind and don t depend on experience to be acquired Therefore these categories are considered to be a priori prior to experience He suggested three different classes of knowledge and info 0 1 Syntheticknowledge a pulling together of concepts ex this sign is orange In that statement of fact two things are brought together that are noncontingent Orange and signthose two concepts have no relation that is necessary He sees this synthetic knowledge as a way for acquiring new knowledge in the world Statements that can only occur after we have had the experience are a posteriori and this is rational I Empirical I Statements can only be made after experience I A Postereori 2 Analyticknowledge a type of truth derived from analyzing something Things that O we determine based upon contingent relationships We can analyze and come up with statements of truth Ex I have a sibling who is a bachelor You do not need to see that I have a brother who is a male and who is unmarried You don t have to have that person in the room because all of those concepts are derived from the words sibling and bachelor These are statements that do not require experience They are analytic statements you can make before experience I A priori o 3 Synthetica prior39 where m are brought together but the outcome is determined or fixed Once the concepts are brought together we should know the outcome Ex I have four coins in one hand and five coins in the other What is the total Nine coins You could not have come up with the answer if he had not told us that he had four in one and five in the other You could not reason your way to that answer Reason alone does not suffice You can t come up with nine coins without cues from the environment The final step is an action of mind It is reason telling you that four and five is nine I Synthetic a priori knowledge is the way we think today and the way science operates today Kant s epistemology was thought of as a Copernican revelation Kant said that our experience of reality is info from things in the environment plus thinking Reality is something that should be reconsidered and reality for everyone is different Rationalists and empiricism are trying to get you to some way of truth or certain knowledge Only thinking or only experience will get you there That kind of reality is not attainable because it is noumenalreality the reality of things in themselves We interpret things the way we see them We can never know it We have the feeling that we are approaching a noumenal understanding of the universe Kant said that nobody will ever be able to do that and the only kind of reality we can hope for is phenomenal reality or reality as we know it Perfect truth is unattainable o PhenomenalReality we are the ultimate judges of reality what we think is true based upon our realities Chapter 3 It would be logical to say that scientific study of the mind comes from Empiricism However Empiricism is overly selfimportant Saw itself as the only epistemology Experimental psychology didn t come from Empiricism it came from physiology Physiologists sort of naturally became psychologists for 2 reasons 0 Physiology emerged from other sciences anatomy primarily and had long scientific history 0 By the beginning of the 1800 s physiologists were discovering things that were directly relevant to psychology Learning how behavior is controlled not animal spirits making discoveries about personality traits memorylearning control of human speech etc Sir Charles Bell 0 Reciprocal Innervation of the Flexor Extensor muscle when you contract an extensor muscle in order for that muscle to produce its effect it must get shorter also the flexor muscle must relax simultaneously both the excitation of one muscle group and the relaxation of the opposing muscle are actively created Ifone muscle is activated the opposing muscle is blocked 0 Worked on sensation quotsensory physiology began to explain how we sense Bell investigated the idea that there are at least 6 senses the sixth being muscle sense 0 Muscle sense gives information on what muscles are contracting to what degree are they contracting how heavy is an object what is the strain being placed on the joint etc Francois Magendie 0 Worked with Bell on the spinal cord 0 They were able to independently manipulate nerves that come off of the spinal cord Ventral Anterior towards chest Dorsal posterior towards back These roots attach to spinal nerve and go all throughout body nfo travelling on these spinal nerves is travelling on 2 independent systems and then showed that these sensory and motor systems are anatomically distinct at the spinal roots Info enters sensory at posterior side and everything on ventral is motor 0 Control of Behavior Sensation considered a quotpsychological subject and both can be located in anatomically distinct systems 0 Dorsal back sensory 0 Ventral chest motor I Bell and Magendie thought there would be places in the cord that are just sensory and other places that carry just motor info They are right This is true for the brain as well 0 They established quotBell Magendie Lawquot definition that posteriordorsal spinal roots are sensory and anteriorventral spinal roots are motor o Philosophical implication field that provides us with anatomical details on 2 of the most important things psychology is concerned with sensation and behavior 0 Areas controlling sensation and areas controlling movement Franz Joseph Gall 0 Physician anatomist most famous published work is complete description of the anatomy of spinal cord peripheral nerves Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System 3 volumes of it are devoted to the anatomy of the brain 0 Began lecturing on Cranioscopy looking at cranium He believed that physical appearance of entire body is correlated with psychological trait He has believed this since childhood used example of kids in his class who were skilled at foreign language frequently had big eyes etc o Essentially psychological traits are due to the brain and given the anatomy of brain skulls have particular attributes to it Therefore you can know about psychological distribution by looking at the skull PHRENOLOGY o Caused a ruckus right away Within 15 years government banned his lectures in Austria because they were too materialistic 0 His beliefs 0 He believed the mind s purposes can be divided up into individual functionsfaculties and each facultiesquot are located in particular parts of the brain 0 The anatomy of the brain is determined early on in development and as structures in the brain grow the skull conforms to that shape 0 Amount of a particular faculty that we have is correlated with the size of its corresponding brain area therefore the amount of faculty you possess can be determined by examining the skull For example if you enjoy beheading animals you will have a large area of brain for destructiveness o The skill as we grow conforms to the context of the cortex duplication on the surface of the skill I Lecture this topic in Vienna presented evidence came almost exclusively from people housed in prisons and insane asylums 0 Made case that these populations also have a defined dominant mental trait based on their disorder or criminal offense I None of these are true but there was no a priori reason they couldn t be true back in his time o Lectures banned in Austria because he was so materialistic o Moved to Paris and became even more popular Affective faculties emotional mental attributes located on the side of the head back and top Intellectual faculties front of the brain cause and effect Johann Spurzheim o Comes up with word Phrenologyquot study of the head changed name from Cranioscopy He made it more popular and was very influential 0 Had a quotlife mask made people would get them done and send them to Phrenologists to have their skull read 0 Did two important things 0 He made the number of places identified on the skull more complete 0 Made mental attributes more socially acceptable to the public than Gall Gall originally studied prisoners and the insane unappealing traits like quotdestructivenessquot o Spurzheim added more appealing traits like quotfriendshipquot and quotparental lovequot 0 Importance of Phrenology firmly established in the public mind the notion that mental life is physical It had a very powerful heuristic value like Descartes the people who made fun of phrenology faced a public that said quotthen what is true if phrenology is notquot it really stimulated scientists to start studying neuroanatomy Paul Broca 0 French 39 g39 39 r 39 g39 na 39 39 looked for part of brain related to human speech His quotpatientquot had aphasia lack of speech can read but not speak He could no longer make sentences or intelligible words The only syllable he could say was quottanquot This case became known as the case of quotTanquot during autopsy it was VERY apparent what part of the brain was damaged 0 This area in the Left Frontal Lobe known as quotBroca s areaquot causes Broca s aphasia Problem is in fluency and making sounds of speech This finding was one that made it very clear that the ability to talk is highly localized 0 Another example case of Phineas Gage huge metal rod shot through his head behind his eye and he lived He was a wellknown likeable person before the accident He was conscious afterward and the doctor that worked on him Dr Harlow published a series of reports Gage s personality changed he was no longer reliable hard worker began drinking heavily profane in speech a different person all around People realized that the part of the brain that was damaged to Gage is related to personality in the frontal lobe 0 Another famous neurological case because it showed localization of function 0 Today we know that frontal lobe damage produces people that are difficult to live with They lose ability to plan life Pierre Flourens o Frenchman Unlike Gall was widely accepted Developed a research enterprise based upon the claims of Gall Phrenologists were claiming that faculties of mind were located in particular parts of brain Flourens became interested in the notion to what degree is there localization of function 0 Ablation Technique going into brain and producing highly localized area of destruction Would apply heat chemicals aspiration lesions vacuum off part of cortex looking for correlation between part of brain that was destroyed and impaired function I Reported over and over that animals are more impaired the more brain you take out Meaning it doesn t matter where you remove brain it matters HOW MUCH brain you remove 0 Conclusion if functions were highly localized you could remove a tiny piece of the brain and the function would be completely lost but they are NOT I His work was directly opposed to what the phrenologists were advocating o This view was dominant view for a long time view that brain is one big unified thing Gustav Fritch and Edward Hitig o Hitzig was treating a soldier with head wound Cleaning out glass wound pulling out pieces in the head He noticed that when he put in his forceps the guy s body flinched even though brain has no feeling He started poking around and when he poked a specific area a specific area of his body Thought particular places in body were linked to particular area in brain 0 Teamed up with Fritsch credited with locating Primary motor cortex not only is body represented on cortex in a point to point way it is very precisely laid out from top to bottom but opposite localization of function I Top of brain bottom of body and vice versa If you lesion specific part of cortex it results in paralysis in particular part of body 0 Exactly what Phrenologists claimed would happen 0 Method they used to stimulate cortex 0 Up until end of 18 h century people began to realize that there is something electrical in the nature of the way the nervous system operates I Fritsch and Hitzig stimulated the brain electrically used small generator with dial setting to the point where they could just feel a tingle on their tongue and then touched it to the cortex This work was done in dogs 0 Emergence of electricity in physiology 0 Ben Franklin invented lightning rod American who was in touch with climate of science in Europe 0 Static Electricity Generator before plugs were invented Crystal or amber disk spun against pads generates current depending on how fast crank is turned 0 Leyden jars invented in Holland First electrical storage ofa charge Lined with metal foil could transport them for months until you discharge them Luigi Galvani and Count Alessandro Volta 0 Most important to introducing research in animalelectricity o Conducted experiments on electricity in animals 0 Used frogs tissue of amphibians lives longer than mammals 0 Animals causing sensations people claiming they were producing electricity Electric eel brought back to America people lined up to put arms in tanks and get knocked down 0 Physiologists came to talk about llanimal electricity may be an electric energy that exists in living systems 0 Would leave nervous system attached to part of frog put a hook in nervous system put frog onto a grounded metal plate then generate an electric charge and pass it through the nervous system Observed that it makes muscle twitch They disagreed on what it meant o Galvani I Thinks is means that the nervous system uses electricity it is the force being transmitted Natural kind of energy that exists in animals 0 Volta I Saw this evidence as another of many ways the nervous system can be stimulated o Pioneered invention of batteries Galvani found that if you stack frog legs up and stuck a wire through them created electric charge Strength depended on how many frogs First battery made out of organic material 0 Volta invented inorganic battery VoltaicPiIe discs of metal 2 alternating types put spacer between them then submerged them in acidicsalty solution connected 2 electrodes to each end generated electric charge Basically just a giant version of batteries today o In 19 h century people invented device that allowed them to measure amount of electricity in the nervous system galvanometer an amplifier and precursor of the EEG o Volta is where we get the word quotvoltquot from 0 We now know the nervous system doesn t have animal spirits and operates from electric charge Johannes Muller o Became 1St physiologist because during his day physiology became an independent discipline in academics at University of Berlin 0 Physiology is science that deals with organicliving systems 0 Wrote The Handbook of Human Physiology 1st comprehensive textbook on the subject 0 Was very influential in helping the rest of the world to see that living systems depend on physical processes One type of physiology that Muller became interested in was neurophysiology helps popularize notion that nerves are electrical 0 Also interested in Nervous system as it relates to sensation which part receives information from the environment sensory neurophysiology 6 primary way psychology became interested in physiology 0 Also interested in concept within sensation called sensory specificity field in which you try to understand what makes one system physically different from another or within a given sensory system eg taste what is the physical reason we have different tastes o Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energie tries to deal with the physical distinction between for example vision and audition o 2 possibilities I 1 We can only hear with the ears because of where that info is sent Maybe there is a localization of function for hearing He concluded that this possibility is unlikely He cited the work of Flourens the brain does not work based on localization of function 2 The whole brain is getting the signal The signal must be different for audition than for vision etc This view is indeed wrong 0 Muller believed that living systems are not purely physical life involves a nonphysical spiritual essence His discipline physiology is going to have to adopt points of view that incorporate the spiritual side of life He was very vitalistic in his view of living systems 0 His students became famous for rejecting his vitalistic views Emil du BoisReymond 0 One of Muller s students wrote first book in notion of electrical nature of nervous system He and other students wanted to show that life is explainable with purely materialistic concepts 0 Materialist Manifesto indicator of how climate is changing Document saying he and other students would dedicate their careers to explain that materialism explains life all you need is physical attributes Hermann von Helmholt o Helped draft Materialist Manifesto with Muller s students Signed the document with their own blood 0 Famous for physiology physics math psychology 0 Average upbringing very interested in physics Entered med school program he entered was paid for by military He was allowed to go all the way through but for every year he was in medical school he contracted himself to spend 2 years in the military Committed to 10 year term in military as a physician Stationed in Berlin became friends with Muller s pack of grad students He wasn t an official student of Muller s but completely up to speed to what Muller was doing with physiology 0 Conducted set of experiments on mice looked at how much energy an animal takes in in a day by recording food intake Calculated energy expenditureintake they are closely correlated From this he concluded the quotlaw of conservation of energyquot is operating in physiology 0 Energy cannot be created or destroyed you can only alter it 0 Very materialistic not vitalistic at all I Became at odds with Muller Muller felt the difference between organic and inorganic systems was a spiritual difference or living thing a vitalistic element is present 0 Went to University at Konisberg Kant These occurred while he was there 0 Became interested in sensory physiology especially vision Tried to understand sensory specificity in visual system using concepts that were purely physical Invented version of device of the opthalmoscope allowed anyone to look into eye and enlarge image big advance 0 First person to record how fast a nerve can send a signal Muller thought it would never be possible I Chronograph device that llwrote time Had finegrained analysis of time I Myograph device he used to record how fast signal is sent down a nerve He found that nerves transmit much slower than anyone thought slower than the speed of light MOTOR nerves 0 He did a nervemuscle preparation had muscle attached to another pin on the chronograph Stimulated muscle with electricity found that there was a measurable time after stimulation before contraction occurred There is a measurable amount of time between stimulation and contraction Closer to muscle shorter delay Latency of A Latency of B speed 0 Sensory and motor nerves are separate BellMagendy Lawquot 0 He wanted to find out if the speed of transmission was the same for motor nerves as for sensory nerves He did a reaction time study to observe sensory nerves He found that the speed of transmission was the same for both 0 After he published this continued research on vision resulted in theory that s still current for explaining sensory specificity in vision as it relates to color 0 Found that you can create any color by altering 3 colors redgreenblue 3 color receptors Ratio of activity of 3 receptors that determines what the brain sees Sometimes referred to the trichromatic theory 0 Wrote this up in a book called The Handbook of Optical Physiology I Most important book in optical The training manual for decades Thomas Young 0 Had this same idea before Helmholtz about color 0 3 primaries for vision RedGreenBlue 0 When you overlap these three colors you can produce all visible colors of light 0 YoungHelmholtz Trichromatic theory still used to explain color perception proposed in the handbook Used to distinguish light hue Ewald Hering o Conducted series of psychological perceptual experiments at time of publication of the Handbook of Optical Physiology 0 Investigated after image when you look at an object of saturated color and then replace that object with white light What you experience is the shape of that object in another color Calls this opponent process theory 0 Opponent process nation 0 We have 3 types of receptors when that receptor is stimulated by one of its colors eg red it activates the red response and inhibits the response for green So when we are then presented with all frequencies of light and we ve been looking at a red object its sensitivity is diminished and it overresponds in the green This theory being investigated same time at Helmholtz Helmholt on Audition 0 Volume how high the wave is turn up volume means increase wave height 0 Pitch wave length variable distance between each crest 0 Frequency is how many peaks cross a given point in one second peaks closer together more will cross 0 This is referred to or measured in Hertz or Hz 0 Timberquot this quality of sound 0 The other two are pitch and volume I Wavelength and frequency are inversely related wavelength was the measure everyone realized was related to pitch The higher the frequency the higher the pitch I Volume is due to amplitude essentially how much air is displaced Resonator quotmachinequot 0 Pitch and volume are the same but it sounds different on different resonators o Resonance depends upon an interaction between the frequency of the sound and the flexibility of the object Timber quality that makes the same frequency and volume sound different on two different instruments I A property of the instrument itself eg trumpet vs piano Theory of timber based on this notion 0 When you produce a given frequency you re producing that tone of course but you re also producing quotpartial vibrations in the instrument itself because of resonance the ability of an object to vibrate in synchrony with a sound wave any physical object will resonate Can cause things to shatter w increased amplitude Stiffer heavier objects resonate to high frequency sounds More flexible things like people resonate to low frequencies why we can literally feel heavy bass 0 Resonance is a product of rigidity of an object 0 Partial vibrations are carried on a pitch frequency they serve as quotovertonesquot create unique sound ofa particular instrument I Summary quotovertonesquot come from different instruments based on resonance Theory of pitch perception in people 0 Basilar membrane within Cochlea in the ear if it was straight he discovered it s not uniform in its dimension as it goes around the spiral it s a trapezoid shape 0 Helmholtz recognized that this device acts as a differential resonator The width of the membrane determines its flexibility I Wide low tones skinny high tones 0 quotPlace theory or quotResonance Theory I Code for pitch by finding which part of the membrane is being displaced I Bass at wide Treble at skinny Published Sensations of Tone the only book used to describe auditory physiology Germany s leading scientist during this phase of his life that he was elevated to Von given from the Emperor The German academic system began to compete for his presence and The University of Berlin won 0 Where he first started his associations with Muller s grad students Died as a byproduct of a trip to the World s Fair in Chicago Intended to celebrate 400quoth anniversary of the discovery of America Columbia Exhibition on his way back to Europe he fell on the ship and within 6 months he died HUGE impact on science 0 End of this chapter additional neuroanatomistsphysicists from the 20 h century Read about these They were like Helmholtz dealing w subjects directly related to us Gustav Theodor Fechner Considered to be like Helmholtz 0 Very scientific 0 Interested in the mind stuff mental phenomenon Helmholtz interested in the physical stuff 0 Developed psychophysics also referred to as the first experimental psychology 0 Attended the University of Laipzig 0 Translated textbooks in physics and chemistry from French to Germanlnterest in sensory physiology vision Investigating Hering s theory opponent process theory Studied after images he created himself 0 Did permanent damage to his retinas by looking at the sun while experimenting This resulted in him being essentially blinded for a time Had to give up reading sensitive to light etcThen got depression and neurosis Described himself as quota nervous invalid o Began advocating a quotDay View a type of view that is bright and encouraging Basically mentalism Not from the point of view of physical process but spiritsoulsubjective experience 0 quotNight view is view of science materialism mechanism and physics His view as a physicist This diminishes the value and worth of subjective emotional inner experience 0 If it s true that mind and body are 2 ways of looking at ways of the universe they must be related There must be a way to show this Gave the analogy of a circle it s the same on the inside and out quotdouble aspect monismquot wanted to show that this is true Mind and body are equivalent you can use either one to describe humans 0 He would only eat watered down wine and raw spiced ham for 34 years 0 Became unemployed puking and depressed in the dark Increased his spirituality Called himself Dr Mises published wacky stuff under his fake name Poetry essays about spiritual realms This aspect of him became dominant Ernst Heinrich Weber 0 Interested in sensory physiology discovering new systems and describing them 0 Skin sense and muscle sense like Bell 0 Skin sense invented a type of diagnostic called quotTwoPointtactiIequot Our ability to discriminate between 2 separate points of contact on the skin Mapped the body in terms of sensitivity to two point tactile varies on the body has to touch 2 different nerves 0 Muscle sense systematically manipulating stimulus recording a subject s ability to detect it Would have subject hold a weight switch it out with another weight and asked them if it was the same or different We are more sensitive if we re holding our hand up Mental shift to detection called quotjust noticeable differencequot or JND Can be conceptualized as a mental unit I Fechner used JND as the dependent variable in his experiments O O O O Fechner lawful relationship between these mental units We are sensitive to relative changes Expressed this finding A RR K ethere is a constant relationship between how strong a stimulus is and how much it has to be changed before we can detect it This ratio is 130 People were able to detect 130 of a standard weight when you change weight systematically Determine A R from a JND Our book says JNDSstimulus K constant Called Weber s Law Fechner elaborated on Weber s finding Made assumption that JND scale is an interval scale of measurement Meaning every JND is equal in magnitude Mental step is the same no matter where on the stimulus continuum we assess it Fechner sLaw SK log R R Strength of stimulus can be loudness temp length whatever S our perception of change in stimulus strength JND is unit of measurement 0 0123 1101001000 0 As something becomes more intense our sensitivity to it decreases and requires more of a change Predictssensory experience S will change as you change stimulus strength Psychological shift is to this physical stuff Names this movement that he invents quotpsychophysicsquot An attempt to quantify mental experienceJust like his view of the insideoutside of a circle The mind body question has been answered they are equivalent He published Elements of Psychophysics o Tells us techniques we can use to investigate psychophysics An attempt to quantify the mind 3 classic techniques limits constant stimuli adjustment 0 0 Method of Limit take a stimulus ex volume and select a range of volumes you think will span the threshold Present them in sequential order and ask every time if the subject can hear it This makes it very clear what the threshold is He found that if you test the same subject again the threshold may change and variability win subjects over time within a session and across subjects Would measure ascending descending series and take an average I Stimulus persistence we can detect changes going down typically Method of Constant stimuli designed to get around variability issue You randomize intensity of stimulus not like limits in order Looked at changes in stimulus If you present it more than once or to a group no longer have binary response Graphed as a quotlazy S shape the norm if you want to determine what threshold value is what is the logical thing to select Value at 50 half of the time people hear it and half ofpeople don t 0 Method of Adjustment when you let the subject adjust stimulus intensity Variability exists again He sometimes called this the method of average error 0 We can measure 2 types of sensory thresholds called quotabsolutequot and quotdifferentialquot 0 Absolute minimum or maximum amount ofa stimulus you can detect Example pitch there is a bass note below what we can hear and a treble note above where we can hear 0 Differential the amount of difference we can detect eg how much of a difference are we sensitive to o Wundt some say HE is the guy who founded experimental psychology even though it was 15 years after Fechner o Fechner became interested in another type of mental subjective experience Aesthetic judgment Our value of something being pleasing or not etc can we quantify this and find out threshold values for something becoming ugly or beautiful 0 Founded movement called Experimental aesthetics He did what some call the 1st psychological survey asked the public which painting they thought was more beautiful Didn t work but it was an attempt So he moved to less complex aesthetic judgments I Research investigating geometric shapes Is there an ideal shape for each name Did field research had people come in and draw 9 Golden Section 3 units X 5 units ratio of 062 Our visual field is approx 3X5 Start with page 37 in the book through Chapter 4 page 107 Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 1 Psychology 4008 Test 4 Chapter 6 Read Textbook Before William James there was this belief that mind was made up of functions faculties of mind and the old type of psychology in America was one where people just made lists of faculties of the mind that we possess The problem with faculty psychology is if you want to explain something psychological why do humans have a good memory Faculty psychology would say that the faculty of memory is just particularly strong in human beings only a label and putting names on things William Backgro 0 James was one of the most famous early American psychologists und 15 kids in a wealthy family Henry James was his brother who was famous for writing short stories William famous in academics Henry famous amongst the population Father was very eccentric and had religious points of view that were odd He had lots of money and had an odd aspect of nature that was expressed in his children 35 children were intensely neurotic and suffered from many emotional disturbances Henry Sr cared that his children should be welleducated cosmopolitan and up to date He gave them the best education schools tutors etc and move the family to a house in Europe put the kids in school and begin to worry that his children were becoming French or German so he took them out of school brought them to the US and worried about them becoming dumb and uneducated Henry Sr was grateful to be an American and wanted his children to be proud Americans Henry Jr thought of himselfas European and had a British accent Ended up giving up his American citizenship to become a British subject He became someone William did not want to be William took to a psychology that is distinctly American It is not pretentious or tried to fit into a European philosophical model It is characterized by practicality and things that are useful helpful and constructive Also a type of psychology that is broad reaching and looked for any topic that would help to benefit us William is America s leading 39 quot I quot moved 39 39 39 into Known for developing a type of philosophy known as pragmatism philosophy that has a criterion of value and how useful that notion is An idea doesn t work because it is true an idea is true because it works and is judged on whether you can do something He went to Harvard and studied philosophy poetry and Godfather was Ralph Waldo Emerson He ended up studying medicine Louis Agassiz famous anthropologist at Harvard and different from the norm One of the very few that was openly hostile towards the idea of evolutionary theory Tried everything he knew to rebut this theory Decided to do an expedition like Darwin in the Amazon River Basin goal was to show evidence in uniform creation William James joined him and found he hated biology and was always seasick He contracted smallpox and ended up coming back in a few months without finishing the trip This showed him he didn t want to be a biologist He also hated chemistry because of being in the lab and all the tedious research Not theoretically interesting Halfway through William James studies at Harvard he had panic attacks and his father was in Europe at the time He wrote to his father that he was spending weeks at a time thinking about suicide his father suggested he come to Europe and try to recuperate While he was on this trip he became acquainted with the quotNewPhysiologyquot which was an interface between medicine and psychology Went to one of Helmholtz s lecture learned about Wundt went to a lecture by du BoisReymond Muller s student etc Came back to Harvard finished his medical degree in 8 years and never practiced Didn t have a career prospect in mind and the president of Harvard was a friend and offered to let him teach a class in physiology at Harvard Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 2 Then taught anatomy Eventually moved into teaching physiologicalpsychology For that course he founded a laboratory one of 2 laboratory creators at that time He didn t do research in this lab only made it available to graduate students Lab was largely focused on physiology Year after this lab was started Granville Stanley Hall joined him and became James first graduate student Hall eventually went to Germany to work with Wundt after he got his doctorate James Rowland Angeli got his master s degree with Wundt and was a major figure in functionalism Edward Lee Thorndike was famous for work in animal r 39 39 39 39 0 He 39 39 actual experiments with controlled conditions Robert Sessions Woodworth also studied with James Woodworth and Thorndike were friends who went to Colombia He was also interested in animal psychology and theoretical notions about how we learn He coined the expression quotinterveningvariablequot James was at Harvard teaching and was there a long time When he was 36 years old he signed a contract to write a textbook to introduce a new kind of psychology to America He signed up with a friendpublisher Henry Holt who founded the company Henry Holt Publishing Company James didn t give him a manuscript for 12 years Resulted in the book quotThe Principles of Psychologf which is contained in 2 volumes 0 No book is more famous than this book Considered the best book in psychologyDescribed as one of the best things written in English and still used today He was sick of this book by the time he finished 0 In this book he lays out his point of view of psychology and theoretical constructs Drew his concepts from everywhere Written over such a long time that stuff he wrote in chapter 12 may be contradictory of stuff in chapter 1 James is known for proposing a conception ofmind life is made up of bits Rejected molecular view of the mind If you truly want to understand what mind is you have to understand that the mind is a continuous thing that is blended Even when we are focused we can still think of other things Breaking the mind down in to elements is destroying it He advocated the notion where he refers to mind as the stream ofconsciousness like water mind has things in it but you deal with the fluid nature not little pieces If you describe something you will destroy what you are looking at Like describing a snowflake by holding it I I CH r r 0 Things that are part of his theory of mind in total Selfidentity what is it that describes a really intense feeling we have of personal identity We know we are individual and have a consistency of identity overtime We have been as we are for a long time Can we characterize what makes up this incredibly personal description of ourselves He broke it down into bits He had 3 kinds of things 0 1Materia Self the body included other things like possessions money brand of clothes things that we surround ourselves with families talks about how if you are physically attacked you will instinctively defend yourself this defense of self extends to other aspects as the material self Attack familyproperty defend yourself Expressions of who we are Material self does change 2Spiritua Self most personal self most private include things like our morals memories subjective 0 experience intellect we have theological beliefs etc A type of self that is more continuous than material self Spiritual self remains relatively constant 0 3Socia Self observation that people think of themselves as different in different social settings we have selfidentities that are partially defined by who we are with how you behave with friends vs family We are engaged in a social context that partially defines who we are This kind of self becomes apparent when we meet new people and are very reserved normally more animated We are made up of many different kinds of attributes We MUST select the things we are going to show the public and make a part of our visible identity The integration of these aspects our empirical self what we choose to show to others This can be something that is unpleasant to do It can be unsettling For him people who allow themselves to be at the mercy of circumstance and don t choose are the people who are maladjusted Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page l3 or psychologically off In going through life part of the process is this integration of many things we could possibly be Constructing our empirical self is an unavoidable task 0 Making a decision about what we want to do with our lives does seem more important than it is The most important part is making the decision not what you choose to do Decision must be reached but what you pick isn t the big deal One of the concepts he strongly supported was the importance of habits in humans Humans were routinely thought of as being things that made their own decisions and very little attention given to the notion that much of what we do and feel is because of inheritedmotivation Much of what we do is instinctively based Expression of his belief of evolutionary forces at work His quotso what attribute if it is true that we are developing a habitual way and instinctual patterns of actions we are on a continuum and a part of the rest of the animal world many of the things that reward us are not the product of rational thought If you don t have an instinctive attraction to babies then something is wrong with you William James believed when we do something over and over it produces a physical change Hebbalso decided that if something is repeated in the brain connection circuits are changed James was convinced that we have habitual behaviors like animals do This is a big part of what we are and what we do it is automatic o It becomes automatic in us overtime 0 James book says that the absolute can change your life Since habits are things that are automatic we have a responsibility to select which things we want to be habitual Welladjusted people will pick things to be habitual If you want to be a scholar just study Habit is something that makes our culture predictable and part of what we are Of course it has consequences as well Theory ofEmotionaIity named for him but also for Georg Lange and called the quotJamesLange Theory of Emotion emotion is not simply a mental component it is a physical thing that the mind tries to understand and name When we are faced with some kind of emotionevoking thing our body physically responds to the stimulus and based on the circumstances we come to know it is quotjoyquot or quotfearquot etc Emotion is physical and they described it as quotincorrect to think the sequence events is see a bear become afraid you should say see a bear I run away I become afraid This theory of emotion is one James also talked about in regard to consequences practical intervention in inappropriate or unhealthy emotional reactions We can change or shift this by behaving the way we want to feel James moved from psychology later in life He was approached by Houdini and wanted to look at mediums that could communicate with the dead Houdini was very close with his mother who had died His mother said if it is possible for me to come to you after death I will do it and I will do it on Halloween and use your pet name He was never satisfied because they never could figure out the pet name and it was trickery Wanted William James to come help him research if this is true Many thought it was nonsense and would damage his reputation James actually said yes and started researching this He founded the American Society ofPsychic Research and he felt it was one of many psychological events and he felt it should be studied They concluded that Houdini was right and this was fake and trickery They never supported it but they did research it James had a heart condition and went to Europe one last time He died at home and one of his son s took a dead picture of him His headstone was very simple Teacher Psychologist Philosopher By the time he died he was absolutely one of the most famous American psychologists His eclectic approach is still a hallmark of American psychology today G Stanley Hall One of James students from Massachusetts and always in very good health Came from a rural background and education in a little school until graduation He lived on a farm and was supposed to take over the farm He taught at the little school for a year and then went to the local college WilliamsCoIege He went on to do Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 4 advanced graduate work and decided to be trained in theology because of his interest in philosophy Toward the end of his education he became a supporter of Darwin He attended the largest multidenominational seminary called UnionTheologicalSeminary and there for a year He was not very good in theology though and not cut out to be a ministerone of his professors said that he was more interested in philosophy and told him to go to Europe and hang with the philosophers over there Hall went to Europe to study with a world famous scholar for 3 years He came back to the US without a degree but went back to the Seminary to complete his degree He read Wundt s book and wanted to go back to Europe He paid respects to William James at Harvard and he ended up staying at Harvard for 2 years and worked with William James He wrote a dissertation underJames help and was awarded thefirst PhD in psychology He went to Leipzig to help Wundt and be his lab assistant He was there for about 2 years and lived next door to Fechner He came back to the US without a job and eventually got a job through William James when he offered to let him give lectures on Saturday mornings to the public on the topic of education and how psychology can help you as a teacher These were popular and he was invited to go to a University in Boston that was new called Johns Hopkins The president wanted Hall to give the same series of lectures and then he was given a job At JH he had a couple of firsts 0 Hall established a psychology laboratory patterned after Leipzig but it was not the first William James lab was the first JH can only say they were the first to fund a lab James funded his own lab 0 Hall founded the first journal for r 39 39 g in the US The American Journal of PchhoIoaVand still in print today AJP was the first experimental journal in the world to be published in English everything else was published in German Hall had a career opportunity because he was becoming known in research JonasClark from Massachusetts wanted to give back money so the University could be founded in his name Hall became the first president of ClarkUniversity He was very successful in gathering the necessary things to make the University succeed He was largely known for his administrative skills He told Clark that in order to start the university he needed to import professors from other universities as well as Europe Clark paid for Hall to go to Europe for a year and recruit professors and did the American thing of offering them more than they were making in Europe Hall brought all the graduate students best professors and the AJP to Clark University FROM Johns Hopkins He founded TheJournaI of Genetic Pszchologz at Clark University It is interested in development through life from children to the elderly It was one of Hall s chief interests He founded America s first professional organization for r 39 39 g The quot 39 39 39 39 quot39 became the first president of the APA Journal of Religious Psychologzalso founded by Hall and was a blend of pastoral counseling and clinical psychology Founded another journal still in print Journal of Applied Psychology how we can apply psychology to schools business etc in order to help and Hall was interested in a developmental psychology and referred to it as genetic psychology change overtime He brought in this thought in psychology quotontogeny recapitulates phylogenyquot Ontogeny the developmental stages an individual goes through Recapitulates say it again Phylogeny the steps a species goes through in its emergence When you look at embryology of humans after fertilization it is indistinguishable from any fertilized ovum Then it begins to look like animal life form then vertebrate then land dwelling creature primate and finally human This is reenacting evolutionary process Humans go through predictable psychology changes just like they go through predictable physical changes 0 His two most famous publications that address developmental change I Adolescence a book for the first time that presents the case that the phase of life between childhood and adulthood is a distinct phase that has its own unique characteristics that should occur rebellion sexuality etc He sent out hundreds of surveys to Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 5 I Senescence talked about decline and things that are developing donating money increasing spiritual strength in old age In 1909 Hall did everything to get Clark s name in the news He had an intellectual event that would bring interest and he focused on psychology He said he would bring in a speaker that would draw attention he asked Wundt if he would come and he declined He then invited Ebbinghaus and he said yes but he died Hall then invited Sigmund Freud who was well known but nowhere near famous as he would be eventually and what people did know about him they didn t like 0 Freud was a Jew from Vienna who talked about sex in infants unheard of at the time Got his diploma from Hall Freud published the book called The Clark Lectures which are the best summaries of Freud s theories resulting from his lectures American psychology at this time is absolutely dominated by men at this time There were women at this time but they didn t have a status 3 pioneering women of this era who were teaching and theorizing about psychology Mary Calkins o Looked for academic positions around the time at the end of the Civil War at this time there was also a revolution in Russia that freed the serfs People in the US began to become more militant and people should be given more freedom including womenUniversities were founded for women only especially on the east coast Seven Sisters schools were women only and intended to be the female counterparts of the best male universitiesncreasing agitation for women to get the right to vote Calkins was born to a family that was educated and father was a minister Lived in Massachusetts Parents did not discriminate between their son s and their daughter s Father and mother were fluent in German taught them German at home and kids grew up trilingual 0 She went to Smith College and emphasized the classics Greek Latin Philosophy etc She also became fluent in French Took entrance exams and excused from her freshman year Her sister was ill and became worse so Calkins withdrew to take care of her sister Sister died and she returned to Smith and was retested and was then excused from her junior year Finished her senior year and got her degree Her father took her family to Europe for a year and she taught her brothers and became fluent in Greek When they returned to the US she was asked if she would like to be a professor at another women s college at Wellesley College which was within walking distance of her home She taught philosophy for about a year and then the college wanted to teach this new type of psychology They asked her to do it but she had never taken a psychology course She took a year with pay to become trained in this new psychology She had to find a place to be trained and she decided to go to Harvard She talked to William James who was glad to have her She was declined admission to Harvard She asked if she could come and audit a class and she was told no James who had already said okay and he got together a group including the president of Wellesley and her father to write to the president of Harvard to let her sit in on classes President of Harvard eventually said okay but she was not a student 0 She went to work with James right after he published Principles of Psychology Everyone withdrew when they found out a female was in their course so she had the class one on one with James 0 Went back to Wellesley and established the first laboratory at a woman s college Wellesley College 0 She began to teach psychology and realized that she didn t have enough training and needed more She faced the same road blocks a second time Almost went to Europe to be trained 0 She talked to Hugo Munsterberg who was German and an excellent researcher He told her that he was coming to Harvard to work with James and said that he would be happy for her to join him in his laboratory Upper administration at Harvard eventually relented and let her come and sit again She worked with them for 2 years and did this research also at Clark University After her 2 years with Munsterberg him and James told Harvard Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 6 that she had completed all the requirements for a degree and has accomplished things that most men do not and Harvard should award a doctoral degree James Munsterberg and four others formed a committee and had her present her dissertation She passed and they petitioned Harvard again She never received her doctoral degree from Harvard Her career at Wellesley was divided between psychology and philosophy She published a lot of things that were split between the two topics In psychology she was interested in Women s Gender Studies psychology in children learning theory and dream analysis Offered an honorary doctoral degree from one of the female schools called Radcliffe that was the female affiliation of Harvard she said NO She wanted it from Harvard She did accept an honorary doctoral degree from Colombia and got a second one later from Smith First women to be elected president of APA She was elected president of American Philosophical Society also Christine LaddFranklin Came from wealthy and educated family and went to a female college Graduated in 2 years with an Associated Bachelor s degree in Mathematics High school teacher for a few years She wanted to be a professor and faced the same problems as Calkins Ended up at Johns Hopkins auditing classes not a student As a result she was the first woman in America to finish the requirements for a PhD in mathematics Johns Hopkins did not allow her to have her degree but eventually gave it to her later on in life Ended up marrying a faculty member in mathematics at Johns Hopkins He went on sabbatical and traveled to Europe This allowed her to study with Georg Muller and Helmholtz while they were over there She developed a theory of color vision that didn t work out but it was influential and generated a lot of research Came back to the US and taught for a long time Edward Titchenerwas at Cornell and was a man who was a strong advocate of Wundt s structural psychology He founded a group of professional psychologists in opposition to the APA and said they were not doing quotpsychologyquot This group was called the Experimentalists and was an allmale group LaddFranklin published in Hall s first journal of American psychology American Journal of Psychology She petitioned to Titchener to join the Experimentalists He went through a process with her where he discouraged her from this She continued petitioning him and published in the newspaper an editorial piece on discrimination on women from academics Titchener let her come and give her presentation and then she was excused Margaret Washburn Like LaddFranklin she went to Vassar and got her bachelor s degree She decided she wanted more training and faced many of the same difficulties Ended up at Colombia University working with James Cattell who was famous at that time She was there for 2 years and despite liking Washburn a lot he said it was best if she didn t stay there because Colombia wouldn t give her a doctoral degree Washburn ended up at Cornell and working with Titchener which was one of the few places that accepted women Titchener had just come from England and was looking for graduate students She was Titchener s first graduate student and was not permitted to be in his Experimentalist group until after he died She got her doctoral degree from him and Cornell Offered a job at Vassar and went there to teach Of all women in American psychology she was the first to complete the requirements for a doctoral degree and actually receive it first woman to receive a doctoral in psychology officially Interested in comparative psychology and published The Animal Mind Taught her whole career at Vassar and eventually became president of APA When Titchener died she was admitted to the Experimentalist group and was the first women to be admitted to that group When she retired her students surprised her with a gift of 15000 as a commemoration of her dedication Turned it into a scholarship fund Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 7 End of this chapter look at James Lad Mark Baldwin and focus on the key information Chapter 7 Structuralism and Functionalism Edward Titchener Founder of Structuralism and when he died so did this movement British who was in America more than England but he stayed British his whole life Well trained and had his bachelors and master s degree from Oxford The classical medal was awarded to the superior person in Greek subjects and he was one of the few people to be awarded the prize two times He was very skilled in language even knew Sanskrit He wanted to learn the new psychology that was laboratory based not the type that was being taught in England Worked with Wundt in his laboratory for two years and got his doctoral degree from him He accepted absolutely everything that Wundt was saying Very committed to the notion of the structure of mind He came up with this structural and functional label to distinguish true vs false psychology Looked for a job in England but couldn t find one Had a job arranged for him at Cornell which was a prominently agricultural school at the time and it was a small university Moved from Oxford and Leipzig to a college in the middle of nowhere Stayed at Cornell for the rest of his life He set up a laboratory at Cornell as soon as he arrived and Washburn was his first graduate student He ran his lab by having his house positioned so he could sit in his breakfast room and see who was entering the lab at which time His lab was run very much like Wundt s and you were assigned a topic and you completed the work He would look at your final product and it was either approved or disapproved Developed a reputation in American psychology that was positive and negative Positive he was a clear theorist and wrote things that were compelling to read even if you didn t believe it you could admire the logic he used He wrote Experimental Psychology was where he outlined exactly what psychology was and how you should conduct your research Two volumes for student two volumes for researcher When Hall founded the APA they had a meeting and it was to establish the charter and elect members Titchener declined to come but the founders of APA elected him a member He virtually never attended a meeting even when a meeting was held on the campus of Cornell He instead sent a graduate student to post a notice that he would receive people to come speak to him from a certain time that day The only thing psychology should investigate is mind We need to investigate conscious mind in adults who have a normal mind We are looking for what makes up the mind and its structure If we stray from this we are a scientist not a psychologist This is at a time when America is studying things like animal psychology mental institutions lO psychology etc When he died his views died too Sensations were things we studied because they are not only mental elements in themselves but they also make up perceptions We study them by introspection which is the only way we can study them Made up a term called llextensity where a person tries to describe how much consciousness is taken up by this sensory experience Also made up llprotensity which is another word for duration or how long it lasts quotAttensityquot is for attention or measure of how vivid the sensation is Affections are the basic elements of emotional life Should be described by Tridimensional Theory Wundt said emotions vary from 3 different types pleasantnessunpleasant tension relaxation Titchener said those aren t mental but physical We could study llimagesquot which is what is left over after we have had a sensory experience These make up ideas that we can study Titchener differs from Wundt because he is more rigid than him His structuralism was more strict and rigid and less adaptable Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 8 0 Appreciate the significance don t interpret it just tell me the sensation Titchener felt that this notion of mental action is an unnecessary assumption and perception is nothing more than a group of associations Perception is a mechanical automatic process which was described in Context Theory of Meaning when we are presented with a sensory experience it is something that can be changed into a perception if we have prior associations with that sensation and placing it in a context of previous associations 1 Core experience 2 Place core experience in a context We can have a sensation of an object but not a perception if we don t have an association of the object Did not want to include the notion of mental actions 0 Functionalism made the case that if we were able to identify every element that makes up our minds we still wouldn t be describing what mind is because our minds differ in what those elements are The functionalists focus on what the mind can do what is the function of mind Use evolutionary theory as a way of explaining Chapter 9 Gestalt Psychology o If you try to describe mind as being made up of pieces you are overlooking its primary characteristics Mind does not separate things but puts things together into groups and organizes our experiences into things that make sense 0 Behaviorism reacted to structuralism and functionalism The complaint was neither structuralism nor functionalism made progress of developing a science If you try to study mind you are dealing with something impossible to apply the scientific method to John Dewey o Functionalism was very broad and not systematic They shared a notion that they were not looking for content of what the mind is made of but instead practical descriptions of what the mind could do and you use that information 0 William James denied being a functionalist and said he wasn t part of it but did have some pieces that reflected the functional ideas 0 Two schools of functionalism Chicago functionalists and Colombia functionalists 0 John Dewey was the founder of the Chicago functionalists 0 He was someone born in Vermont and went to University of Vermont high school teacher and then decided to pursue psychology Went to Johns Hopkins and went into Hall s lab Worked with Hall for 2 years and in that time he got his doctoral degree He then went to UniversityofMichigan and was there for 10 years in the psychology department He began to make a name for himself and as a result he was invited to be the chairman of the psychology department at UniversityofChicago 0 Publication of the first functional article Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology 0 Challenge the structuralists ideas by saying the way to understand the mind is to break it down into pieces He attacks the molecular view If you think about a reflex you think of a response and you can describe it o Dewey points out that there is a function involved and it is more like a circuit than an arc Stimulus feeds back It s inadequate to explain anything as a molecular chain of events 0 Apply functionalism in education 0 All of this is based on facultypsychology the belief that we are made of powers and abilities and we can strengthen these things with exercise mental calisthenics o Shift in the way children are taught in school move away from rigid drills to a more relaxed approach of establishing rich environments in which children could explore 0 He got into a disagreement with the administration at University of Chicago so he left He had already established Chicago as a major training ground He moved entirely out of psychology and completely into education When he left he appointed one of his students as chair of the department Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page l9 James R Angeli Appointed by Dewey Did his undergrad and master s degree under Dewey He then decided he would do additional work outside of Michigan and he went to Harvard and worked with William James and got a second master s degree from Harvard He then decided to go to Europe for his doctoral degree Wundt didn t have positions available at Leipzig but he still went and worked with Ebbinghaus and came back to the US never got his doctoral degree Moved away from structuralism Angell and Dewey said not only study function of mind but also children animals business education apply these things to working world and help with what we learn Very much broader than what Titchener thought was appropriate so he called them philosophers and practitioners but not psychologists Chairman of psychology department for 25 years and also the dean of the college Became more involved in administration and ended up leaving Chicago for the presidency at Yale He appointed one of his students to be chairman Ha rvey Ca rr One of Angell s students that took over as chairman Bachelors and master s from university of Colorado Went to Chicago for more training and worked under Angell Became friend of Watson s and they jointly conducted research After he got his degree he then joined the faculty at Chicago and stayed there for many years John Waton One of Angell s other students Both Watson and Carr were interested in applying to animals both made mazes for animals Watson was the founder of behavioralism JamesCattell Had personality issues and spoiled Went to a school in PA and went to Europe to travel and study for 2 years came back to the US Wanted to go to Hall s new lab atJohns Hopkins Hall refused to renew him for the second year because he fought with the president of Johns Hopkins Went back to Europe Catell was Wundt s first American student to earn a PhD He didn t like Wundt either He wouldn t do the introspective analysis that Wundt thought was the basis of psychology Interested in individual differences Cattell did this study on apperceptive span Wundt sponsored this research and thought it was okay In England he found someone he got along with Fechner Francis Galton changed his career he liked the fact that Galton was also interested in individual differences Cattell became a major advocate for eugenics Cattell established the first laboratory that could be used by undergraduate students at the University of Pennsylvania Got a job at Colombia and stayed there for the rest of his life Wanted to do what Galton did regarding mental tests and reliable measurements of how people differ mentally Coined the expressions llmental tests Result was negative His grad students showed the correlation between academic performance and mental tests were very low and not predictive He was right though that these mental tests DO NOT correlate with academic performance They are useless at predicting Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 10 He 39 39 r 39 the most r 39g39 I 39 quot 39 in America called Science who was owned by Alexander Graham Bell and Cattell bought it from him and made it into a number one journal in America He founded a journal the third in America called Psychological Review and published detailed articles on library books important source of theory instruction Founded another Journal of Consulting Psychologz the way psychology can be used to help in everyday life don t keep psychology in universities let s use it to help improve Founded the first profit making corporation employing psychological theory originally called The Psychological Corporation which was bought by Pearson Known as an administrator Career ended related to his personality he was a pacifist and he was opposed to US getting into war with Europe so he protested from military service First they said you won t have to kill anyone and you won t even be armed moved them to the front line and put them in charge of moving bodies Cattell published a paper objecting this policy and made a mistake by typing this on letterhead from Colombia He was accused of being a coward and treasonous and fired Robert Woodworth Friends with Thorndike and in human research they tested the notion of faculties of mind and mental calisthenics and you can strengthen mental traits by exercise with mental tasks Called transfer oftraining and had a theory called Identical Elements Theory where they tested high school students and looked at inner correlations between various types of courses English was correlated with other scores is there any different correlation if the person has another classical language No it does not Your score in tough courses isn t any more predictive than any other course Took this to a laboratory setting and had people estimate the area of rectangles and let them estimate the area ofcircles They found that the training from rectangles was carried over to circles Degree of similarity is the important factor not the strengthen factor of the mind EL Thorndike Masters with James at Harvard Set up mazes in his house where chickens could run through done in James basement and James children helped take care of the chickens Doctoral degree with Cattell and offered a job at Colombia This is the type of animal psychology we are used to Responsible for coming up with a theory of operant learning that we still use He introduced reinforcement with animals in quotpuzzle boxes used cats and recorded over trials how long it took the cat to get out Learning is incremental process ie learning curve and learning is the same for all animals no difference in species of animals nor even for children Also believed that learning is automatic and not a result of effort Reinforcement fundamental theory of learning cat would do random things in order to get out and in the process of doing this random behavior Thorndike believed that no learning took place until the reward was received and called this the law of effect and formulated it as two stages if behavior has a positive outcome associations will be stamped in if behavior has a negative outcome associations will be stamped out Modified his law of effect by dropping the second component negative outcomes if predictable then it will be learned Predictable outcome learning facilitated no matter if it is positive or negative Originally thought using a behavior would make learning stronger Less you use something the weaker it is and the less you learn law of exercise use and disuse 0 He said this is not true because if behavior didn t result in a predictable outcome than it isn t learned Test 4 Psychology 4008 Page 11 Max Wertheimer o Came up with original idea of Gestalt psychology FOUNDER 0 Saw challenge to Wundtian structure we know every still image a person is presented with when you combine them it is no longer a still image and is now a continuous motion mutoscope this is something the mind generates beyond the individual elements Term Gestalt means configuration or the form something takes people who advocate the notion that the mind is creating this configuration based on the information that is given the purpose of the mind is to make sense of these things Kurt Koffka 0 One of the people who helped Wertheimer with Gestalt psychology Wolfgang Kohler 0 Also helped with Gestalt psychology ImmanuelKant o This psychology comes from GermanRationaism o Gestalt psychology is a direct from Kant s theories William Wundt was also a precursor to Gestalt psychology The mind is free and is something unique People also point to William James who thought mind is best not seen as additive bits but as continuous and changing flow He was strongly opposed to breaking down pieces of the mind Edmund Husserl founded the movement of phenomenology when we study mind if we constrain the subject to break things down into pieces we are destroying what they actually felt We should study the complete phenomenon Psych 4008 Thursday January 20 2011 0 Chapter 1 o Historiography I Something that involves theoretical constructs where you writing technique is guided by principles I Histories are selective o Historians have to pick and choose things from the past and sometimes they worry that their biasis will get in the way I Historians want to avoid bias 0 Presentismvs historicism o Presentist approach in which you look at past events people and facts from the current point of view I Most common problem is a smugness that the state of knowledge today is better than it ever has been We have a tendency to look at the past constructs with a smug attitude ex can you believe people once believed in dragons 0 Historic approach is to look at the past in the point that happened I Historics can be a problem because you can lose sight of the past events I Our book uses the historic point of view 0 Internal vs External History our book uses in between 0 Internal I Restricts to only direct people or events 0 External I Tends to talk about some discipline from the point of view from surrounding events I Ex these changes also happened along with other major events that happened 0 Personalistic vs naturalistic our book is also in the middle for this 0 Personalistic I Based on the notion that important historical change comes about because there are important historical figures that innovate and it is those that make change I This approach you would develop the theory that we have psycho because of Freud o Naturalistic 0 Changes that are occurring are changes that are the product of these forces of work outside of multiples that come up of this because it is part of the environment Zeitgeistortgeist I Some terminology Determinism O lndeterminism O The spirit of the time zeitgeist The spirit of the place ortgeist Our ortgeist we are the blessed occupants of the southern united states and if we leave this location the other people seem to be odd Events are caused by something If you want to explain these things life ex then you look for the cause Things are not ridgidly determined by previous events There is a degree of liberty Tied to the notion that we have free will and we choose what we want to do We can direct our own action Empiricismrationalism O O Empiricism How do we form our belief systems Epistemology the study of how we know What forms the basis of human knowledge They want to know llhow can you be so certain that the sky is green is so false and yet capital punishment is up for debate If two people believe something then the epistemologist would say that you are closer to having it be true Empiricism is based on human experience you have to see it do it hold it This is the basis of science Rationalism Also something we use to devise what is true and what is not Rationalism is a type of approach to truth that does not rely on our human experience There are many things that we can not experience it The basis is thought This is the foundation for things like gravitation our universe is infinite in destination we don t know this and can t imagine going on forever lnductivedeductive has to do with method of gaining information 0 lnductive


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