INTR TO PSYC
INTR TO PSYC PSYC 2000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Lutfi-Proctor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222964/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology Psychology and Its subfield What is psychology Scientific study ofbehavior and mental processes 0 Behavior 0 Mental processes Goals of Psychology Description Explanation Prediction Control Who is a psychologist Psychologist vs Psychiatrist Psychologist identify the problem MD and psychiatrist prescribe medication PHD Areas in Psychology Clinical Developmental Experimental Cognitive Industrial Social Personality Neuropsychology Comparative History of Psychology 0 Philosophers medical doctors physiologist o Entered the realm of sciences approximately 130 years ago Wilhelm Wundt 0 Germany 0 Physiologist attempting to apply scientific principles to the study of human mind Mind made up ofthoughts experiences emotions and other basic elements Could study the mind by objectively observing one39s own thought s Objective introspection Edward Titchener 0 One of Wundts39 Students 0 Cornell University 0 Expanded on Wundts39 ideas to create the viewpoint known as structuralism o Sensations feelings and images r How the mind allows people to adapt live work and play 0 William James 0 Believed it was too early to study consciousness as it is like a ever changing stream Gestalt Psychology Max Wertheimer o Studied sensation and perception 0 These things could not be broken down farther and still be properly understood 0 the whole is greater than the sum of its partsquot 0 Focus on patterns rather than the pieces Other Viewpoints o Psychoanalysis o Sigmand Freud o Behaviorism 0 John B Watson 0 Focus on observable behavior Modern Perspectives o Psychodynamic o unconscious mind and its in uence on conscious behavior 0 Behavioral o Humanistic 0 Free Will and strive for selfactualization Modern Perspectives Cont d Cognitive 0 Memory perception thought processes learning etc Sociocultural o Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture Biopsychological o Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body such as genetic in uences hormones and the activity ofthe nervous system Evolutionary o Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share Ch 1 The Science of Psychology The scientific method 1 Develop a question 2 Form a hypothesis 3 Test the hypothesis 4 Come to a conclusion 5 Share the results 6 Replication Hypothesis vs theory Hypothesis testable predication of what happen under certain conditions Theory comprehensive explanation of observable effects Hallmarks of a good theory As few assumptions and as many predictions as possible Should predict new observations Falsifiable makes sufficiently precise predictions that evidence could be found to contradict it Principle of Parsimony preference for simple explanations Empirical or scientific questions 0 Can be tested 0 Who on average is taller men or women 0 Are there other earthlike planets 0 Does music help or hinder us while studying o A matter of proof and evidence not belief Information gathering Validity the extent to which a concept conclusion or measurement is wellfounded and corresponds accurately to the real world Validity External Validity To what extent can the results be generalized to other peopleanimals and situations Internal Validity to what extent is your manipulation causing the effects Ecological Validity how much does the setting approximate a realword setting Naturalistic Observation A careful examination ofwhat many people of nonhuman animals do under more or less natural conditions Advantages Realistic picture ofwhat is occurring in the natural setting Disadvantages o Observer bias 0 Blind observers 0 Each naturalistic setting unique Laboratory Observations Sometimes naturalistic observation is not a practical or feasible option Advantage 0 Great level of control over the situation 0 Use of equipment Disadvantage 0 An artificial settingsituation o Observer bias Case studies An individual is studied in great detail Advantages o Tremendous amount of detail 0 Only way to get certain kinds of information Disadvantages 0 Can39t necessarily apply information to others 0 Observation bias Surveys Series of questions about a topic Advantages 0 Private Information 0 Tremendous amount of data on large group of people Disadvantages o Truthfulness of statements 0 Courtesy bias give you What you want to hear 0 Questions wording and order Gathering information 0 Population the entire group ofindividuals to be considered 0 Sample the small number ofpeople that are studied examined out ofthe larger population 0 Representative sample 0 Random sampling Finding Determining relationships 0 Methods so far provide descriptions 0 Relationships 0 Correlations 0 Experiments Correlations measures the relationship between two or more variables Variables is anything that can change or vary Scores age gender health species light Etc Correlational study a procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables without controlling either ofthem Correlation coefficient a mathematical estimate ofthe relationship between two variables 0 Ranges 1 to 1 Represents two things 1 Direction fa relationship 2 Strength Knowing the value of one vriable allows researches to predict the value ofthe other variable The closer to 1 or 1 the stronger the relationship No correlation 0 Perfect correlation 1 or 1 Positive correlation variables are related in the same direction As one increases the other increase as one decreases the other decreases Negative correlation are related in opposite direction Correlation does not imply causation 0 Does X lead to y 0 Does y lead to x o Is Z causing both X and Y o Spurious correlation Experiment Allows researches to determine the cause of a behavior 0 A study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable Variable Independent Variable The item that an experiment changes or controls Dependent variable The item than experimenter measures to determine how it was affected Extraneouscofounding variable These are variables the in uence the outcome of an experiment though they are not variables that are actually of interest Operational definition A definition that specifies the operations used to produce or measure something a way to give it a numerical value 0 Experimental group 0 Control group 0 Random assignment Experiment bias Tendency of an experiment to distort the procedure or results of an experiment based on the expected outcome ofthe study Singleblind study either the observer ofthe participant are unaware of the treatment given Doubleblind study both the observer and participant are unaware of the treatment given Ethics 0 Institutional Review Boards 0 00000000 Animals What does the study have to add to science How does this merit weigh in terms of participants rights Informed decisions Is deception justified Withdrawal at any time Limitation of risk awareness ofthem Debrief Confidential data Correction of negative consequences Why use them They have shorter lives Easier to control can be used in ways people cannot Limitations unnecessary pain or suffering only used in about 7 of all psychological studies
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