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by: Javonte Nolan


Javonte Nolan
GPA 3.83

S. Martin

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S. Martin
Class Notes
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Nolan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2040 at Louisiana State University taught by S. Martin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222965/psyc-2040-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Review Friday May 011 2012 850 PM Introduction and Methods Know the terms 0 Correlation naturally occuring relation among variation 0 Experimental seeks clues to causeeffect relationships by manipulating one or more variables l Correlation Experimental l Broader range of phenomena ll Limited range of theories that can be tested l Natural setting H May be artificial l Often easier cheaper faster l May be timeconsuming and costly l Doesn t apply causation l Can imply causation 0 Independent variable experimental factor that a researcher manipulates O Dependent variable variable being measured depends on manipulations of the independent variable 0 Extraneous variable variable that affects the DV and is not the IV 0 Internal validity the degree to which a casual relationship bw the IV and DV is demonstrated without interference by extraneous variable I Are your measures reliable and valid Dutton and Aron Attraction Study bridge study 39 Methodological flaws 0 Random assignment all participants have the same chance of being in a given condition I The great equalizer Helps to eliminate extraneous variables 0 External validity the degree to which an experimental finding applies to people and situations beyond its sample and single observation Generalizability I Scienti c method 0 Goals 3 I Description Prediction I Understanding Differences between social psychology personality psychology and sociology Social psych Personaliy psych Explain human behavior Explain human behavior Examine individual Examine individual Explains behavior by focusing on a person39s Explains behavior by focusing on differences in social situation character traits Social psych Sociology Explain human behavior Explain human behavior Explains behavior by focusing on a person39s social situation Explains behavior by focusing on social situations Examines the individual People in the Examines the group Overarching social factors individual39s environment their influence general patterns of behavior class attitudes and their behavior conflict competition bw ethnic groups The Self Know the terms 0 Selfconcept person39s answer to the question quotwho am iquot I I am caitlin Friend of rachel and jill We re cool kids This is dumb I am far too complex for 10 words so get the fuck out I The content of the self known aspects out knowledge about who we are I malleable 0 Schema mental templates by which we organize our worlds Element of the selfconcept I Beliefs about self that organize and guide the prcessing of all selfrelevant info I Shy schema 0 Spotlight effect belief that others are paying more attention to one39s own appearance and behavior than they really are 0 Intrinsic perform activity bc you enjoy it 0 Extrinsic perform bc of external rewards or pressures 0 Social tuning adopting another person39s attitude so as to get along with that individual Know the theories 0 Bem39s selfperception theory We sometimes infer our attitudes and feelings from past behaviors I Remember past behavior I Derive current attitude I Bem uses the example ofa man who is asked whether he likes brown bread he replies quotI must like it I39m always eating itquot I We do this when I Current attitudes or feelings are unclear Pertinent past behaviors were intrinsically motivated Schachter39s twofactor theory of emotion I Emotions arise from Physiological arousal followed by I Explanation for that physiological arousal bridge study I Schachter and Singer 1962 Methods I Participants injected with a vitamin and told them they may experience some side effects Asked to fill out a questionnaire with another participant a confederate I Conditions independentvariables I Injection epinephrine vs placebo I Side effects correct vs incorrect symptoms Increased HR energy vs drowsiness and lethargy I Confederate angry confederate vs euphoric confederate I Behavior measured DV Theory states emotion determined by physiological arousal and best explanation for that physiological arousal bridge I Results Told correct symptom reported emotion wasn t affected by confederate I Told incorrect symptom reported emotions matching that of the confederate Interpretation I Emotions can be arbitrary I May depend on most plausible explanation for the physiological arousal bridge study Selfregulatory resource model I Effortful selfcontrol depletes our limited willpower reserves I Our brain39s central executive consumes available blood sugar when engages in self control What in uences how we define our sense of self 3 0 What influences how we define our sense of self 1 Development I Childhood concrete self concept Finite characteristics eyehair color Adulthood abstract Psychological states thoughts feelings beliefs 2 Culture I Western Independent Use one39s own internal thoughts feelings and actions outgoing friendly stubborn I Eastern Interdependent Uses one39s relationships to other people Daughter employee student etc Widespread effects I Conversation styles reflect sense of self McCarthy Western convo stule Independent self focused Tennis Back and forth conversations 39 Eastern con vo style I Interdependent relationship focused Bowling conversation is linear 3 Gender I Women Relationshipinterdependence I Focused on close relationships Spouse or child I Men Collectiveinterdependence Focused on memberships in larger groups Being an American or in afrat I Ways to gain self knowledge 3 1 Introspection looking inward and examining your thoughts feelings and motives 0 Problems with introspection 1 Infrequency of introspection 2 Info gained through introspection Appropriate info may not be accessible Many mental processes occur outside of awareness I Often aware of the result but not the process I How we form attitudes opinions emotions Accessibility theory I Wilson39s dual attitude system I 2 types of mental processes Implicit automatic I Explicit conscious I One often controls behavior implicit and explicit often explains behavior Accesibility consequences I Inaccurate assessment make decisions based on incorrect information Accurate but incomplete assessment by providing reasons for an attitude you may focus on those reasons are easy to access and verbalize Problems can lead to faulty decision making I Info gained may not be accurate 2 Observing our own behavior Bem39s selfperception theory We sometimes infer our attitudes and feelings from past behaviors I Remember past behavior I Derive current attitude I Bem uses the example ofa man who is asked whether he likes brown bread he replies quotI must like it I39m always eating itquot I Schachter39s twofactor theory of emotion I Emotions arise from I Physiological arousal followed by I Explanation for that physiological arousal bridge study Social interaction Social contact is critical to development of a selfconcept 39 Ex Gallup39s ape studies only those apes raised with others passed the quotmarkquot mirror test How you learn from social interaction 39 Social comparisons I Compare ourselves to others Social Comparison Theory Festinger 1954 I Learn about our abilities and attitude by comparing ourselves to other people When I When objective criteria for self evaluation aren39t present I Ex comparing your grade with others I Adopting views of others Social tuning adopting another person39s attitude so as to get along with that individual Social Beliefs and Judgments Terms to know 0 Priming unattended stimuli that39s processes implicitly unconsciously 0 Representative heuristics lump person into a group I Neglecting base rate truck driver example 0 Availability heuristic I Likelihood judgments based on their availability in memory I The more easily we recall something the more likely it seems O Expectations may cause inaccuracies I Confirmation biassearch for info that confirms one39s preconceptions astrology I Problem is perseverance of stereotypes and prejudice I Illusory correlations perception of a relationship where none actually exists I Mood effects I Moodstate dependent retrieval current mood influences the types of memories you recall Depression may be partly caused by this 0 Self fulfilling prophecy O Belief that leads to its own fulfillment 0 About yourself or others Theories to know 0 Fundamental attribution error underestimate situational factors and overestimate internal factorals o Kelley39s theory of attrubutions in order to make internal dispositions vs external situational attribution you need multiple observations with and without possible causative factors I Focuses on I Consensus I How everyone behaves toward the stimulus person I Ex do other employees criticize this coworkers I Distinctiveness I How the person behaves in general I Consistency How the person behaves toward the stimulus over time and in different circumstances I Problems I Portray people as systematic and logical I Neglect selfserving motives and biases in reasoning Types of information used to form impressions from people 4 1 Physical cues I Appearance I Halo effect perception of one trait is influenced by the perception of another trait of that person or object I Ex Judging a goodlooking person as more intelligent I Behavior I nfer personality traits from certain behaviors I Ex Helping an elderly person across the street nice person I Nonverbalcommunication I How people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without words Eg facial expressions tone of voice gestures body position I Expresses emotions attitudes personality traits I Mirror neurons 2 Role schema I Concrete role teacher mother politician I Benefits I More distinct then traits ie outgoing vs cheerleader I Recalled better 3 Salient cues Attention directed to info that stands out I Consequences I Salient info draws more attention to speci c cues than subtle info I May give more weight to cues with more salience I Can produce extreme evaluative judgments I Ex person with a very loud voice 4 Categories Gender race social class etc What types of processing directs our social judgments 2 1 Controlled processing Judging using careful consideration 0 Advantages Can arrive at an accurate conclusion through the use of logic I Not as influences by certain biases O Disadvantages Somewhat slow I Cant handle a vast amount of info 2 Automatic processing judgments are impulsive effortless and without our awareness 0 Advantages I Quick and efficient I Provides a lot of info quickly I Allows room for additional processing occurs in the background More accurate with I Expertise I Large amounts of info apartment study I Can use info not available to controlled processing I Blind sight 0 Disadvantages Inaccuracies due to I Speed I Heuristics mental shortcuts Expectations Confirmation bias I Illusory correlations I Mood I Representative heuristics lump person into a group Neglecting base rate truck driver example I Availability heuristic Likelihood judgments based on their availability in memory The more easily we recall something the more likely it seems I Expectations may cause inaccuracies Confirmation biassearch for info that confirms one39s preconceptions astrology I Problem is perseverance of stereotypes and prejudice Illusory correlations perception of a relationship where none actually exists Mood effect I Moodstate dependent retrieval current mood influences the types of memories you recall Depression may be partly caused by this Automatic processing uses information gained from what sources 4 1 Schemas Emotional reactions Expertise Unconscious thinking priming PP Attitudes and Behaviors Terms to know 0 Classical conditioning learned association between a neutral stimulus and a unconditioned stimulus O Operant conditioning learned association between a specific behavior and reinforcement Theories to know 0 Fishbein and Ajzen39s theory of planned behavior I Factors that predict when planned deliberate behaviors match reported attitudes I Three factors I Specificity of the attitude I Attitude towards a specific behavior I Not a specific attitude environmentally responsible Specific attitudes dislinking littering 39 Subjective norms I How the person believes their behavior will be viewed by others Social desirability bias I Perceived behavioral control I Ease of performing the behavior selfefficacy I You can be very health conscious but won39t perform healthy behaviors if you don t believe you will 0 cognitive dissonance Tension that arises with 2 inconsistent cognitions I Behavior doesn t math attitude I To reduce this tension we adjust our thinking Cognitive dissonance study boring study I Participants complete a very dull and boring task I Asked to praise this study to the next participant confederate I 2 groups 1 paid 1 and 1 paid 20 I Completed a questionnaire to rate the enjoyment of the task I Individuals paid 1 rated their enjoyment of the task much higher than those who paid 20 20 group for the money I 1 group must have liked it why would I lied Components of an attitude 3 O Affect emotional reaction toward the attitude object o Cognition the belief about the attitude object 0 Behavior actions taken with respect to the attitude object I Types of Attitudes 2 O Explicit O Attitudes we consciously endorse and can easily report 0 Measured by selfreport O Implicit O Involuntary uncontrollable unconscious evaluations 0 Measured by Implicit Association Test IAT When do attitudes predict behaviors 3 1 When other influences are minimal 0 Ex social influences 2 When attitudes are specific to the behavior are examined 3 When attitudes are potent strong Behaviors that change attitudes 4 1 Role playing I Role set of norm that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave I Philip zimbardo39s stanford39s prison study 2 Saying Becomes Believing I When there39s no compelling external explanation for one39s words 3 Foot in the door phenomenon I Tendency for people to agree to a large request after agreeing to a small one 4 Evil and moral acts I Wartime I Actions and attitudes feed on each other When evil becomes behavior occurs we ted to justify it as right I Peacetime I Moral actions especially when chose rather than coerced affect moral thinking Conformity and Obedience Terms to know 0 Obedience Performance of an act at an authority figure s request 0 AcceptanceBelieving as well as acting according to social pressure 0 ConformityA change in behavior due to the real or imagined influence of others Theories to know O Latane39s social impact theory conforming to normative social pressures depends on I Strength personal importance I Immediacy physical proximity I Number of people in a group I What predicts conformity 6 1 Group size s As group size increases so does conformity I Groups greater than 5 yield diminishing returns 2 Unanimity Observing another39s dissent can increase our own independence 3 Cohesion I quotwe feelingquot extent to which members of a group are bound together I More cohesion equals more power over its members 4 Status I Highstatus people tend to have more impact on conformity 5 Public Response Conformity increases when responding in front of others vs writing answers privatelt 6 No prior commitment I Most people having made a public commitment stick to it I Ex promise rings Why Conform 2 I Informational influence 0 Occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people Produced by desire to be correct I Normative Influence 0 Based on a person39s desire to fulfill other39s expectations often to gain acceptance 0 Why Negative emotions may accompany going against group 0 When I Latane39s social impact theory conforming to normative social pressures depends on I Strength personal importance I Immediacy physical proximity I Number of people in a group 0 Who I Factors I Personalityis a poor predictor of conformity situations are better I Culture I Different cultures socialize people to be more or less socially responsive I Social Roles I Conforming to expectations is an important task when taking on a new social role When do we conform due to informational in uence 3 u The situation is ambiguous I The situation is a crisis I When other people are experts Persuasion Terms to know 0 Persuasion process by which a message induces changes in beliefs attitudes or behaviors O Sleeper effect delayed impact we remember the message but forget the reason for initially discounting it 0 Discrepancyshoud I argue an extreme opinion I When the message significantly diverges from the audience39s opinionbehavior Its efficacy depends on I The communicator39s credibility higher cred elicits the most opinion change when the communicator39s opinion is greatly discrepant from the audience I Audience39s engagement with the issue 0 Primacy effect info presented first usually has the most influence I Occurs when there39s a significant delay bw when the audience receives the message and then must act upon that message 0 Recency effect info presented last sometimes has the most influence I The audience needs to act immediately upon the message Theories to know 0 Reactance Theory 0 When strong prohibitions threaten a person39s feeling of freedom 0 Result boomerang in attempt to restore that feeling of freedom 0 Pennebaker and Sanders 1976 Found that graffiti was reduced more by a sign with a mild prohibition than by a sign with a strong one Paths to persuasion 2 0 Central Route 0 Occurs when people are interested in the topic 0 Focus on the arguments O Respond with favorable thoughts 0 More durable and more likely to influence behavior 0 Peripheral route 0 Occurs when people are uninterested or unfamiliar with the topic 0 Not focused on the actual content of the argument 0 Influenced by incidental cues I eg speaker39s attractiveness 0 Focus on cues that trigger automatic acceptance without much thinking 0 Superficial and temporary attitude change When do each of these paths of persuasion occur 3 for each path Elements of persuasion 3 O Comunicator 0 Message 0 Audience Factors that signi cantly impact the persuasiveness of the message 4 O Onesided vs twosided appeals I Which one is more effective depends on I Whether the audience already agrees with the message If they are unaware of opposing arguments and are unlikely to consider the oppositiongt one sided appeal I Whether the audience will hear a counter argument I Attitude inoculation I Twosided appeal works best 0 Primacy vs recency I Primacy effect info presented first usually has the most influence I Occurs when there39s a significant delay bw when the audience receives the message and then must act upon that message Recency effect info presented last sometimes has the most influence I The audience needs to act immediately upon the message Group Influence Terms to know 0 group Two or more people who for longer than a few moments interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as quotusquot 0 Social Facilitation By the mere presence of others dominant responses are strengthened whether correct or incorrect 0 Social Loafing Tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their effort toward a common goal 0 YerkesDodsin Law why social loafing I decreasing evaluation apprehension lowers arousal I Increasing task complexity raises arousal O Deindividuation loss of self and 39 quot Fr 39 0 Group polarization Groupproduced enhancement of members39 preexisting tendencies Theories to know 0 Zaj onc39s theory of Social Facilitation 3 possible mechanisms behind increased physiological arousal 1 Alertness People39s behavior isn39t perfectly predictable vigilance is required for potential interactions 2 Evalutation apprehension Concern for how individuals are evaluating your performance Enhancement of dominant responses id strongest when people think they are being evaluated 3 Distraction Divide attention between the task we39re performing and paying attention to the presence of others Bene ts to joining a group 3 1 Providing information 2 Helping us de ne our identity 3 Establishes social norms for behavior Functions of a group 2 Qualities of a group 1 0 Social normsguidance as to which behaviors are acceptable and the consequences of violating these behaviors I Leads to pressure to conform 0 Social roles provide welldefined roles or shared expectations about how particular people are supposed to behave I Advantages I Roles facilitate social interaction I Disadvantages I Loss of personal identity I Ex Zimbardo39s Prison study I Acting inconsistently with social roles may have severe consequences Ex quotfemalequot role in patriarchal society 0 Group cohesiveness the qualities of a group that bind members together promoters liking between group members I Correlated with I Group attrition negatively I Participation in group activities positively I Recruiting new members positively Can interfere with task performance I Eg group think Factors affecting Deindividuation 3 1 Group size n The larger the group the more its members lose self awareness and become willing to commit atrocities I Groups render individuals unideni ifiabe perceive fhe acfion as fhe group 395 aci ion I Since quoteveryone is doing ifquot fhey affribufe behavior fo fhe sifuafion rafher fhan fheir own choices 2 Physical anonymity Being anonymous makes one less self conscious more group conscious and more responsive to cues present in the situation I Whether negative or positive I Zimbardo 39s experimean dressed women in KKK hoods and asked fo deliver elecfric shocks lo a woman and fhey pressed fhe shock fwice as long as did women who were unconcealed and wearing name fags 3 PhysiologicallyArousing and Distracting Activities I When we act in an impulsive way as a group we39re not thinking about our values we are reacting to the immediate situation I Aggressive oufbursls by large groups offen are preceded by minor acfions fhaf disfracf and diverf people 39s affenfion shoufing chanfing dancing serve to hype people up and reduce selfconsciousness Prejudice Terms to know I lngroup bias two parts 0 Positive feelings and special treatment we reserve for people we have defined as being part of our ingroup O Negative feelings and unfair treatment we reserve for others simply because we have defined them as being in the outgroup groups which an individual doesn39t identify with 0 May be due to selfesteem maintenance I Supports a positive selfconcept Out group homogeneity bias 0 The perception that those in the outgroup are more similar homogenous to each other than they really are 0 Ownrace bias tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race I Cross race effects in eyewitness identification I Numerous studies have found significantly more false identifications when the quotwitnessquot is identifying someone of a different race Contact Hypothesis reduce prejudice by mere exposure to outgroup Prejudice Preconceived negative judgment ofa group and its individual members Discrimination unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members Stereotypes a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people Sometimes inaccurate overgeneralized and resistant to new information 0 Stereotype Threats Subtyping accommodating individuals who deviate from one39s stereotype by thinking of them as quotexceptions to the rulequot 0 Subgrouping accommodating individuals who deviate from one39s stereotype by forming a new stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group Theories to know 0 Realistic Con ict Theory Limited resources lead to conflict between groups 0 Results in increased prejudice and discrimination 0 Several studies document that discrimination against outgroups correlates with the scarcity of jobs or other resources 0 Irish potato famine caused conflict between those in America and those coming to America threat of taking jobs 0 Robber39s Cave Experiment 0 Cognitive explanation for prejudice O Prejudices arises as a byproduct of categorization schemas and heuristics O Prejudice persists because of faulty memory processes problems processing info Allport s conditions to be met for the contact hypothesis to be successful 6 1 Mutual Interdependence 0 Black and white team mates must work to coordinate plays 2 Common goal 0 Win the championship 3 Equal status among group members 0 They all had to run together 0 Both white and black team cocaptains 4 Having informal interpersonal contact 0 Had to be roomates sit next to each other at lunch etc 5 Multiple contacts with outgroup O Forced to get to know each other well interview 6 Social norms O Took them away to camp isolated them from outside influences O A superficial environment without societal pressures O Treated according to performance not race 0000 O Aggression Terms to know 0 Hostile Aggression Driven by anger and performed as an end in itself murder 0 Instrumental Aggression Aggression that is a means to some other end Terrorism war 0 Displacement the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration Generally the new target is a safermore socially acceptable target Theories to know Theories of Aggression where does aggression come from lBiological 2Behavioral 3Social 0 Biological theories of aggression 3 O Instinct theory and evolutionary psychology instinctive behavior Innate unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species Neural influences Buss 2004 argues that aggression is genetically programmed into men to enable them to perpetuate their genes 0 Abnormal brains can contribute to abnormally aggressive behavior Amygdala brain structure associated with aggressive behaviors 0 Biochemical influences Alcohol Depresses social inhibitors I Testosterone I Low serotonin levels Behavioral theories 2 O O Frustration aggression theory Aggress1on as a Response to Frustration frustration triggers a readiness to aggress I Frustration Blocking of goaldirected beh IT quot thequotquoto 39 avior to a target other than the source of the frustration Generally the new target is a safermore socially acceptable target I Example Barker Dembo and Lewin 1941 I Kept a group of children waiting in a room lled with toys that were not within their reach When they finally got to play with them they played much more destructiver than did the control group Problem with this theory Explains hostile aggression not instrumental aggression 0 Relative deprivation theor Perception that one is less well off than others with whom one compares oneself I Explains why happiness tends to be lower and crime rates higher in communities and nations with large income inequality 0 Social learning theory We learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished Bandura Family how they punish children presence of father I Culture CatharsisTheory Freud Psychoanalytic theory I I More than just quotblowing off steamquot or quotgetting it out of your systemquot I Aggression can be reduced by Performing an aggressive act I Watching others engage in aggressive behavior I Engage in fantasy aggression Many studies suggests that this is actually increases aggression rather than decreasing it Biological Factors that in uence aggression 3 1 Physical pain 2 Other bodily discomforts I Heat humidity air pollution offensive odors 3 Arousal A given state of bodily arousal feeds one emotion of another I Schacter and Singer39s Two Factor theory of emotion study I Social Factors that in uence aggression 3 1 Pornography and Sexual Violence increases acceptance of the rape myth I decrease attraction for ones partner I increase acceptance of extramarital sex and of women39s sexual submission to men increase men39s perceiving women in sexual terms 2 Television I Arousal levels I Desensitization to violence Imitation 3 Video Games I increase arousal increase aggressive thinking I increase aggressive feelings I increase aggressive behaviors decrease pro social behaviors Attraction Terms to know 0 Secure Best potential relationships Avoidant Suppress relationships needs trouble developing intimate relationships Anxious Ambivalent Concern that the partner will not reciprocate the desire for intimacy SelfDisclosure Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Disclosure reciprocity Reciprocating same level of disclosure as your partner Mere exposure effect Increased exposure leads to increased liking Halo effect Tendency to believe that physically attractive people possess other good qualities Theories to know 0 Social Exchange Theory I feelings about relationships determined by I Rewa rds costs of Outcome Expectations comparison level of Satisfaction I Chances for a better alternative relationship comparison level for alternatives I ie Likelihood of staying 0 Equity Theory Good relationship occurs when I Person A 39s rewards costs Person B39s rewards costs 0 Sternberg s Triangular Theory of Love Three components of love Intimacy Passion I Commitment Three components creates seven types of love relationships OOOOOO Liking inlimacy alone Romantic Companionale love Consummate love lnlimacy lave Unumacy 39 passion Intimacy w commilmenl passion commllrnem lniatumlon Empty love passion alane commitment alone 5 passion commnmem Factors that lead to attraction 4 1 Proximity 0 Propinquity effect Increased interaction leads to increased probability of friendship O Mere exposure effect Increased exposure leads to increased liking 2 Similarity O similarity in background attitudes and vales predicted friendship 0 Why 39 Validates self worth characteristics and beliefs I Better interpersonal communication I interacts with proximity 39 Choose similar situations 3 Reciprocal Liking O Affected by self esteem I Self fulfilling prophecy Physical Attraction Characteristics used to measure beauty 3 1 Symmetry 2 Perfect Average 3 The golden ratio Helpingamp Conflict Terms to know 0 Prosocial behavior Any act performed with the goal of bene ting another person 0 Altruism The desire to help another person even if it involves some personal cost to the hel er 0 Bystander Effect 0 Doorintheface technique O Prisoner s Dilemma Theories to know and Drawbacks to each theory 0 Evolutionary Theories as to why we help 3 O Kin selection Behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection 0 The Reciprocity Norm The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future Learning Social Norms Those who are the best learners of societal norms have a 0 com petitive adva nta ge O Drawback I Difficulty explaining why people sometimes help complete strangers 0 Social Exchange Theory Behavior stems from the desire to maximize rewards and minimize costs 0 0 If helping is rewarding Increase probability others will help us 0 Relieve bystander distress O Gain social approval and increase selfworth O Drawback Social exchange theory presumes that people help only when the rewards outweigh the costs I Thus social exchange theory presumes that there is no pure altruism O Empathy and Altruism Theory 0 Empathy leads to helping regardless of costs or reward altruism no empathy results in behavior in accord with social exchange theory 0 Drawback Empathy may increase the cost of not helping I Lowers distress over seeing someone suffer I More in line with social exchange Factors that in uence helping behaViors Environmental 4 1 Time 2 Rural Vs Urban I People in rural environments show more helping behavior 3 Weather 4 Bystander Effect I As number of bystanders l probability of help J Ways to socialize altruism 3 1 Teaching moral inclusion I Moral exclusion Perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness I Moral inclusion Regarding others as within one s circle of moral concern 2 Modeling altruism I ie Prosocial TVmodeIs 3 Learning by doing Helpful actions promote the self perception that one is caring and helpful which in turn promotes further helping What creates con ict 3 0 Social trap Situation in which the conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing its self interest become caught in mutually destructive behavior 0 Competition Realistic group conflict I Winlose competition I Negative images of the other groups I Strong ingroup cohesiveness Pride 0 Perceived Injustice I People perceive justice as equity I Distribution of rewards in proportion to individuals contributions 0 If one contributes more and benefits less he will feel exploited Social Psych and Law Terms to know 0 Misinformation Effect Loftus Incorporating quotmisinformationquot into one39s memory of the event after receiving misleading information about it Cross race effect Accuracy decreases when witness and perpetrators races don t mathch Guided Imagery Therapists asks you to recall or imagine specific circumstances Can help recover memories I Problem May imagine events that never transpired O imagination inflation Imagining information increases the probability of reporting imaginary object or sequence of events as real 0 Interrogation wording I May bias eyewitness reports I False information given during interrogation may lead to false memory in eyewitness reports 0 Cognitive Interview Used memory research findings to develop interview techniques for police to reduce false witness testimony Theories to know 0 Source Monitoring Framework Determining the origin of a memory 39 Separate from memory content I Did I hear this joke from Susie or Mark Did I take my morning pill orjust think about doing so I Did I learn that Brittney Murphy died from a TV show or the internet I Very difficult Problems with memory 2 o Incomplete Vague Memory Poor memory for details 39 Penny study 0 False Memory The Misinformation Effect Loftus Basic components of memory 2 o Encoding39 39 from out 39 that is 4 O Retrieval Process of accessing stored memories Lineup Types 3 How do they compare 0 Show up VS Simultaneous VS Sequential Show up put down one picture ask is this the perp Yes or no I Worst I Simultaneous can be a live lineup or photo lineup ask if the perp is in the lineup Sequential can be a live lineup or photo lineup seen a series of photos answer yes or no to each one until you answer yes 0 Simultaneous VS Sequential Previous research Wells Lindsay etc 0 O 39 into memory I Sequential Line up advantage I Eliminates identifications based on quotbest matchquot Current research Gronlund Lane Clark etc I Sequential Line up conservative shift I Simultaneous line up Liberal shift Phenomena affecting eyewitness identi cation 3 1 High physiological arousal 2 Cross Race Effect 3 Lineup Procedure 11102011 Conflict Thursday November 10 2011 627 PM Conflict Chapter 13 WhalCreatesCon icl SocialDilemmas Competition Perceived injustice Creating Con ict Social Dilemmas SocialDilemmas Sociallrap come caught in mutually destructive behavior Creating Con ict Social Dilemmas Examples The PrisonersDilemma Prisonels39 dllemma vemam sllenl THE PRISONER39S DL MMA a mg 1142 was s PSYCROLDGICAL F 320 To Mm MAKESA in or mm Lm sv EWE39 glerlSTIEKIQYS SPENDING AGNN WE LL u 17 LiKE RECYCUNG IF imam Dues Ir 1142 wow 5 A LIAN PLACE39 Creating Conflict Social Dilemmas o Resolving social dilemmas 0 Regulation 0 Safeguard the common good 0 Make the group small 0 Communication 0 Change the payoffs 0 Appeal to altruistic norms Creating Conflict Competition 0 Competition 0 Realistic group conflict Winelose competition Negative images of the other groups Strong ingroup cohesiveness 0 n e Creating Conflict Perceived Injustice o Perceived Injustice 0 People perceivejustice as equi o Distri ution of rewards in proportion to individuals contributions If one contributes more and benefits less he will feel exploited How Can Peace Be Achieved 0 Contact 0 Cooperation 0 Communication Creating Peace Contact 0 Predicts decreased prejudice o Friendship 0 Those who form friendships with outgroup members develop more positive attitudes toward the outgroup o Equalestatus contact o Contact on an equal basis 39 To reduce prejudice interracial contact should be between persons equal in status Creating Peace Cooperation I Common external threats build cohesiveness I Superordinate goals foster cooperation I Shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort Group and superordinate identities Creating Peace Communication I Bargaining Mediation I Arbitration Creating Peace Communication Bargaining I Seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties I Tough bargaining may lower the other party s expectations but can sometimes backfire Creating Peace Communication I Mediation I Attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions I Integrativeagreements I Winwin agreements that reconcile both parties interests to their mutual benefit Creating Peace Communication I Arbitration I Resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement I Finalofferarbitration I Motivates each party to make a reasonable proposal Attraction Chapter 1 1 Attraction Google A or of or that evokes or The action or powar of evoking inteer pleasure or liking th 3011163116 or something the timeless attraction ofa good time Mo vation Attraction Factors 0 Factors Lead to Attraction 1 2 3 Reciprooal Liking 4 PhysicalAttrac on Attraction Factors e ea increased intemc on l 39 g pmbahility of friemtship Mere exposure i t exposure leads to quot Morel and and Bash 1992 u C Li atmdedf05 109r Vlsrlames a As Attraction Factors Newcom b 1961 in backmundg attitudes and values predicted endship Why a Vanda wlfiw fth and beliefs m aim a Interacts with proximity similar Attraction Factors 3 Recipmcral Liking at 11984 Found that men likedwomen who nonverbaIIy dismayed even when overtly dis quot 3 ing A ected by gelfsesteem Seilfa ll l lli ng 11mpher


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