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by: Javonte Nolan


Javonte Nolan
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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Nolan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4033 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/222969/psyc-4033-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Experimental Methods Cognitive psychology is empirical Remembering to remember prospective memory Cryptomnesia unconscious plagiarism Adaptive memory processing things for relevance Flashbulb memory strong memories IV are manipulated to affect the DV DV depend on IV Recall methods Free recall people remember as much as they can omissions what s not remembered intrusions what was remembered but was not studied Forced recall people are forced to report a certain amount of information Cued recall recall is prompted with contextual cues from encoding Recognition methods oldnew recognition methods forcedchoice recognition Sensory Memory In order to get something from your SM to your STM you must encode it SM briefly holds info in literal form giving perceptual processes time to work Functions Hold info and fill in the blanks ex you perceive words rather than collections of sounds Iconic Memory visual large capacity 82 of info is available in your SM duration lsec Echoic Memory sound large capacity duration of 4secs Tactile Memory haptic 2 secs duration 66 capacity STM Ebbinghaus forgetting curve used nonsense syllables so he could estimate quotpurequot memory his shape was correct but he underestimated memory The serialposition curve shows that the STM and LTM are separate systems by showing they can be affected independently Primacy portion reflects LTM Recency portion reflects STM Faster presentation decreases primacy because Less time for maintenance rehearsal if you can t rehearse the material you will not rememberlearn them Distraction decreases recency because it erases STM buffer by presenting new information Milner s case of HMman suffering from severe epilepsy he lost the ability to transfer info from STM to LTM meaning he lost ability to form new memories Squire s case on NA fencing foil up his nose caused deep brain structures to sever cannot lay down any new LTM like HM but it was worse bc HM had LTM knowledge of his condition NA did not Proactive interference recalling information learned earlier interferes with the ability to recall information learned later The primary source of forgetting is interference NOT decaying STM amp WM Capacity of STM is much smaller than sensory memory STM capacity 7 2 Miller s llmagic number the number of items matters not their sizes the STM is more efficient if items can be grouped into chunks background knowledge helps us overcome the capacity limitation Chase and Simon s Chess player s experiment shows how background knowledge can affect STM Sternberg s simple task study showed how we retrieve from the STM Three hypotheses 1 Parallel process 2 Serial selfterminating process 3 Serial exhaustive process Data shows serial exhaustive is how people retrieve from STM Why would an optimal system use an exhaustive search instead of a selfterminating one The scanning mechanism 379msitems is much faster than the decision mechanism 3972ms The fewer decisions you make the more time you save STM has 2 functions to hold onto information and active manipulation of information this is working memory Central executive Two main functions 1 Allocation of resources 2 Suppression of irrelevant info Brooks demonstrated separate loops via interference tappingpointing saying task how do the two graphs below 39 that the I 39 39 U39 39 loop and 39 39 39 sketchpad are separate systems TEST QUESTION answer Interference occurs when two tasks rely on the same loop WM Phonological Loop anything with languagehas two subsystems the phonological store temporary storage and the Articulatory loopvisual semantics keeps info active so it doesn t decay To retain that information you have to put it in the articulatory loop Phonological Store has a limited capacity The word length effect the longer the words the harder to remember depends on articulation duration not number of syllables or letters The irrelevant speech effect the more information entering the phonological store the less efficiently it functions this is why you should study in silence The articulatory loop refreshes only what is currently active Articulatory suppression stopping ability to refresh items you want to pay attention to Lexically effectsMemory span for words is larger than memory span for nonwords because you have those words stored in your LTM you re going to remember things that are familiar to you or have meaning to you better than those that don t this shows your STM WM is interacting with your LTM The visuospatialsketchpad does three things Construction image size effects the larger the object is the longer it takes to construct Maintenance image complexity effects maintains simple images more easily Manipulation mental rotation the more manipulated the object is the longer it takes you to imagine it Hansen and Goldinger What did they do Studied people of highspan and lowspan playing the game tabooMeasured both complex and simple conditions of correct guesses elicited accuracy passing rate and preservation rate for high span and low span Why did they do it To see if people with higher WMC have better executive attention What did they find People with lower WMC spans perform poorly in searching controlled memory selfmonitoring for errors and suppressing irrelevantinformation Highspans were better at playing taboo Ericsson What did they do Over 20 months they had an average undergrad student engage in a memory span task 35 days a week for about an hour They measured the amount of digits he was able to recall Why did they do it To analyze how a memory skill is acquired What did they find They found that it is not possible to increase the capacity of short term memory with practice Increased memory span is due to use of mnemonic associations in longterm memory


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