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by: Clementine Boehm


Clementine Boehm
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This 117 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222972/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Sensation and Perception To represent the world we must detect physical energy stimuli from the environment and convert it into neural signals a process called sensation o Sensation occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are activated allowing various forms of outside stimuli to become neural signals in the brain 0 This process of converting outside stimuli into neural activity is called transductionisensory receptors are I When we select organize and interpret our sensations the process is called perception o Perception occurs when we give meaning to our sensations interpreting them so we can I Transduction 0 Taste gustation food molecules 0 Vision light photons 0 Hearing audition sound waves 0 Touch somatosensation pressure amp temperature 0 Smell olfaction molecules in the air 0 Others Thresholds 0 Absolute Threshold Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 of the time 0 Difference Threshold Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time also called just noticeable difference JN D Weber s Law 0 In humans difference thresholds experienced as a just noticeable difference increase in proportion to the size of the stimulus 0 Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount to be perceived as different Weber fraction k AII Weber s Law Example 0 Suppose you presented two light bulbs each with an intensity of 100 units to an observer Then you asked the observer to increase the intensity of one of the light bulbs until it was just noticeably brighter than the other 0 If the brightness needed to yield the just noticeable difference was 108 units then the observer s difference threshold would be 8 units ie AI 108 7 100 8 o The Weber fraction equivalent for this difference threshold would be 08 ie ADI 8100 08 0 You can now predict the difference threshold needed for a light bulb of any other intensity value What about subliminal messages 0 Can we sense subliminal or below threshold stimuli I Subliminal stimuli are those just strong enough for our sensory receptors to pick them up but not strong enough for us to be able to detect them Subliminal Threshold 0 Priming occurs when 0 The priming effect and other experiments reveal that we can process some information from stimuli too weak to recognize detect below the absolute threshold 0 FYI The effect is too subtle to have a powerful enduring effect on behavior so no worries about subliminal advertising Habituation and Vision 0 Microsaccades constant movement of the eyes tiny little vibrations that people do not notice consciously prevents sensory adaptation to visual stimuli Habituation o tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant unchanging information I The brain ignores stimuli that are being sensed but do not change Sensory adaptation o The tendency of sensory receptors to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging I Receptors less responsive to the stimulus and therefore no longer send signals to the brain The Basics of Sensation o Sensation is the process by which information from the outside world enters the brain I Information enters by way of activation of the sensory receptors on the various sense organs I When sensory receptors are stimulated they convert the different types of environmental stimuli into neural activity I Can consciously or unconsciously sense stimuli based on the strength of the stimulation To help manage the large amount of environmental stimuli available our brainsbodies selectively attend to those stimuli deemed most salient often ignoring stimuli that do not change through sensory adaptation or cognitive habituation Vision 0 Light 0 Transduction The transformation of stimulus energy into neural impulses o Phototransduction Conversion of light energy into neural impulses that brain can understand Light Characteristics 0 Color hue I Wavelength determined by the length of the wave distance between wave peaks 0 Brightness I Amplitude determined by the height of the wave how high or low the wave actually is o Saturation purity I Determined by whether or how much there is a mixture of wavelengths Wavelength ColorsHues 0 Different wavelengths of light result in different colors Intensity Brightness o Intensity Amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude related to perceived brightness Parts ofthe eye Cornea Transparent tissue where light enters the eye 0 O Iris Muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of opening pupil for light Lens Focuses the light rays on the retina through visual accommodation process by which the eye s lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina O Retina Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and send it to the brain 0 The Eye Photoreceptors Retina The lightsensitive inner surface of the eye containing photoreceptor rods amp cones plus layers of other neurons bipolar amp ganglion cells that process visual information o Bipolar cells receive messages from photoreceptors and transmit them to ganglion cells which form the optic nerve Optic Nerve Blind Spot amp Fovea o Optic nerve Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain 0 Blind Spot Point where optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located here it creates a blind spot 0 Fovea Central point in the retina around which the eye s cones cluster Visual Information Processing 0 Optic nerves connect to the thalamus inthe middle of the brain and the thalamus to the visual cortex Recall Thalamus o Thalamus is the brain s sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem It directs all sensory messages to the sensory areas in the cortex Color Vision 0 Trichromatic theory theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones red blue and green I Light of any color can be matched by the additive mixture of these 3 primary colors I Most known facts about color blindness are explained well Color Vision 0 Opponent Process Theory based on the idea that there are four primary colors red green blue and yellow The colors are alranged in pairs red with green and blue with yellow and if one member of a pair is stimulated the other member is inhibited I Explains why the afterimage will be the complement of the color originally starred at Both theories are right 0 The receptors that do the first stage of processing seem to follow the principles outlined in Trichromatic Theory In later stages of processing cells in the retina and the brain seem to follow the principles outline in the Opponent Process Theory Visual Perception o Perception I the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion 0 Size Constancy the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size regardless of its distance size on retina gets smaller 0 Shape Constancy the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant even when its shape changes on the retina o Gestalt Figure Ground I the tendency to perceive objects or gures as existing on a background 0 Perceptual set perceptual expectancy the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations in uence those perceptions Factors that In uence Perception o Topdown processing the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole 0 Bottomup processing the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception Visual Perception Cultural In uences on Perception MullerLyer illusion o Illusion of line length that is distorted by inwardtuming or outwardtuming comers on the ends of the lines causing lines of equal length to appear to be different Sensation and Perception Part II Hearing 0 The Stimulus Input Sound Waves 0 Part of the Ear 0 Hearing Impairment The Stimulus Input Sound Waves 0 Sound waves are vibrations of the molecules of air that surround us 0 Acoustical transduction Conversion of sound waves into neural impulses in the hairs cells of the inner ear Sound Characteristics 1 Pitch o Determined by the wavelength or frequency low medium or high 2 Volume loudness o Determined by the amplitude softer versus louder 3 Timbre o Determined by the purity or the complexity richness of the tone of the sound 4 Pitch Frequency 0 Wavelength The distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next 0 Frequency or pitch is measured in hertz Hz the cycles of waves per second Volume Loudness 0 Amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude relates to perceived loudness o Amplitude is measured in decibels dB Parts of the Ear 1 Outer Ear Consists of pinna that collects amp funnels sounds o Eardrum vibrates when sound waves hit 2 Middle Ear Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones hammer anvil stirrup that send vibrations to the cochlea s oval window 3 Inner Ear Innermost part ofthe ear consists largely ofthe cochlea a uid lled coiled shaped tunnel that contains receptors for hearing Theories of Hearing Pitch Perception Frequency Theory states that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone thus enabling us to sense its pitch Place Theory suggests that different sound waves stimulate the basilar membrane at different specific places resulting in perceived pitch Volley principle theory of pitch that states that different frequencies cause the hair cells auditory neurons to fire in a volley pattern or take turns in firing All three theories are correct Place theory best explains how we perceive highpitched sounds and Frequency theory best explains how we perceive lowpitched sounds Volley theory best explains how we perceive moderate to high pitches between 40 Hz to about 4000 Hz Localization of Sounds Because we have two ears sounds that reach one ear faster than the other helps us localize the sound Hearing Impairment Conduction Hearing Impairment sound vibrations cannot be passed from the earde to the cochlea Caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea o Eg ear drum punctured or tiny bones in middle ear can t vibrate 0 Hearing aids Nerve Hearing Impairment problem lies in inner ear or in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain Caused by damage to the cochlea s hair cells or to the auditory nerve also called nerve deafness or sensorineural hearing loss 0 eg disease aging overexposure to loud sounds o Cochlear implant Hearing De cits Older people tend to hear low frequencies well but suffer hearing loss for higher frequencies Other Senses Taste Smell amp Somesthetic Taste 0 The Stimulus Input Chemicals I Gustatory taste receptors I The five basic tastes I The gustatory taste receptors are clusters of cells which are responsible for the sense of taste They are mostly located on the tongue Five Basic Tastes 1 Sweet 2 Sour 3 Salty 4 Bitter 5 Brothy or Savory or Umami Gustatory Cortex o Smell l The Stimulus Input Chemicals 2 Olfactory Cilia The Stimulus Input Chemicals 0 The olfactory cilia are the hairlike structures located in the upper portion of the nasal passages and are responsible for smell Smell and the Brain Olfactory bulb has projections to the limbic system Somesthetic Senses o The body senses consisting of the skin senses the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular senses soma body esthetic feeling Somesthetic Senses 0 Skin Stimulus Input skin senses touch pressure temperature pain 0 Sensory receptors in the skin 0 Nerve bers that carry information about tactile stimulation are routed through the thalamus and onward to the somatosensory cortex I Located in the parietal lobe Kinesthetic Sense 0 Sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other Processed by proprioceptors in the skin joints muscles and tendons Vestibular Sense 0 Sense of movement balance and body position Processed by vestibular organs in the inner ear Colby Stitt Meredith Terlecki Psychology 2000 March 20 2009 Study 1 For the first exam I was unsure of what to expect so I didn t spend a whole lot of time studying for the exam Here and there I studied for about an hour or two three days before the test So my total study time for the first exam was probably at max nine hours When I studied I read over the notes highlighting key concepts in the notes and tried to memorize them a little each day I never really did get around to reading the book like I should have While studying I probably read all of the notes at least three times over repeating the highlighted parts more than the others Not a whole lot of my time was spent reading the notes I just skimmed them mostly and looked for stars or marks that I wrote Will be on test next to them Most of my attention was focused on that sort of stuff rather then everything in the whole notestext I didn t pay a whole lot of attention to details 2 When I read over chapter one many of the study methods and techniques I was familiar with but others I had no idea about The SQ4R was a new concept for me I ve done something similar in high school as an assignment but I was not aware that it was a study method I would never have thought that it had helped but thinking back on it now it really did The concept allows for smaller sized bits of information to be studied and repeated several times before moving on to the next segment of information The method could be ended with a reward of a nap or another form of entertainment Another thing that I am guilty of would have to be over learning I remember as I was taking exam one I could recall what the terms in the questions meant but I didn t quite understand how they were being applied in the questions or how two terms were related to one another While I m studying I could use the SQ4R method quite a lot and very affectively By starting to study earlier for a test I can get through more information and remember better than just reviewing This method would help me to study and remember well the information in to book and in the notes For example while studying the brain I could have broken the information into smaller sections A possible question of interest could have been what are the lobes of the brain and what are their functions Whenever I came across that answer I would have written it down Whenever I finished with that chapter I would have a nice little set of review notes to look over the day before the test The SQ4R method would allow me to recall the key information better than just simply reading the notes This method can be used in any class I could even use this to get me through my boring Sociology class notes Over learning I suppose in how I learned all throughout high school Questions at the high school level are nothing to those at the college level I guess I m still stuck in my old study habits which I really need to get over Memorizing definitions isn t a whole lot of help in college Better understanding the word and how it applies is what I need to try to do This helps a lot in Biology there are so many long and confusing words that it s really easy to get them confused So I need to try and perfect not over learning definitions Breaking down information and repeating little bits of it at a time seems to be a very good idea and I m sure that studying a little at a time will reduce the feeling of study anxiety and overwhelming 3 The study methods that I described would probably fit under the category of operant conditioning Operant learning ties in closely with reward and punishment For me personally a failing grade is punishment The failing grade would be a negative form of punishment making it less likely for me to not study but rather study more and study smarter With the SQ4R study method I could quite possibly be rewarded with an A on a test as a positive reinforcement Incidentally Thomdike s law of effect would also work perfectly in this situation Getting an A on a test would increase the probability of me using this study method and perfecting it as I do well in my classes The more I use this study method the better I will get at it meaning better grades in all of my classes which is enough incentive for me Other then the long term goal and achievement of an A I can set up smaller rewards For example I can only go out with my friends after I ve gotten all of my studying done or play video games on the Wii By pairing up a not so fun thing like studying with a fun thing I will be more likely to get the studying done in a more timely fashion Also according to the text shaping is reinforcement by a series of successively improved steps leading to desired responses If the new study methods are applied and used I will be shaping my means of study and succeeding in all ofmy classes 4 Our long term memory holds all of the information that we learn it requires certain cues and recall images or phrases The long term memory is sort oflike the human s version of a hard drive Older information takes some time to be recalled but certain words or ideas can be used to successfully recall things easily We gain long term memories by taking short term memories and either encoding them or through elaborate rehearsal When using the SQ4R study method what you are studying is broken down into shorter bits of information Our brain remembers best what is learned first and last so studying for shorter periods of time is better than long study sessions When studying we are using explicit memory which is the intentional learning memories things that we study for things that we want to learn Our memory is like a huge sponge but it can only take on so much water at once Breaking down a chapter into three or four smaller sections allows for better learning and recognition of information When we break sections up into smaller bite sizes we are organizing information in our brains Napping or sleeping help also to consolidate memories When using the SQ4R method we are forming memories by elaborate rehearsal Repetition is a good way of remembering however to one up that if you throw in a deeper understanding and building relationships with personal experiences you will understand and learn better The long term memory will have many more retrieval cues and ways of recalling information if we can apply the words to ourselves 5 Knowing this information will hopefully allow me to make a better grade on this exam than last time I m going to start studying earlier and studying more affectively The SQ4R method is about to become one of my best friends Each chapter has a couple of sections in it and that is how I m going to try and break the information down into smaller segments With the more manageable study load I won t have to be cramming in any last minute information right before the test With my own set of notes I will be able to review the sections that I have already covered at a quicker pace and be able to remember them better because they are in my own words I ll also start applying the terms and concepts to my own life or experiences These examples will help me to remember and better understand how the concepts apply to me and help to better learn them The SQ4R method was designed perfectly to help shorten study because we remember rst and last better then middle and also by repetition By reading the learning objectives making a question answering it reading the text putting it in your own words reviewing it and keeping side notes we are repeating a small bit of information at least seven different times Repetition maximizes memorization Module 1 The Story of Psychology Structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes functionihow they enable us to adapt survive and ourish Behaviorism the view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most research psychologist today agree with l but not with 2 Humanistic Psychology historically signi cant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual s potential for personal growth Cognitive Neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception thinking memory and language Psychology the science of behavior and mental process Natural Selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Level of Analysis the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to socialcultural for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological psychological and socialcultural levels of analysis How the body and brain enable emotions memories and sensory exper1ences ex How are messages transmitted within the body How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes ex How does evolution in uence behavior tendencies How much our genes and our environment in uence our 1 individual differences ex To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence personality sexual orientation and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes To our environment vquot How we encode process store and retrieve information ex How do we use information in remembering Reasoning Solving problems 7 1 How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures ex How are we humans alike as members of one human family As products of different environmental context how do we differ Counseling Psychology a branch of psychology that assist people with problems in living often related to school work or marriage and in achieving greater wellbeing Clinical Psychology a branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiat a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy sg 23 a study method incorporating five steps Survey Question Read Rehearse Review Module 2 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Hindsigl1t Bias the tendency to believe after leaming an outcome that one would have foreseen it Also known as the Iknewitallalong phenomenon Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions Rather it examines assumptions discems hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions Culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Module 3 Research Strategies How Psychologist Ask and Answer Questions Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events Hypothesis a testable prediction often prompted by a theory to enable us to accept reject or revise a theory Operational Definition a statement of the procedures operations used to define research variables ex Human intelligence my be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures Replication repeating the essence of a study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of reveling universal principles Surv y a technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group Population all the cases in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation used Electronically Activated Recorders EAR to sample naturally occurring slices of daily life Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Correlation Coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things ex from 1 to 1 Illusog Correlation the perception of a relationship where none exist Experimen a research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process dependent variable Random Assignmen assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups DoubleBlind Procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo Commonly used in drugevaluation studies Placebo Effect experimental results caused by expectations alone any effect on behavior caused by the administration of inert substance or condition which the recipient assumes is an active agent Experimental Group in an experiment the group that is exposed to the treatment that is to one version of the Independent variable Control Group the group that is not exposed to the treatment contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment Independent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied 439 Lesson 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 139 As a consumer or producer of psychological research you must pay attention to many details of studies you read about Is their sample representative Are their de nitions reasonable Are their variables manipulated in a way that re ect the way these variables would occur in the real world e g cancer studies that feed rats huge doses of chemicals we encounter in only minute quantities unk both tests Is the study merely correlational or was it a real experiment so that we can infer causality Is the laboratory situation so unlike the complexity of realworld situations that its effects are likely to be overthrown by other more important variables in real life The point of this chapter is to sharpen your ability to judge the validity of ideas The good side to all this is that doing these things will make you a better thinker in general After all it s not just psychology that we have to make decisions about As cumbersome and imperfect as the scienti c method is it is a whole lot better than just believing what any guru happens to say As awed and biased as intuition may be it often helps us discover things that we didn t even know we were looking for How lucky we are to have two unique ways of knowing our world Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Introduction and Chapter 1 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 1 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college Susan sent a questionnaire to every fteenth person in the college registrar s alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students Susan employed the technique of A random assignment B naturalistic observation C replication D correlation E random sampling Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 7 439 Lesson 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 139 N Researchers and subjects in a drugevaluation study are both ignorant about which subjects have actually received an experimental drug and which were given a placebo This investigation involves the use of A the false consensus effect B the hindsight bias C random sampling D the doubleblind procedure E replication 3 In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted alcoholic This nonalcoholic drink was a A dependent variable B replication C placebo D random sample E double blind 4 Saying that the difference between two groups is statistically signi cant means A the difference between the groups is larger B this difference is probably not due to chance variation C there is a large range between the highest score of one group and the lowest score of the other D the standard deviation is large 5 The standard deviation of intelligence scores at Harvard is likely than the standard deviation of intelligence scores at a community college significant B range C larger D smaller 6 Mrs Thompson believes that her son has learned to play the piano because she consistently rewards his efforts to learn with praise and affection Her belief best illustrates a perspective A behavior genetics B cognitive C neuroscience D psychoanalytic E behavioral Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 8 439 Lesson 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 139 7 9 0 Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzees in the jungle are using a research method known as the survey experimentation naturalistic observation the case study random sampling F1190 If those who watch a lot of TV violence are also particularly likely to behave aggressively this would not necessarily indicate that watching TV violence in uences aggressive behavior because A random sequences often don t look random B sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations C correlation does not prove causation D events often seem more probable in hindsight Karen dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date When he actually did call for a date several days later Karen concluded that most of her dreams accurately predict future events Her belief best illustrates replication illusory correlation random sampling the false consensus effect cow In order to understand the unusual behavior of an adult client a clinical psychologist has carefully investigated the client s current life situation and his physical social and educational history Which research method has the psychologist employed A the survey B the case study C experimentation D naturalistic observation In a psychological experiment the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the variable dependent B experimental C control D independent Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 9 439 Lesson 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 139 12 The hindsight bias refers to people s tendency to A ignore discon rming evidence B reject any ideas that can t be scienti cally tested C exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events D assume that correlation proves causation E overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions 13 Which of the following correlations affords the greatest predictive value A B 50 C 710 D 01 E 705 In the control condition of an experiment the A experimenter exerts the greatest in uence on participants behavior B research participants are exposed to all the different experimental treatments C research participants are exposed to the most favorable levels of experimental treatment D experimental treatment is absent VI A statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called an A replication B independent variable C correlation D dependent variable Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different subjects and in different circumstances A replication B correlational measurement C random sampling D naturalistic observation E resurveying 17 Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the reproductive success of our female ancestors This viewpoint best illustrates the perspective A evolutionary B behavioral C cognitive D socialcultural E psychoanalytic Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 10 439 Lesson 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 139 18 Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing causeandeffect relationships A the survey B the experiment C correlational research D naturalistic observation 19 Contemporary psychology is best de ned as the science of conscious and unconscious mental activity observable responses to the environment behavior and mental processes thoughts feelings and perceptions maladaptive and adaptive behaviors F1190 20 People often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly in uenced by cases A randomly selected B vivid C representative D the most frequently occurring 21 The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as A the hindsight bias B illusory correlation C the false consensus effect D an illusion of control 22 A hypothesis is an A observable relationship between speci c independent and dependent variables B set of principles that organizes and explains newly discovered facts C testable prediction that gives direction to research D unprovable assumption about the unseen processes that underlie psychological functioning 23 The cognitive perspective in psychology emphasizes how A feelings are in uenced by brain chemistry B people try to understand their own unconscious motives C behavior is in uenced by environmental conditions D people process store and retrieve information Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology ll 439 Lesson 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 139 24 Dr Lewis is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids Dr Lewis is most likely an psychologist A clinical B developmental C biological D personality E industrial organizational Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is wonh 20 points N L 5 UI List your ve best experiences so far in life List your ve most important longterm goals in your life Which subfleld of psychology might contain the most useful information for achieving your goals Why do you think so What was the most interesting thing you read about in this chapter The book asks the question Is psychology dangerous Think of a situation in which knowledge of psychology might be dangerous What is a situation in which knowledge of psychology might be helpful END OF LESS 1 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 12 139 Lesson 2 Neuroscience 139 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 2 Puzzle in Appendix A at the end of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 Changes in Phineas Gage s behavior postaccident were likely the result of damage N E 4 to his A angular gyrus B motor cortex C hippocampus D frontal lobes Hormones are the chemical messengers of the A cerebral cortex B endocrine system C autonomic nervous system D limbic system E reticular formation A synapse is an A chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions B automatic response to sensory input C neural network D junction between a sending and a receiving neuron E neural cable containing many axons Dendrites are branching extensions of WUOW chromosomes genes neurons glial cells endocrine glands Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 14 139 Lesson 2 Neuroscience 139 V39 0 gt1 9 5 0 Which component of the limbic system plays an essential role in the formation of new memories A hypothalamus B thalamus C hippocampus D amygdala This lymbic system structure is responsible for regulating hunger thirst body temperature and sexual behavior A pituitary gland B amygdala C hippocampus D hypothalamus You come home one night to nd a burglar in your house Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire These physical reactions are triggered by the A skeletal nervous system B sympathetic nervous system C parasympathetic nervous system D limbic system The function of dendrites is to A release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons B receive incoming signals from other neurons C coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems D control pain through the release of opiatelike chemicals into the brain At the age of 22 Mrs LaBlanc was less than four feet tall Her short stature was probably in uenced by the lack of a growth hormone produced by the A pancreas B thyroid C adrenal gland D pituitary gland E hypothalamus Which region of the brainstem arouses you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name A reticular formation B cerebellum C hypothalamus D amygdala E medulla Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 15 139 Lesson 2 Neuroscience 139 ON After Greg s serious motorcycle accident doctors detected damage to his cerebellum Greg is most likely to have dif culty experiencing intense emotions reading a book understanding what others are saying tasting the avors of foods playing his guitar F1190 Increasing the intensity of a stimulus above the threshold will not similarly increase the intensity of a neural response to that stimulus This highlights the nature of the A synaptic gap B myelin sheath C allornone response D reward de ciency syndrome E glial cells The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the A re ex B synapse C threshold D action potential The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the A cerebellum B medulla C reticular formation D thalamus After Paul s serious snowskiing accident doctors detected damage to his temporal lobe in Wemicke s area Because of the damage Paul is most likely to experience dif culty in A remembering past events B pronouncing words correctly C understanding what others are saying D recognizing familiar faces Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of A acetylcholine B epinephrine C endorphins D curare Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Prychology l6 139 Lesson 2 Neuroscience 139 2 O 2 22 Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as A acetylcholine B curare C dopamine D endorphins E epinephrine A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the A synapse B threshold C action potential D myelin sheath E refractory period The most extensive regions of the brain which enable judging and planning are called the A reticular formation B projection areas C sensory areas D temporal lobes E association areas A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers A faster neural impulses B more intense neural impulses C more frequent neural impulses D all the above Information is carried from the central nervous system to the tissues by A interneurons B sensory neurons C motor neurons D the limbic system The corpus callosum is a band of neural bers that A enables the left hemisphere to control the right side of the body B transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres C controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs D directs the muscle movements involved in speech Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology l7 139 Lesson 2 Neuroscience 139 2 26 27 2 24 5 00 After Miguel s recent automobile accident doctors detected damage to his frontal lobe in Broca s area It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty A remembering past events B speaking uently C reading D understanding other people when they speak Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer s disease is in uenced by A neurotransmitters B hormones C heredity D sexual behavior The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased n myelin sheath association area endocrine gland neural network synaptic vesicle WUOWS 2 Reading a story involves brain activity in the cerebral hemispheres Producing a creative artistic drawing involves brain activity in the cerebral hemispheres A left right B right left C left right and left D right and left right E right and left right and left Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce A aphasia B epileptic seizures C depression D neural plasticity E reward deficiency syndrome In order to identify which of Lucy s brain areas was most active when she talked neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and an A CT scan B PET scan C EEG D MRI Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 18 139 Lesson 2 Neuroscience 139 29 Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the limbic system skeletal nervous system central nervous system autonomic nervous system com 30 In terms of brain evolution the sequence of brain regions from oldest to newest is A limbic system brainstem cerebral cortex B brainstem cerebral cortex limbic system C limbic system cerebral cortex brainstem D brainstem limbic system cerebral cortex E cerebral cortex brainstem limbic system 31 The parasympathetic nervous system digestion and heartbeat A accelerates decelerates B decelerates accelerates C accelerates accelerates D decelerates decelerates Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is worth 20 points 1 After reading about the splitbrain research do you think all of us have two different brains left and right hemispheres Why or why not 2 Without the use of drugs or surgery how might we get some more insight into what our silent nonverbal hemisphere is thinking 3 The most interesting thing I read about in this chapter was 4 What do curare and botulism have in commonibesides causing death 5 What does Gazanniga mean when he says the left hemisphere is an interpreter END OF LESSON 2 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 19 139 Lesson 3 Nature Nurture and the Developing Child 439 modern ndings showing that young infants are much more competent thinkers than Piaget imagined As we move away from the stage concept to a model of a more gradual and continuous development Piaget s milestones are still valuable landmarks along the path of development Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 pages 1387164 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 3 Puzzle in that can be found in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 Newborns have been observed to show the greatest Visual interest in a A rectangular shape B circular shape C bull seye pattern D drawing of a human face 2 Fouryearold Karen can t remember anything of the rst few months of her life This is best explained by the fact that A the trauma of birth interfered with the subsequent formation of memories B most brain cells do not yet exist at the time of birth C experiences shortly after birth are a meaningless blur of darkness and light D many neural connections that underlie memories are only beginning to form shortly after birth 3 Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers breast feeding responsive parenting family planning father absence authoritarian discipline WUOW Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 22 139 Lesson 3 Nature Nurture and the Developing Child 439 4 V39 0 gt1 9 50 Maturation refers to the acquisition of socially acceptable behaviors B any learned behavior patterns that accompany personal growth and development C biological growth processes that are relatively unin uenced by experience D the physical and sexual development of early adolescence Luis is normally very restless and frdgety whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing The two children apparently differ in A maturation B egocentrism C assimilation D temperament E accommodation Gender identity refers to A one s biological sex B the sense ofbeing male or female C the set of expected behaviors for males and for females D how masculine a boy is or how feminine a girl is E a person s identification with the parent of the opposite sex Compared to environmentally impoverished rats rats raised in an enriched environment show a greater development of A preoperational intelligence B brain cortex C nurturing behavior D the number of neurons in their brains Compared with Asian parents North American parents place emphasis on obedience and emphasis on family loyalty A more less B less more C more more D less less Fouryearold Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present This best illustrates Piaget s concept of A accommodation B attachment C object permanence D conservation E egocentrism Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 23 139 Lesson 3 Nature Nurture and the Developing Child 439 10 If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation they are unable to A deal with the discipline of toilet training B see things from the point of View of another person C recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape D retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences Female children have been observed to dress and play in ways more typical of males if they were exposed to excess during their prenatal development A teratogens B testosterone C endorphins D estrogen 12 Children who form a positive selfconcept are more likely to be A obedient B egocentric C sociable D cautious LA Habituation is the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed adjustment of current schemas to make sense of new information interpretation of new information in terms of existing schemas biological growth processes that are relatively unin uenced by experience F1190 14 The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain A assimilation B conservation C maturation D habituation E plasticity VI A teratogen is an A fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division B unborn child with one or more physical defects or abnormalities C chromosomal abnormality D substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 24 139 Lesson 3 Nature Nurture and the Developing Child 439 16 Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called A egocentrism B assimilation C imprinting D attachment E accommodation 17 According to Piaget schemas are A xed sequences of cognitive developmental stages B children s ways of coming to terms with their sexuality C people s conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences D problemsolving strategies that are typically not developed until the formal operational stage 18 The rooting re ex refers to a baby s tendency to A withdraw a limb to escape pain B turn the head away from a cloth placed over the face C open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek D be startled by a loud noise E look longer at human faces than at inanimate objects 19 Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget s stages of cognitive development sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational sensorimotor preoperational formal operational concrete operational preoperational concrete operational formal operational sensorimotor preoperational sensorimotor concrete operational formal operational preoperational concrete operational sensorimotor formal operational WUOW 20 According to Piaget during the formal operational stage people begin to reason abstractly adhere to social norms C distinguish between good and bad behaviors D become aware of the positive and negative consequences of their own behaviors 2 Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician s waiting room little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother s skirt Sandra most clearly shows signs of habituation egocentrism insecure attachment the rooting re ex object permanence F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 25 139 Lesson 3 Nature Nurture and the Developing Child 439 2 N 2 LA 24 2 VI 26 2 The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as parents authoritarian B egocentric C rejectingneglecting D authoritative A human contains 23 chromosomes ahuman contains 46 chromosomes A zygote egg cell B egg cell sperm cell C sperm cell egg cell D sperm cell zygote A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a speci c protein is called an A gene B agonist C chromosome D motor neuron E neurotransmitter Identical twins develop from a single A gene B neuron C zygote D chromosome Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer s disease is in uenced by A neurotransmitters B hormones C heredity D sexual behavior This principle states which are more likely to lead to reproduction or survival are most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations A natural selection B evolution C Big Bang D survival Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 26 139 Lesson 3 Nature Nurture and the Developing Child 439 28 A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of social responsibility personal control selfactualization racial diversity free association WUOW 2 0 People are somewhat more likely to demonstrate selfserving bias in a culture that values role playing collectivism reciprocal determinism conformity individualism Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is worth 20 points What was the most useful thing you learned in this lesson in terms of helping achieve one of your life goals What methods have enabled scientists to determine that infants are better thinkers than anyone suspected N L What are the key factors affecting the attachment of an infant to its caretaker 5 How much quality time do American parents spend with their young children V39 If we don t have a gene for speci c behaviors such as ushing the toilet before using it how can we explain so many bizarre similarities among twins separated at birth END OF LESSON 3 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 27 139 Lesson 4 Adolescence and Adulthood 139 atrocities and being a child of the rebellious sixties I am more in sympathy with the idea that postconventional morality going beyond society s rules as the only authority is better But I have to admit that better is a relative conceptiit depends on your time place and situation The section on adult development exposes many myths about aging For example it is found that menopause does not create psychological problems for most women Older people are not prone to getting more shortterm ailments Some forms of intelligence do not decline with age Midlife crises in males are largely a myth Finally happiness is pretty constant across age groups from 15 to 80 Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 4 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 4 Puzzle in Appendix A at the end of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer th e following selfch eck questions th at follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfcheck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 A crosssectional study is one in which A the same people are retested over a period of years B different age groups are tested at the same time C different characteristics of a given individual are assessed at the same time D the behavior of a group is assessed by different researchers 2 When looking for someone to whom they can confide their personal worries women usually turn to and men usually turn to women women B women men C men men D men women 3 Menopause refers to the cessation of menstruation the loss of male sexual potency irregular timing of menstrual periods the loss of sexual interest in late adulthood cow Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 30 139 Lesson 4 Adolescence and Adulthood 139 4 V39 0 gt1 9 Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for A competence B intimacy C autonomy D trust Women are more likely than men to criticize and insult their marital partner stare at people who make them angry C interrupt others while they are talking D misperceive simple friendliness as a sexual comeon E recognize nonverbal expressions of emotion wgt The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the stage of development A conventional B preconventional C preoperational D formal operational In response to the statement after menopause women generally feel better than they have for years most premenopausal women under 45 and most older women who had experienced menopause A agreed agreed B disagreed agreed C agreed disagreed D disagreed disagreed According to Erikson an older adult who feels his or her life has been satisfying meaningful and worthwhile has achieved a sense of inte grity B autonomy C identity D intimacy The proper use of condoms A completely prevents HIV infections and reduces the risk of all other STDs B reduces the risk of HIV infections and completely prevents transmission of all other STDs C fails to reduce the risk of HIV infections but completely prevents transmission of all other STDs D reduces the risk of HIV infections but fails to prevent the transmission of certain other STDs Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 31 139 Lesson 4 Adolescence and Adulthood 139 LA UI According to KublerRoss the terminally ill pass through a series of stages that begins with and ends with A anger depression B denial acceptance C depression acceptance D despair integrity E bargaining depression Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for overemphasizing A discrete agelinked stages B the interaction of nature and nurture during J 39 d I D personality changes during adulthood development u I I A Evidence suggests that Alzheimer s disease may be reduced by A estrogen supplements B hospice care C menopause D all the above When children grow up and leave home mothers most frequently report feeling A depressed B bored C happy D anxious Crosssectional research indicated that during early and middle adulthood aging is associated with levels of verbal intelligence Longitudinal research indicated that during this same period of life aging is associated with levels of verbal intelligence A increasing declining B declining increasing C increasing increasing D declining declining According to Erikson achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the A toddler B preschooler C elementary school child D adolescent Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 32 139 Lesson 4 Adolescence and Adulthood 139 2 2 gt1 9 gt0 O Compared to late bloomers boys who mature sexually at an early age tend to be more A physically uncoordinated B sexually inhibited C popular and selfassured D academically successful During the last few years 75yearold Mrs Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can t nd her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband It is most likely that Mrs Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of A crystallized intelligence B menopause C psychogenic amnesia D Alzheimer s disease Which of the following terms refers to a person s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills A uid intelligence B concrete operational intelligence C formal operational intelligence D crystallized intelligence The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immorality often results from social in uence crystallized intelligence abnormal cognitive development inborn temperament postconventional moral thinking WUOW Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by A seeking a lifelong romantic relationship B investigating the personal suitability of various occupational roles C severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends D adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend The best predictor of a couple s marital satisfaction is the A frequency of their sexual intimacy B intensity of their passionate feelings C ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other D experience or nonexperience of a prior marriage Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 33 139 Lesson 4 Adolescence and Adulthood 139 22 2 LA 2 4 2 VI 2 ON 2 1 When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a list of twentyfour words the older adults demonstrated A no decline in either recall or recognition B a decline in recall but not in recognition C a decline in recognition but not in recall D a decline in both recognition and recall The body structures that enable reproduction are referred to as the A primary sex characteristics B secondary sex characteristics C masculine and feminine archetypes D sexlinked genes E gender schemas According to Kohlberg morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents an morality A egocentric B conventional C preconventional D concrete operational E postconventional Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because A low sex guilt inhibits the careful planning of contraceptive use B they are ignorant concerning basic human reproductive functioning C sex education courses have actually discouraged contraceptive use D all of the above Older people s capacity to learn and remember meaningless material shows greater decline than their capacity to learn and remember meaningful material This best illustrates the value of concrete operational thought B formal operational thought C crystallized intelligence D uid intelligence Adolescence extends from A the beginning of concrete operations to the end of formal operations B the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood C 12 to 15 years of age D the beginning to the end of the growth spurt Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 34 139 Lesson 5 Sensation and Perception 139 We are not consciously aware of every piece of information our mind uses Our senses make us human and give our lives excitement As you read these two chapters try to understand what we know about how our senses function without worrying about what you need to know for the test I will guide you in this lesson about what facts to memorize Try to read the chapters with awe about the wondrous magic that our senses create for us Also re ect about your own use and experiences of your senses as you read For example I once owned a convertible car and remember how cool it was to smell the different areas of our city as I drove around I also am always amazed how the smell of a bus brings back memories of going bowling as a young boyitaking my first adventures going away from home on the bus The funny thing is that the sight or sounds of busses don t evoke these early memories only the smell Read experiment and enjoy Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapters 5 and 6 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 5 Puzzle in Appendix A at the end of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 When there is a con ict between bits of information received by two or more senses which sense tends to dominate the others A hearing B vision C smell D touch E None of the above the senses work together as equal partners 2 After a period of adjustment to special lenses that turn the visual eld upside down A a frog could accurately retrieve ies with its tongue B a pigeon could easily y over a very low fence C a person could successfully read a book D allthe above could occur Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 38 139 Lesson 5 Sensation and Perception 139 E 4 V39 0 gt1 9 As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger it is unlikely that the horse will appear to grow larger This best illustrates the phenomenon of A visual capture B size constancy C closure D convergence E linear perspective The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as A the opponentprocess theory B Weber s law C feature detection D the difference threshold E frequency theory The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the sensory adaptation threshold B difference threshold C subliminal threshold D absolute threshold Pleasant memories are most likely to be evoked by exposure to A bright colors B soft touches C fragrant odors D loud sounds The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called A accommodation B sensory adaptation C transduction D parallel processing E sensory interaction A gestalt is best described as an binocular cue texture gradient perceptual adaptation organized whole perceptual set F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 39 139 Lesson 5 Sensation and Perception 139 50 N LA Which of the following paincontrol techniques is emphasized in the Lamaze method of childbirth training A accommodation B acupuncture C subliminal stimulation D kinesthesis E distraction The cochlea is a A uidfilled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses B uidfilled tube that provides a sense of upright body position C uidfilled tube that provides a sense of body movement D set of three tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum The perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called A perceptual set B perceptual constancy C figureground perception D the phi phenomenon Gestalt psychologists emphasized that A perception is the same as sensation B we learn to perceive the world through experience C the whole is more than the sum of its parts D sensation has no effect on perception Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly in uence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups A stereotype is most similar to a A feature detector B stereogram C perceptual adaptation D texture gradient E perceptual set The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing in infants A size constancy B selective attention C depth perception D perceptual adaptation E figureground perception Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 40 139 Lesson 5 Sensation and Perception 139 VI 20 Firewalking without the experience of severe pain results from the distraction of attention away from one s feet B poor heat conductivity of hot wood coals C activation of nerves in the spinal cord that block transmission of pain signals D alteration of body chemistry induced by a state of meditation In one experiment most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men playing basketball remained unaware of an umbrellatoting woman sauntering across the screen This illustrated the impact of perceptual adaptation visual capture retinal disparity stroboscopic movement selective attention F1190 Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina A accommodation of the lens B transduction of the cones C dilation of the pupils D sensory adaptation of feature detectors The ability to adjust to an arti cially displaced or even inverted visual eld is called perceptual set selective attention perceptual adaptation visual capture shape constancy WUOW Holding two index ngers in front of the eyes can create the perception of a oating nger sausage This best illustrates the effect of A convergence relative clarity retinal disparity interposition visual capture FUCK ofa sound 0 ocking your head would be most useful for detecting the timbre pitch loudness amplitude location F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 41 139 Lesson 5 Sensation and Perception 139 2 2 N 2 LA 2 4s 2 VI 26 The importance of central nervous system activity for the experience of pain is best highlighted by A Weber s law B frequency theory C phantom limb sensations D the opponentprocess theory Perception is the process by which A stimulus energies are detected B stimulus energies are transformed into neural activity C sensory input is selected organized and interpreted D nerve cells respond to speci c features of a stimulus The phi phenomenon refers to A the tendency for visual information to dominate other types of sensory information B the ability to adjust to an arti cially displaced visual eld C the perception of movement created by the successive blinking of adjacent lights D the tendency to ll in gaps so as to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object According to the gatecontrol theory a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the release of painkilling endorphins in your brain B activation of specific neural bers in your spinal cord C arousal of your autonomic nervous system and the release of adrenaline into your bloodstream D deactivation of the pain receptors on the surface of your skin Observation of a badly blurred picture has been found to interfere with correctly perceiving the same picture when it is subsequently only slightly blurred The text suggests that this illustrates the powerful in uence of retinal disparity relative clarity stroboscopic clarity perceptual set shape constancy F1190 Sensory adaptation refers to the process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural impulses diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus the process of selecting organizing and interpreting sensory information changes in the shape of the lens as it focuses on objects cow Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 42 139 Lesson 5 Sensation and Perception 139 2 2 2 3 3 7 00 9 O Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called A feature detection B accommodation C kinesthesis D sensory interaction E the vestibular sense People s response to subliminal stimulation indicates that A they experience a sense of discomfort whenever they are exposed to subliminal stimuli B their subconscious minds are incapable of resisting subliminally presented suggestions C they are more sensitive to subliminal sounds than to subliminal sights D they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to highamplitude music Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the A auditory canal B eardrum C tiny bones of the middle ear D cochlea Because the two teams wore differentcolored uniforms Cheri perceived the ten basketball players as two distinct groups This best illustrates the principle of A proximity B color constancy C closure D similarity E convergence Color constancy refers to the fact that light waves re ected by an object remain constant despite changes in lighting objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they re ect changes the perceived color of an object has a constant relation to its brightness C D the frequency of light waves is directly proportional to the light s wavelength Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 43 139 Lesson 5 Sensation and Perception 139 32 3 LA 3 4 35 Current research on sensory restriction indicates that A two days of sensory monotony typically results in a person experiencing dramatic hallucinations B a day or two of sensory monotony makes people highly vulnerable to brainwashing C a day of sensory monotony can reduce stress and facilitate selfcontrol D sensory monotony makes people less sensitive to new and changing sensory inputs Joe Wilson age 55 has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing It is likely that Joe s hearing loss involves problems within the A inner ear B middle ear C auditory nerve D basilar membrane Although Sue Yen sees her chemistry professor several times each week she had difficulty recognizing the professor when she happened to see her in the grocery store This best illustrates the importance of visual capture context effects proximity relative clarity perceptual adaptation F1190 Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light A rods B cones C bipolar cells D feature detectors Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is worth 20 points Are there any smells that bring back early memories for you What are they and what do you recall N What evidence is presented in your book showing that people can respond to information without being consciously aware they are doing so Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 44 139 Lesson 6 States of Consciousness 139 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 6 Puzzle in Appendix A at the end of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 4 Repeated use of an opiate A decreases the brain s production of endorphins B increases heart and breathing rates C does not seem to be followed by serious withdrawal symptoms D triggers auditory as well as Visual hallucinations The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every A 30 minutes B 90 minutes C 212 hours D 4 hours Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessation of breathing while asleep A sleep apnea B narcolepsy C night terror D insomnia Circadian rhythm refers to the pattern of emotional ups and downs we routinely experience B a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly twentyfourhour cycle the experience of jet lag following an extensive transoceanic ight the cycle of ve distinct stages that we experience during a normal night s sleep UO The greatest danger of Viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to feel increased feelings of shame codependents to hide the drug abuse from public View drug addicts to feel powerless to overcome the addiction society as a whole to become increasingly hostile and prejudicial toward drug addicts cowgt Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 49 139 Lesson 6 States of Consciousness 139 0 gt1 9 0 Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events during sleep Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 REM F1190 Ernest Hilgard discovered that when hypnosis is used to induce deafness the hidden observer is surprisingly to sound When hypnosis is used to reduce pain the hidden observer is surprisingly to pain A insensitive insensitive B insensitive sensitive C sensitive insensitive D sensitive sensitive When cocaine is snorted freebased or injected it produces a rush of euphoria by depleting the brain s supply of serotonin B blocking the reuptake of dopamine C stimulating the release of excess norepinephrine D triggering a state of dissociation Genital arousal is most likely to be associated with A sleep apnea B paradoxical sleep C Stage 4 sleep D sleep spindles Fortyyearold Roger insists that he never dreams Research suggests that he probably A experiences very little REM sleep B would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep C dreams during Stage 4 rather than during REM sleep D experiences more Stage 4 sleep than most people E passes through the sleep cycle much more rapidly than most people Narcolepsy is a disorder involving A the temporary cessation of breathing during sleep B sudden uncontrollable seizures followed by a collapse into deep sleep C periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness D difficulty falling and staying asleep Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 50 139 Lesson 6 States of Consciousness 139 LA UI REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because A our nervous system is highly active while our voluntary muscles hardly move B we are deeply asleep but can be awakened easily C our heart rate is slow and steady while our breathing is highly irregular D it leads to highly imaginative dreams that are perceived as colorless images The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effect is an indication of A withdrawal B dissociation C resistance D tolerance E narcolepsy Subconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to A occur slowly B be limited in its capacity C contribute to effective problem solving D occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions Consciousness is the ability to solve problems reason and remember our awareness of ourselves and our environment the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information effortless encoding of incidental information into memory the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem F1190 After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug Carol experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body Carol most likely experienced the effects of A cocaine B LSD C heroin D marijuana Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that A very few people can actually be hypnotized B people who are most easily hypnotized usually have difficulty paying attention to their own personal thoughts and feelings C people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to have rich fantasy lives D how well a person responds to hypnotic suggestion depends primarily on the skill and experience of the hypnotist Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 51 139 Lesson 6 States of Consciousness 139 20 21 22 2 LA THC the active ingredient in is classified as a A marijuana hallucinogen B marijuana stimulant C cocaine stimulant D cocaine hallucinogen E heroin depressant The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the rst half of this century was A psychoanalysis B behaviorism C humanistic psychology D structuralism E Gestalt psychology Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for A reducing fear B enhancing memory C relieving pain D facilitating relaxation Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that an occasional cigarette smoker almost always becomes a heavy smoker B regular marijuana smokers typically experience an irresistible craving for THC C many people are able to stop using heroin without professional help D individuals who receive morphine from physicians for pain relief usually develop the irresistible cravings of an addict Experiments in which hypnotized individuals have been encouraged to perform apparently dangerous acts best illustrate that A hypnosis is a special state of dissociated consciousness B information processing during hypnosis occurs only at a subconscious level C people are surprisingly susceptible to destructive social in uence D the use of hypnosis as a form of entertainment is clearly inappropriate Neardeath experiences are typically recalled as very scary and unpleasant recalled by nearly all who have been revived from a cardiac arrest quite similar to druginduced hallucinogenic experiences explained from a duelist perspective by most scientists today cow Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 52 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide N E 4 V39 You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to A B C D fear cars in the street dislike the taste of dead birds wag its tail whenever it is emotionally excited retrieve sticks and balls Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles This best illustrates WUOW latent learning secondary reinforcement shaping generalization spontaneous recovery Chunking refers to A B C D getting information into memory through the use of visual imagery the effortless processing of familiar information to get it into longterm memory storage the combined use of automatic and effortful processing to ensure the retention of unfamiliar information the organization of information into meaningful units Our ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others best illustrates B C D respondent behavior prosocial behavior operant conditioning observational learning After learning to fear a white rat Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit This best illustrates the process of WUOW secondary reinforcement latent learning shaping generalization spontaneous recovery Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 57 gt1 gt0 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with another reinforcer is called a reinforcer A negative B primary C partial D secondary E positive Which of the following is an unconditioned response playing jump rope shivering in cold weather running through a maze to get a food reward clapping after a thrilling concert performance cow An aversive consequence that decreases the recurrence of the behavior that precedes it is a A negative reinforcer B punisher C conditioned stimulus D delayed reinforcer E secondary reinforcer Research on the misinformation effect indicates that A events from the distant past are especially vulnerable to memory distortion B people can easily distinguish between their own true and false memories C hypnotic suggestion is an effective technique for accurate memory retrieval D it is very difficult to lead people to construct memories of events that never happened Words events places and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called context effects deja vu iconic traces retrieval cues schemas WUOW John B Watson believed that psychology should be the science of genetic predispositions cognitive processes C observable behavior D all the above w Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 58 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 LA UI Semantic encoding refers to the processing of A sounds B visual images C meanings D unfamiliar units According to the text learning A always produces an improvement in behavior B requires the ability to think abstractly C enables us to adapt to our environment D does not occur in simple animals An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball Initially he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball then only for placing its front paws on the ball and finally only for climbing on the ball The trainer is using the method of successive approximations delayed reinforcement C partial reinforcement D classical conditioning E secondary reinforcement wgt The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called A shaping B acquisition C discrimination D generalization E latent learning Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear guns This best illustrates the impact of on learning spontaneous recovery secondary reinforcers shaping cognitive processes biological predispositions F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 59 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 20 21 The predictability rather than the frequency of CSUCS associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning This highlights the importance of 1n conditioning A shaping B discrimination C generalization D cognitive processes E partial reinforcement Which of the following provides convincing evidence that past experiences are permanently and accurately stored in memory A the detailed reports of childhood experiences given by adults under hypnosis B the recovery of painful unconscious childhood memories by Freud s adult clients C Penfreld s discovery that electrical stimulation of the brain activates vivid recollections of the distant past D none of the above Which of the following substances is likely to facilitate the formation of new memories alcohol which often makes people feel relaxed and uninhibited Valium a prescription drug that reduces tension and anxiety marijuana which sometimes produces feelings of euphoria epinephrine a physically and emotionally arousing hormone cow Kathy performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material fifteen minutes every day for eight days than if she crams for two hours the night before the test This illustrates what is known as chunking the serial position effect moodcongruent memory the spacing effect automatic processing F1190 When grocery shopping with his mother fouryearold Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food Parent training experts would suggest that his mother should A threaten to punish Hakim if he continues his tantrums B offer to buy the snack food Hakim wants only if he quiets down and behaves himself C continue shopping while ignoring Hakim s tantrums D return any snack foods that are already in her cart to the store shelves Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 60 2 N 2 LA 2 4 2 VI 26 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 Kathleen developed an intense fear of ying ve years ago when she was in a plane crash The fact that today she can again y without distress indicates that her fear has undergone A spontaneous recovery B extinction C generalization D discrimination A xedratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after an A speci ed time period has elapsed B unpredictable time period has elapsed C speci ed number of responses have been made D unpredictable number of responses have been made Participants in an experiment were asked how fast two cars in a lmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other Many of these participants subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident This experiment best illustrated proactive interference the selfreference effect the spacing effect the misinformation effect statedependent memory WUOW After nding his friend s phone number Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly In this case the telephone number was clearly stored in h1s memory A echoic B shortterm C ashbulb D longterm E implicit The more depressed Betty feels the more easily she remembers many of the sad events in her life This best illustrates A the selfreference effect B the spacing effect C retroactive interference D moodcongruent memory E source amnesia Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Prychology 61 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 2 2 2 3 3 7 8 O O An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is an A conditioned stimulus B respondent C unconditioned stimulus D reinforcer E operant The process of encoding refers to A the persistence of learning over time B the recall of information previously learned C getting information into memory D the motivated forgetting of painful memories E a clear memory of an emotionally significant event Experiments have shown that children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy subsequently lose interest in the toy These experiments provide an example of spontaneous recovery respondent behavior observational learning negative reinforcement overjustification effect WUOWF Elaine recalls last year s Paris vacation more positively than she evaluated it when it occurred This best illustrates the selfreference effect source amnesia proactive interference rosy retrospection the spacing effect WUOW Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget novel information is initially and subsequently A slow stays slow B slow speeds up C rapid stays rapid D rapid slows down Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 62 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 32 33 3 4 3 VI 3 ON 3 l The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called statedependent memory retroactive interference the serial position effect the spacing effect proactive interference WUOW A mnemonic device is a A mental picture B test or measure of memory C technique for encoding language sounds D memory aid E word event or place that triggers a memory of the past Garcia and Koelling s studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by A cognitive processes B biological predispositions C environmental factors D continuous reinforcement E latent learning The hippocampus plays a critical role in memory A iconic B explicit C echoic D implicit Responsestimulus associations are to as stimulusstimulus associations are to A latent learning observational learning B generalization discrimination C operant conditioning classical conditioning D secondary reinforcement primary reinforcement E acquisition extinction The use of physical punishment may A lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior B demonstrate that aggression is a way of coping with problems C lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent D all the above Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 63 139 Lesson 7 Learning and Memory 439 38 39 4 O 4 Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by reinforcement delayed B negative C secondary D partial II c A retention of skills and J39 r quot39 without is known as memory A statedependent ashbulb shortterm implicit sensory FLOOD Studies of the conditioned eyeblink response in rabbits suggest that implicit memories are stored inthe A hypothalamus B cerebellum C motor cortex D hippocampus E association areas The magical number seven plus or minus two refers to the storage capacity of memory shortterm explicit ashbulb implicit sensory WUOWF Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is worth 20 points What is your most ViVid and detailed memory from your own past Why do you think you remember it so well N not Do you think you might have biased or false memories from your childhood Why or why Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 64 439 Lesson 8 Thinking and Language 439 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 8 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answer to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 N E 4 Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit overcon dence the framing effect functional xedness the representativeness heuristic the availability heuristic WUOW The value of generating positive rst impressions in your initial interactions with a new employer is best underscored by the research on A overcon dence B the framing effect C the belief perseverance phenomenon D functional xedness E the representativeness heuristic Research on the language capabilities of apes clearly demonstrates that they have the capacity to A vocalize the most common vowel sounds B acquire language vocabulary as rapidly as most children C communicate meaning through the use of symbols D all the above Joan forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night Unfortunately she never thought of using her down lled jacket as a pillow Joan s oversight best illustrates confumation bias belief perseverance functional xedness the availability heuristic overcon dence WUOW Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 68 439 Lesson 8 Thinking and Language 439 V39 0 gt1 9 The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to A judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype B judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered C search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions D cling to our initial conceptions even though they have been discredited Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as 75 percent lean than to ground beef described as 25 percent fat This illustrates that consumer reactions are in uenced by A the representativeness heuristic B the belief perseverance phenomenon C con rmation bias D the availability heuristic E framing The tendency for one s preexisting opinions to distort logical reasoning is known as A frarnjng B functional frxedness C belief bias D the availability heuristic E linguistic relativity Semantics refers to the A logical and methodical procedures for solving problems B orderly arrangement of words into grammatically correct sentences C ruleofthumb strategies that facilitate quick decision making D derivation of meaning from morphemes words and sentences The overconfrdence phenomenon refers to the tendency to A cling to our initial conceptions even though they have been discredited B search for information consistent with our preconceptions C underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are erroneous D judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 69 439 Lesson 8 Thinking and Language 439 LA UI 0 Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by A a builtin readiness to learn grammatical rules B their ability to imitate the words and grammar modeled by parents C the learned association of word sounds with various objects events actions and qualities D the positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly The smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a A prototype B phenotype C morpheme D phoneme A prototype is a best example of a particular category stepbystep procedure for solving problems mental grouping of similar objects events or people ruleofthumb strategy for solving problems efficiently U0wgt A single memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule This illustrates that judgments are in uenced by the confumation bias representativeness heuristic belief perseverance phenomenon framing effect availability heuristic F1190 In order to combine words into grammatically sensible sentences one needs to adhere to proper rules of A semantics B syntax C nomenclature D phonics The approximate age at which babies begin to make speech sounds is A twelve months B ten months C one month D four months It is difficult to explain language acquisition solely in terms of imitation and reinforcement because children A acquire language even in the absence of social interaction Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 70 439 Lesson 8 Thinking and Language 439 B resent being corrected for grammatical mistakes C overgeneralize grammatical rules producing speech errors they have never heard before D employ telegraphic speech patterns before speaking in complex sentences l7 Morphemes are A the smallest distinctive sound units of a language B the best examples of particular categories of objects C the smallest speech units that carry meaning D rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences 18 The con rmation bias refers to the tendency to A search for information consistent with our preconceptions B judge the likelihood of events on the basis of how easily we can remember examples of them C overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments D overestimate the degree to which other people will con rm our beliefs l9 Ruleofthumb strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments ef ciently are called A semantics B algorithms C prototypes D heuristics E xations 20 Compared to deaf adults exposed to sign language from birth those who rst learn sign language as teens are less likely to A imitate correctly the signs they are shown B use signs to indicate concrete objects C mentally associate signs with written words D comprehend grammatical subtleties of sign language 21 Which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with the systematic study of problem solving decision making concept formation and forming judgments A developmental psychology B social psychology C clinical psychology D cognitive psychology E personality psychology Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 71 439 Lesson 9 Intelligence 439 Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answer to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 N E 4 V39 Those who view intelligence as people s successful adaptation to their environment are most likely to be skeptical about the possibility of predicting academic success with standard intelligence tests of creating culturefree tests of intelligence that intelligence is in uenced by heredity that intelligence involves a diverse set of adaptive capacities com A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of A validity B standardization C reliability D normality Most experts would agree that intelligence tests are biased in the sense that A the heritability of intelligence is 100 percent B the reliability of intelligence tests is close to zero C test performance is in uenced by cultural experiences D numerical scores of intelligence serve to dehumanize individuals If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression it is said that the test A has not been standardized B is not valid C is not reliable D has not been factoranalyzed E does not produce scores that form a normal distribution The heritability of intelligence refers to A the extent to which an individual s intelligence is attributable to genetic factors B the extent to which a group s intelligence is attributable to genetic factors C the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors D a general underlying intelligence factor that is measured by every task on an intelligence test Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 74 439 Lesson 9 Intelligence 439 0 The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is B C D culturally de ned largely unpredictable and unmeasurable a diverse set of distinct abilities dependent upon the speed of cognitive processing Fiveyearold Jaime performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average fouryearold Jaime s mental age is A B 45 C 5 D 80 E 125 Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called tests A achievement B interest C reliability D aptitude E standardized The ability to control one s impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of longterm goals is most clearly a characteristic of WUOW the g factor heritability mental age savant syndrome emotional intelligence Achievement tests are designed to C D measure desire and potential capacity to meet challenges successfully assess ability to produce novel and valuable ideas compare an individual s personality with those of highly successful people assess learned knowledge or skills Research on gender and emotional intelligence suggests that women are more skilled than men at A B C D avoiding the experience of emotional ambivalence preventing emotions from distorting reasoning interpreting others facial expressions of emotion delaying emotional grati cation in pursuit of longterm goals Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 75 439 Lesson 9 Intelligence 439 12 If a test yields consistent results every time it is used it has a high degree of A standardization B predictive validity C reliability D content validity E heritability L If a test is standardized this means that A it accurately measures what it is intended to measure B a person s test performance can be compared with that of a pretested group C most test scores will cluster near the average D the test will yield consistent results when administered on different occasions 14 Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to A provide a quantitative estimate of inherited intellectual potential B distinguish between academic and practical intelligence C identify children likely to have difficulty learning in school D assess general capacity for goaldirected adaptive behavior VI The bellshaped pattern that represents the frequency of occurrence of intelligence test scores in the general population is called a A standardization sample B reliability coefficient C factor analysis D normal curve E savant syndrome 16 In considering the nature of intelligence experts would be most likely to agree that intelligence is an A inborn ability to perform well on standard intelligence tests B capacity for goaldirected adaptive behavior C general trait that underlies success on nearly any task D multiple array of completely independent adaptive traits Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is wonh 20 points 1 Would you uninvent ability tests Why or why not 2 In which of Stemberg s types of intelligence do you excel Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 76 139 Lesson 10 Motivation 139 Pay special attention to the section on eating disorders in the chapter Our cultural quest for thinness especially in women has caused a lot of pain and death Especially telling is the Fallon and Rozin 1985 study discussed in the chapter In this University of Pennsylvania study it was found that men much prefer a heavier build on women than women believe It s women s ideal body image that is way too far in the thin direction Ladies you re doing this to yourselves for no reason Actually of course it s the media that gets women to internalize this ridiculous ideal That study was done over ten years ago Have things gotten better since then I think it s gotten worse Just look at all the boney women on television and in magazines Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 12 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 10 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 Which of the following is not a predictor of sexual restraint in teenagers A high intelligence B father presence C volunteer activities D sexual activity of siblings N Research has found that an animal s sexual orientation can be altered by A manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions B destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus C injections of sex hormones in early adulthood D destruction of the amygdala E none of the above 3 Motivation is defined by psychologists as an impulse to accomplish something of significance B a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal C rigidly patterned behavioral urges characteristic of all people D the cause of behavior Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 80 139 Lesson 10 Motivation 139 0 gt1 9 Homeostasis is a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of an entire species an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake a physical need that usually triggers motivational arousal the body s tendency to maintain a constant internal state WUOW An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by physiological deprivation is called an instinct need incentive drive intrinsic motive Yang just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who appeared to enjoy being sexually molested This experience is most likely to lead Yang to see his own girlfriend as sexually unreceptive perceive himself as sexually impotent feel unsure about his gender identity be more willing to hurt women view sexual promiscuity as morally wrong The most basic or lowestlevel need in Maslow s hierarchy of human motives includes the need for A selfesteem B love and friendship C religious ful llment D food and drink E achievement For a hungry person the consumption of food serves to A lower the set point B arouse needs C maintain homeostasis D reduce an instinct Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 81 139 Lesson 10 Motivation 139 LA Parents who wish to strengthen their children s achievement motivation should be advised to A recognize that young children can t be expected to do things successfully without parental help tell their children that failure in life brings suffering warmly accept and praise their children regardless of whether they succeed or fail D encourage children at an early age to handle responsibility without parental help B C Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by an unusually high rate of metabolism cyclical uctuations between extreme thinness and obesity frequent migraine headaches the absence of a stable set point an inappropriate fear of becoming obese WUOW A homosexual orientation is A equally likely among members of both sexes B associated with a lack of clear gender identity C very persistent and difficult to change D a result of being sexually victimized during childhood E characteristic of over 10 of American males Fixed patterns of behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice are called A intrinsic motives B drives C instincts D extrinsic motives E incentives Increases in increase hunger whereas increases in decrease hunger glucose insulin insulin glucose glucose testosterone testosterone insulin serotonin insulin F1190 Members of which group tend to score better on tests of spatial ability A homosexual men B heterosexual men C heterosexual women D homosexual women Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 82 139 Lesson 10 Motivation 139 2 V39 gt1 9 gt0 0 Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called A needs B incentives C goals D drives Mark s intrinsic motivation to play baseball in college is most likely to be reduced when his attention is focused on mastering the physical skills necessary to play effectively B learning the essential rules of the game C developing the comradery with fellow players necessary for effective teamwork D playing well enough to secure an athletic scholarship E engaging in entertaining practice drills that prepare him for competitive play George athirtythreeyearold lawyer experiences premature ejaculation Research suggests that his disorder can be eliminated by engaging in sexual activity less frequently eliminating his high level of sexual guilt uncovering the unconscious fears that underlie his problem providing therapy designed to raise his selfesteem repeatedly engaging in genital stimulation that is discontinued as the urge to ejaculate arises WUOWF Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet A became apathetic and lost interest in food B remained interested in food but avoided talking or thinking about it C lost interest in sex and social activities D became increasingly preoccupied with political and religious issues The level of serotonin in the brain is by a diet high in A increased carbohydrates B decreased salt C increased protein D decreased sugar The brain structure that detects sexhormone levels and activates sexual arousal is the A cerebellum B amygdala C hypothalamus D medulla E thalamus Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 83 139 Lesson 10 Motivation 139 21 The set point is A B C D the stage of the sexual response cycle that occurs just before orgasm the body temperature of a healthy organism for example 986 F in humans the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are equal the speci c body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is W01th 20 points N How could we help move our culture to a safer body image for women Given that optimal experiences require challenge why do so many people spend leisure time doing things that don t really offer much challenge e g watching television reruns LA 5 UI How can you avoid wasting leisure time What are the differences in the male and female sexual cycles What are the two most important ways to encourage intrinsic motivation in people Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 84 439 Lesson 11 Emotion 439 Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 13 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 11 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 E 4 Employees who have just been laid off are asked questions that encourage them to express hostility toward their employer Research suggests that this opportunity to vent anger will calm their emotions and reduce their anger B increase their hostility C rechannel their anger into constructive motivation D improve their relationships with management by allowing an open airing of differences As people experience negative emotions the hemisphere of the brain becomes electrically active right more B right less C left more D left less According to the opponentprocess theory of emotion repetitions of an emotionarousing event tend to A weaken the experience of both the primary and the opposing emotion B weaken the experience of only the opposing emotion C strengthen the experience of both the primary and the opposing emotion D strengthen the experience of only the opposing emotion People from different cultures are most likely to differ with respect to A the way they categorize basic emotions such as fear and anger B how they interpret hand gestures such as the thumbs up signal C the speci c states of physiological arousal associated with their feelings of happiness or disgust D their facial expressions of different emotions such as sadness or surprise Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 86 439 Lesson 11 Emotion 439 V39 0 gt1 9 5 0 Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc that our thoughts are not in uenced by our emotional states our normal feelings of love and anger are often irrational sometimes emotions precede cognition the twofactor theory of emotion is essentially correct emotional reactions bias our perceptions of the world F1190 According to the twofactor theory the two basic components of emotions are and facial expressions cognitive labels emotionarousing events physical arousal physical arousal overt behavior cognitive labels physical arousal cowgt Since the 19505 the spendable income of Americans adjusting for in ation has and their selfreported personal happiness has remained almost unchanged decreased increased remained almost unchanged remained almost unchanged increased remained almost unchanged remained almost unchanged cowgt As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class Alice s heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat These physiological reactions were activated by her nervous system A central B sympathetic C skeletal D parasympathetic Research on human fear indicates that A fear is more often a poisonous emotion than an adaptive one B people seem to be biologically predisposed to learn some fears more quickly than others C people but not animals may acquire fear through observational learning D genetic factors are unimportant in understanding fearfulness Ever since Lupe was scolded and punished by her teacher for misbehaving Lupe has been fearful of being near the teacher This illustrates that A fear is a biologically maladaptive response B young children are biologically predisposed to fear almost anything C fear can be learned D emotions are most negative when we are only moderately aroused Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 87 439 Lesson 11 Emotion 439 LA Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input from the thalamus directly to the A hippocampus B hypothalamus C cerebellum D brainstem E amygdala Joyce and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another s A lips B eyes C hand gestures D body postures Rabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock if they have suffered damage to the A hippocampus B amygdala C thalamus D hypothalamus E corpus callosum The level of arousal typically associated with optimal performance tends to be on tasks that are A lower frequently practiced B higher relatively difficult C lower relatively easy D lower relatively difficult The CannonBard theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of than does the JamesLange theory A cognitive activity B facial expression C physiological arousal D catharsis Performance of a task is typically when arousal is A best moderate B worst moderate C best low D best high E mediocre moderate Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 88 439 Lesson 11 Emotion 439 gt1 9 5 0 Over the last twenty ve years American college freshmen have expressed an desire to be wealthy and an desire to develop a meaningful life philosophy A increasing decreasing B increasing increasing C decreasing decreasing D decreasing increasing Which of the following best explains why milliondollar lottery winners and paraplegics report similar levels of happiness JamesLange theory opponentprocess theory relative deprivation principle twofactor theory adaptationlevel principle F1190 The feelgood dogood phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they experience a more positive selfimage perceive the world as a safer place make decisions more effectively are more willing to help others report greater satisfaction with their whole lives WUOW Alessandra s mother told her You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside This remark best illustrates the theory of emotion A CannonBard B twofactor C JamesLange D opponentprocess Rannilt was euphoric after learning of her acceptance into the medical school of her choice After a few weeks however she feels no emotional excitement when she thinks about her admission to medical school This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of the catharsis hypothesis relative deprivation principle opponentprocess theory CannonBard theory adaptationlevel principle WUOW Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 89 439 Lesson 11 Emotion 439 22 Imitating another person s facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate A the feelgood do good phenomenon B the catharsis of aggressive feelings C parasympathetic nervous system activity D empathy 23 A hormone that increases heart rate blood pressure and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is A epinephrine B acetylcholine C testosterone D insulin E glycogen Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is wonh 20 points Is your natural happiness relatively high or low N What do you think would make you really happier in the long term LA According to your book faking an emotion can make us really feel it For fifteen minutes try faking feeling happier than you are It might be fun to try it in the presence of others Did it change your mood Were others affected too 5 Does catharsis or letting off steam usually reduce anger UI Does money buy happiness What is the evidence END OF LESSON 11 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 90 139 Lesson 12 Personality 439 I don t see much substance in the socialcognitive approach All it seems to say is that people behave differently in different contexts because of cultural expectations and sanctions Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 15 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 12 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide N E After tripping over someone s book bag on the way into class John felt embarrassed thinking that everyone in the room noticed Actually only the owner of the book bag saw John trip John s thinking demonstrates A spotlight effect B displacement C projection D selfesteem Freudian psychologists may use tests to evaluate personality characteristics A aptitude B empirically derived C inventory D reaction E projective The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one s personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as the halo effect the Barnum effect projection factor analysis unconditional positive regard F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 93 139 Lesson 12 Personality 439 4 V39 0 gt1 9 gt0 The best indicator of a person s level of optimism is his or her individualism ideal self C gender identity D attributional style E unconditional positive regard wgt The defense mechanism in which selfjustifying explanations replace the real unconscious reasons for actions is A projection B reaction formation C repression D rationalization E displacement Reaction formation refers to the process by which people A disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others B consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses C retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development D offer selfjustifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for one s successes than for one s failures best illustrates A reaction formation B an external locus of control C selfserving bias D reciprocal determinism E the Barnum effect Learned helplessness is most likely to promote A collectivism B unconditional positive regard C an internal locus of control D the Barnum effect E pessimism Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called A aptitudes B xations C projections D traits Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 94 139 Lesson 12 Personality 439 LA UI An unrealistic optimism about future life events could best be described as an Electra complex xation reaction formation selfserving bias external locus of control WUOW Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most closely related to one s level of creativity extroversion B openness C emotional stability D agreeableness Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed A a xation B a reaction formation C learned helplessness D a higher threshold ofpain E unrealistic optimism Selfesteem is negatively correlated with A personal control B selfserving bias C depression D individualism E extroversion Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation trait B psychoanalytic C humanistic D socialcognitive According to Freud the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the A collective unconscious B ego C selfconcept D superego E id Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 95 139 Lesson 12 Personality 439 9 In order to assess a client s personal growth Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between and A locus of control selfactualization B ideal self actual self C the client s values the therapist s values D unconditional positive regard selfactualization E selfesteem locus of control The perception that one s fate is determined by luck re ects A reciprocal determinism B selfserving bias C an external locus of control D the pleasure principle E the Barnum effect Freud might say that a person who couldn t quit smoking was xated at the A phallic stage B anal stage C neural stage D Oedipal stage E oral stage Research on selfperception indicates that most people A suffer extensively from feelings of unrealistically low selfesteem B feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes C underestimate the accuracy of their beliefs and judgments D view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others E are unrealistically pessimistic about their personal future Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is worth 20 points How would you describe your personality What is it that makes you different What are you like N What defense mechanisms do you sometimes find yourself using to protect yourself from something you don t want to do or think about LA Which of the Big Five personality dimensions do you think you are strong or weak on Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 96 139 Lesson 13 Psychological Disorders 139 or extensive weight gain However based on my family s experience if you nd the right one it can really help without bad side effects I like Seligman s theory relating rumination and pessimism to depression however I think such negative thoughts often follow rather than cause severe depression Still I think his techniques for avoiding toxic thoughts are important tools for ghting the vicious cycle of depression Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 16 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 13 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 Which of the following is not a protective factor for mental disorders aerobic exercise literacy substance abuse economic independence work skills F1190 N One of the best warning signs of an attempt at suicide is generalized anxiety hallucinations and delusions the use of illegal drugs suicidal talk repeated academic failure WUOWF E Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for norepinephrine dopamine C serotonin D acetylcholine Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 100 139 Lesson 13 Psychological Disorders 139 0 gt1 9 DSMIV is a widely used system for identifying the causes of psychological abnormality distinguishing sanity from insanity treating depression classifying psychological disorders doing all the above WUOW Frequent nightmares insomnia and the intrusion of painful memories are yup most 39 39 A with A bipolar disorder B dissociative amnesia C anorexia nervosa D posttraumatic stress disorder E histrionic personality disorder A condition in which an 39 J39 39J 39 is quot J 39 n and wildly optimistic is known as A fugue B paranoia C mania D a panic attack E catatonia Which of the following is characterized by persistent irrational fear of a specific object or situation A generalized anxiety disorder B catatonia C dysthymic disorder D histrionic personality disorder E phobia An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by A delusions of grandeur B a persistent irrational fear of people C episodes of intense autonomic nervous system arousal D disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity E a lack of guilt feelings Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 101 139 Lesson 13 Psychological Disorders 139 50 0 N E According to the socialcognitive perspective women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to have unrealistically optimistic goals in life sense a lack of personal control over their lives struggle with unresolved feelings of anger toward their mothers experience low levels of norepinephrine experience cyclical variations in hormone levels F1190 For the last month Mary has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable Mary is most likely suffering from A agoraphobia B anorexia nervosa C schizophrenia D an antisocial personality disorder E a mood disorder Antidepressant drugs that affect the availability of the neurotransmitter serotonin have been found especially useful in the treatment of disorders schizophrenia dissociative obsessivecompulsive antisocial personality cow Mental health workers label behavior psychologically disordered when they judge it A prejudicial unconsciously motivated ingenuine and insane B biologically based unconsciously motivated aggressive and difficult to change C selfish habitual and 39J 39 39 yet p J 39 39 39 quot J J 39 39 D atypical disturbing maladaptive and unjustifiable Although Mrs Petrides usually sits passively in a motionless stupor she sometimes repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arms She most likely suffers from paranoia a bipolar disorder major depressive disorder an obsessivecompulsive disorder catatonia F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 102 139 Lesson 13 Psychological Disorders 139 One difficulty with a purely attributional explanation of depression is that negative attributions A have little effect on people s feelings of selfworth B are more characteristic of men than of women C may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression D do not coincide with actual episodes of depression E are more clearly associated with mania than with depression Mr Hunt believes that he is the President of the United States and that he will soon become the King of the Universe Mr Hunt is most clearly suffering from A hallucinations B obsessions C delusions D dissociative identity disorder While he was studying Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath Matthew was most likely suffering from an A bipolar disorder B dissociative disorder C panic disorder D obsessivecompulsive disorder E dysthymic disorder The most common personality disorder is the personality disorder A histrionic B narcissistic C antisocial D borderline According to the medical model psychological disorders are purely imaginary symptoms of distress B maladaptive responses to a troubling environment C sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured D learned habits that need to be extinguished Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenthfloor apartment In order to reduce his anxiety he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing an disorder panic bipolar generalized anxiety obsessivecompulsive phobic F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 103 139 Lesson 13 Psychological Disorders 139 20 A dissociative identity disorder is most likely to be characterized by A a lack of guilt feelings B offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person C delusions of persecution and grandeur D a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness E alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism 2 Those with a narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with A an irrational fear of people B delusions of persecution C physical symptoms of distress D their own selfimportance E sexual fantasies Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is worth 20 points N L 5 UI Look at the chart showing gender differences in psychological disorders Do any of these differences surprise you How would you explain these differences Which types of disorders seem to fit the medical model of mental illness and which ones do not Why do you think so Have you ever experienced something like a panic attack when a crazy idea e g someone was going to die today comes into your head What might you do in this situation to calm yourself How might a behavior therapist and a cognitive therapist differ in their approaches to a problem where a person has a persistent irrational thought such as everyone hates me Give an example of a behavior that would be considered normal in one culture but abnormal in another Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 104 139 Lesson 14 Psychotherapy 139 The sixth category biomedical therapies is not presented until the end of the chapter Ithink they are removed from the rest because clinical psychologists cannot use them You must be an MD rather than a PhD to prescribe drugs or do medical procedures like electric shock therapy Medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of mental illness are psychiatrists I m sure the text is right that we overuse drug treatments however they seem much more effective than the talking therapies for severe problems especially for psychosis Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 17 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 14 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 The technique reduces people to puppets controlled by therapists It doesn t respect human freedom This criticism is most likely to be directed at A systematic desensitization B rationalemotive therapy C eclectic therapy D psychoanalysis E a token economy N Which form of therapy has most directly contributed to the sharp reduction in the number of residents in American mental hospitals A psychosurgery B cognitive therapy C electroconvulsive therapy D drug therapy E behavior therapy Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 106 139 Lesson 14 Psychotherapy 139 gt1 Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of A phobic disorders B dissociative disorders C schizophrenia D depression E somatoform disorders The most widely used form of behavior therapy is A active listening B aversive conditioning C the token economy D systematic desensitization E stress inoculation training Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to A focus more on other people s feelings than on their own B adapt more readily to social norms and expectations C imitate the behavior of others who are happy and successful D take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions E do all the above An eclectic therapist is one who A prescribes the use of drugs as part of psychotherapy B emphasizes that active listening is the major technique in all effective therapies C prefers to engage in therapy in a group setting D uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches Teaching people to take personal credit for their successes and to blame circumstances when things go wrong has been found to be effective in the treatment of A dissociative disorders B depression C phobic disorders D schizophrenia Light exposure therapy may help someone suffering from A major depression B bipolar disorder C chronic pain D SAD E obesity Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 107 139 Lesson 14 Psychotherapy 139 50 0 N E 4 Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly in uenced the development of A Gestalt therapy B behavior therapy C personcentered therapy D psychoanalysis E rationalemotive therapy Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult s psychological disorder by exploring that person s childhood experiences A a psychoanalyst B a behavior therapist C a personcentered therapist D a rationalemotive therapist Transference refers to a client s A conversion of psychological con icts into physical and behavioral disorders B replacement of selfcenteredness with a genuine concern for others C expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships D translation of threatening dream content into nonthreatening manifest symbols The placebo effect refers to A relief from symptoms without psychotherapy B the alleviation of depression and anxiety by means of aerobic exercise C the use of drugs in the therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders D the bene cial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective E the use of a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods Prozac is an antidepressant drug that inhibits the reuptake of A serotonin B dopamine C acetylcholine D chlorpromazine In order to encourage Mrs Haan a withdrawn schizophrenia patient to be more socially active institutional staff members give her small plastic cards whenever she talks to someone She is allowed to exchange these cards for candy and cigarettes Staff members are making use of A active listening B systematic desensitization C a token economy D free association Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 108 139 Lesson 14 Psychotherapy 139 UI E classical conditioning Psychotherapy is likely to be most effective when a client s problem is A clearcut and speci c B the result of unconscious con icts C longstanding and habitual D a response to a stressful life situation E selfin icted The most common ingredient underlying the success of diverse psychotherapies is the A professional training and experience of the therapist B temporary escape from reallife pressures offered by psychotherapy C length of time the client spends in psychotherapy D client s expectation that psychotherapy will make things better Systematic desensitization involves depriving a client access to an addictive drug 39 quot 39 with J 39 experiences replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxietyarousing stimuli vigorously challenging clients illogical ways of thinking WUOWF George is a college sophomore who feels so personally incompetent that he believes his life is worthless and hopeless George would probably profit the most from psychoanalysis personcentered therapy systematic desensitization cognitive therapy a token economy WUOW Metaanalysis refers to A a procedure for identifying the common factors that underlie many different disorders B the use of a variety of therapeutic techniques in the treatment of a single client C counseling and treatment of troubled individuals by friends family and other nonprofessional helpers D a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies E the technique of simply rephrasing much of what a client says during the course of therapy Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 109 439 Lesson 15 Stress 139 in emotions too well can cause the system to underreact making us vulnerable to cancer and some other diseases One really cool thing in the book is the picture on page 557 of a large macrophage trapping a bacterium It s an incredible picture It looks like a science ction war machine Don t miss it Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 14 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 15 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide Prolonged stress due to sustained military combat is associated with a decrease in the size of a brain structure vital to memory B sexual behavior C motor re exes D speech production N When an organism s weight falls below its set point the organism is likely to experience an in hunger and an in its metabolic rate A increase increase B decrease decrease C increase decrease D decrease increase E Lymphocytes are A harmful agents such as chemicals and viruses that cross the placenta from mother to fetus white blood cells that are part of the body s immune system cancer cells that form in the lymph glands stress hormones produced by the sympathetic nervous system COP Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 112 439 Lesson 15 Stress 139 0 9 The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the A conditioning of the immune response B body s response to aerobic exercise C body s response to prolonged stress D process ofbiofeedback Who is the best example of a Type A personality A Philip a competitive harddriving corporation president B Ho a relaxed easygoing mail carrier C Valentin a selfcon dent intelligent journalist D Thomas an introverted inhibited mental patient The best way to increase the production of serotonin is to A avoid highcarbohydrate foods B make use of biofeedback C engage in aerobic exercise D receive training in meditation The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the A sympathetic nervous system B parasympathetic nervous system C limbic system D immune system E reticular system In the 1920s Walter Cannon discovered that stress produced an outpouring of into the bloodstream A epinephrine and norepinephrine B acetylcholine and endorphins C lymphocytes and glucocorticoids D estrogen and testosterone Aerobic exercise has been closely linked to an A decrease in lymphocyte production B decrease in depression C increase in blood pressure in reaction to stress D decrease in the production of endorphins Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 113 439 Lesson 15 Stress 139 As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job your heart rate body temperature and breathing rate begin to increase These physiological changes are produced by activation of the nervous system A parasympathetic B sympathetic C skeletal D central Which of the following is most likely to cause premature death A the failure to use automobile seat belts B alcohol abuse C smoking D obesity E lack of exercise Compared to their counterparts of forty years ago today s average American woman weighs and today s average Miss America contestant weighs A less more B more less C less less D more more Research on cancer indicates that A cancer patients who bottle up their negative emotions have less chance of survival than those who are able to express them B stress is linked with a greater incidence of cancer in white males only C an increase in the production of B lymphocytes accounts for the link between stress and cancer D cancer appears more often than usual among the widowed and less often than usual among the divorced The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are A attention comprehension and resistance B alarm reaction resistance and exhaustion C adrenal release cognitive appraisal and stomach ulceration D reactive frustration sympathetic arousal and parasympathetic inhibition Which of the following best explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections A Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes B Stress hormones facilitate the depositing of cholesterol and fat around the heart C Stress hormones accelerate the hardening of the arteries D Stress hormones trigger release of digestive acids Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology ll4 439 Lesson 15 Stress 139 16 Stress is de ned in the text as B C D E a physiological reaction to any negative life event the experience of con icting motives that produce anxiety and tension the blocking of an attempt to reach some important goal the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges physical emotional or mental exhaustion Part 4 Idea Exchange Lesson Assignment Answer th e following questions on a separate sheet of paper This is the only part of each lesson you send in for grading Each question is worth 20 points N L 5 UI weight What makes our lives so stressful What would you recommend to yourself or someone you love about successfully losing Why is prolonged stress so harmful How can you change your appraisal of daily hassles to make them less stressful Can good events be stressful Why END OF LESSON 15 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 115 139 Lesson 16 Social Psychology 139 Part 1 Reading Assignment Myers Psychology Chapter 18 Part 2 Puzzle Self Check Solve the Lesson 16 Puzzle in Appendix A at the back of this course guide Part 3 Multiple Choice Questions Self Check Answer the selfch eck questions that follow Do not send these in Answers to the selfch eck questions can be found in Appendix C at the back of this course guide 1 N E 4 We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally A little disapprove B little approve C a great disapprove D a great approve People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as each other and the members of an ingroup as each other A different from similar to B similar to different from C similar to similar to D different from different from Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that A women are more likely rape victims than are men B most rapes are commonly committed by victims dates or acquaintances C many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters D most rapes are never reported to the police Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in their town This best illustrates the justworld phenomenon the reciprocity norm the fundamental attribution error ingroup bias scapegoating F1190 Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to Psychology 118 139 Lesson 16 Social Psychology 139 V39 0 9 gt0 Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink A B C D In order to proceed democratically we need to know the honest opinions of all group members We all seem to be in basic agreement so there s no sense in continuing our discussion ofthis issue Do any of you see any potential problem with our group s position As a group we have to think carefully about all the pros and cons surrounding this issue In laboratory experiments merely observing someone receive painful electric shocks leads viewers to think less of the victim This reaction is best explained in terms of gtgt pow FLOOD the justworld phenomenon the bystander effect the scapegoat theory the mere exposure effect social trap is a situation in which there are not enough resources to satisfy the needs of all members of a social group false stereotypes in uence how people interpret the behavior of others the pursuit of selfinterest leads to collective harm the rich get richer and the poor get poorer all people in a con ict situation suffer no matter how cooperatively they behave Alicia insists that her boyfriend s car accident resulted from his carelessness Her explanation for the accident provides an example of WUOW the bystander effect deindividuation ingroup bias the footinthedoor phenomenon a dispositional attribution A cluster of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position is an A norm role attribution attitude Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 119 139 Lesson 16 Social Psychology 139 LA Which of the following would be most consistent with a GRIT strategy A announcing that even a small attack on an ally will result in a nuclear attack on the enemy B announcing that defense expenditures will be cut by 5 percent and inviting the enemy to do likewise C announcing that one has formed an alliance with several countries encircling the enemy D announcing that the opposing party s invasion of a neutral country will be challenged in an international court of law The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of and to overestimate the impact of in explaining the behavior of others A normative in uences informational in uences B informational in uences normative in uences C personal dispositions situational in uences D situational in uences personal dispositions The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people A perform wellleamed tasks more effectively in the presence of others B become more extreme in their opinions following group discussion C more readily comply with a large request if they previously complied with a small request D experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar E often fail to notice the in uence they exert on others Which of the following would be the best advice to give parents who are concerned about the frequent aggressive outbursts of their sixyearold son A Encourage your son to express his anger by slugging a punching bag B Encourage your son to watch the devastating consequences of violence portrayed on TV C Be consistent in spanking your child after every outburst so he ll realize that aggression never pays D Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic E Don t be concerned about your child s aggressiveness unless the behavior pattern continues beyond the fifth grade Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 120 139 Lesson 16 Social Psychology 139 UI After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point a crowd of fans throws bottles and begins to tear up the eld This behavior is best understood in terms of A the justworld phenomenon B deindividuation C the bystander effect D groupthink E social facilitation When twelveyearold Jack saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort he prepared to offer help But when he noticed several adults walk past the man he concluded that the man did not need any help His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in the mere exposure effect the fundamental attribution error social loafing the footinthedoor phenomenon the bystander effect WUOW According to Milgram the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that A people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive B even ordinary people who are not usually hostile can become agents of destruction C the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives D people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced to do something Susan who is attractive and likable has just telephoned Mike and asked him for a date According to the twofactor theory of emotion Mike is likely to experience the most intense romantic feelings for Susan during their telephone conversation if he has just A awakened from a short nap B finished eating a delicious meal C completed a series of aerobic exercises D been studying his history lecture notes The level of obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when the teacher was the experimenter and the learner A close to close to B far from far from C close to far from D far from close to Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 121 139 Lesson 16 Social Psychology 139 20 21 22 23 24 Sherif s study of con ict in a Boy Scout camp indicated that con ict between two groups of boys could be reduced most effectively by A bringing the members of both groups into close contact B having one group make conciliatory gestures to the other group C allowing leaders of the two groups to communicate D exposing the groups to tasks that required their joint cooperation Attribution theory was designed to account for A the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others B the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior C social facilitation and social loa ng D the loss of selfawareness that occurs in group situations E how people explain others behavior In 1942 reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow Poland This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructiver obedient when A they fail to realize their actions are morally wrong B their victims are distant and depersonalized C they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority gures D they derive personal satisfaction from destructive acts The footin thedoor phenomenon refers to the tendency to A neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group B perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others C comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request D lose selfrestraint in group situations that foster anonymity E experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar Attitudes are that guide behavior norms and roles beliefs and feelings superordinate goals dispositional attributions com A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage A altruism B nonconformity C ingroup bias D groupthink E superordinate goals Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 122 139 Lesson 16 Social Psychology 139 25 26 27 2 00 2 O 3 O The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called A cognitive dissonance B group polarization C deindividuation D the footinthedoor phenomenon E the fundamental attribution error Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which A two subgroups of individuals have opposing opinions B individuals share a similar opinion C each individual has a unique perspective D individuals have not formed any opinion Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of conformity aggression social facilitation group polarization cow The presence of others a person s performance on wellleamed tasks and a person s performance on unmastered tasks improves has no effect on improves hinders has no effect on hinders hinders improves improves improves F1190 Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram s initial obedience experiment because the learners made so few learning errors under stressful circumstances the teachers actually enjoyed shocking another person C the learners obediently accepted painful shocks without any protest D the teachers were more obedient than most people would have predicted E of all the above reasons wgt Aggressive behavior is most likely to be by injections of testosterone and by consumption of alcohol A increased decreased B decreased increased C increased increased D decreased decreased Psychology 2000 60 Introduction to nychology 123 PSYC2000 Final Study Guide Chapter 13 Personality What was Freud s psychodynamic perspective How was it related to sex 4 Emphasized that personality is primarily unconscious The Victorian Era a time of what Sexual repression For Freud everything was about sex 1 Anything pleasurable 2 Sex drive was the main determinant of personality development 3 All behavior is a result of the conflict between the unconscious sexual drive and the demands of civilized society 4 Freud believed his patients problems stemmed from sexual repression According to Freud what are the 3 parts of personality How do they interact o 00 Id Ego and Superego and they are in constant conflict The Id is theunconscious drives that are present at birth that work according to the pleasure principle and is always seeking pleasure Like quotif it feels good do itquot Example Think about infants devil on your shoulder Ego deals with the demands of reality and is mostly conscious rational and logical and works on the reality principle The ego tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of society 0 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 quotIf it feels good do it but only if you get away with itquot Example a pyro person in the middle ofthe angeldevil on shoulder Superego is the moral center of one s personality Example angel on the shoulder o 00 o 00 o 00 What were Freud s 5 stages of psychosexual development What happens at each stage 4 The 5 stage of psychosexual development are 4 Oral Occurs from birth to about 15 years and the erogenous zone is the mouth The Conflict is weaning Oral xation causes overeating drinking too much chain smoking talking too much biting nails and gum chewing 4 Anal Occurs during the toddler year and the associated erogenous zone is the anus The conflict include Toilet trainingPotty training child enjoys going to the potty Anal Fixation causesf child refused to use toilet and instead defecated where they wanted later in life they might grow up to be messy f child was terrified of making a mess and refused to go to bathroom later in life they are overly neat 4 Phallic 3 to 6 years old and the erogenous zone is the genitals The con ict is that you become sexually attracted to the opposite sex parentBoys Oedipus complex which leads to castration anxiety Girls Electra complex To battle conflict the child represses sexual feelings amp identify with the same sex parent mm rimiamm immammxexuai 2mm wammmmmi mum Men Mumma X mum in wumen mm menmxareiikemeirhmeu 9 mm Lam lmm age a m mm m mummy unmai MUM a may mam in mherwav o Empimimmvx havemmie armx Bovxwkhbvm Giruwim m o GeniuiAd iexoemaMAduimmd Axexuai mawakenirw mm a n imeandvnurxaumec Dieaxummimlmmxameane mmme amiiv wmm m Suiiu Mm Big 5 mm Mpzvmniiilwwhi mm thivinznmu mm umvmamn mai dimenxi manaiiw muopenm Miiiirwne m w m amgnmuwm we wimwamunimwana iiin muse i iiimmciaume lmeamavKauai m Pniulian Me i m mherxmiairwvi u izedandamhiliauxsmialedmbemrlri mm i 7 un iiahiemama amie mamvmm mmi ibe in m i r wimmr mviemiarxmia i in ism mimime u beiMaicneuuvxinmehac mummmmem miamm mimmimimmghgaoamu mm sheip uish mi now i r eralivesiniuhie in mm Neurmicixmlme ammemmianaixuhiiiwarimuhiiimhigh wu vinasimeeureand iam m mum iow m reimedi wmm Dvmzmvz mwwm mm di zvzmwpzswznikzd ibmmn my Projective tests Ask test taker to do what 7 To describe an ambiguous stimuius or tail a story Meant to quotget atquot what 7 The persons unconscious con icts desires 81 ur Projective tests Rorshach inkblut test 7What do people do People descrle whattney see from a series of Inkblms 7 Interpretation of ambiguous stimuli may reveal w at Thnugntm reveal uncansclcus aspects cl persunallty estill frequently used to describe personali diagnose mental disorders and predict behavior Problems with projective tests ale No standard grading sa Problems with reliabillty and validity YE rm l trenl lmtnsmn rum Mvzrsr rggs W92 ln ltam whal 3mm Whats tharamrlmtMthz lzrznt lrnzntmn Personallty Inventories Questionnalres on whlch people respond to Items that cover a wlde range 0f feellng amp behavlors Often what types of respu s yes nu lame nv aisaeraa People In a etsatael Questions may be interpreted in different ways by alnerent people People mav get tired and lust nick answers a ranaam Problems ay resuund with what KhEthink l5 susiallv MyersBriggs Type Indicator MBTI O en used m do when W cm tynes Mcaveers may are um suited far SensTnEInlumun Sen nl39veuvlgwhunre rvmmlyun wmmmyasmmumqmm nr AaYsenses mmnn mm m mum mm ampzrussmzr1unhc5 Thinkln eelinx 39lr nHuE39DEuWrWhupr uwuse agnanaxvss Ecxaenenuzmauar m v27ch as hrs mm um whatend m make dzmsmnshaszdu Dcvsunawamns 5 mm viacrnrs Innuversiunexuauersrun IE humuan dmedmwms m mnc39war n m mmm mmm am amp hva muons mmmummramdmwm me mm W a czmwues 2mm 1 ca thnzs udlln lll pmwmgmmewmmwmmgm m saunmnews vmd mzxwgfnamnusa ludzinB mm whaava 3mm m mm a mum madeeUs nnSmn rszc m ah vuu39 puma Hun av Whinvz pzvsbnihw mmw Haw amm mmmzu umm 3 mm Personality Disorders What are rhey r Dlsruptive Inflexlble s endurlng patterns of behavlor Impair social functioning Fully imegrated in an individual s personality Ho 39n US population have personality disor ers 15 3 mam types Person ls seen as odd or eccemric Behavior of lhe person ls drama c or erratic main emo on is anxlety or fearfulness wmsmutthpmmwmmm wettest memwmrtm thymus mme artmtsvmpmm mm Paranoid personality disorder Person has a longterm dlsrrust amp suspmon of others 39n Mor common Svm oms cmcem that other people have hidden memes Assume others will exploit harm deceive them Ina lkytowurk nerwltn uthers oclal lSOlEth e Detachmem r Hostility Why is treatment dif cult yuu dan nrusr he d ttors9becanse trey are Antrsocral personality disorder Person has no morals m mnscleme Often lead a life of crime or violence Sometimes called quot saciopatns quot W m Failure to conform m social Harms Deceidulness lm l lmtabilitv aggressiveness Disregard forsafelv a selfnr others Cansisienrirraspunsimliiv lack Hf remarse Mor an in males Not all individuals with ASPD engage in crime and not all criminals sufferfrarn ASPD Antisocial personality disorder Possible causes Certain genetic characteristics may interact with eslosterane to promote antisocial behavior gt Childhood abuse Less stressed by aversive circumsrances May be nked ialawmnan nurmil levels nrsrress liarmunex Psychopaths Subgroup in individuals with ASPD Remnrseless predamrs wha engage in what Eniase nvialsrnetcgcrwnnwivwa Di iculw prucessing infurmatiun related in the dlstress oi omers Psychopath VIDEO Tommy Lvnn Sells What are 3 thingsthat psychopaths lack r c n zience remorseamp um Structural impairmenttu what part cf brain 7 Fan unne bram calledme Amvgdala Why did he kill some children 7 manquot wanuhem m livethnugh me pain I lived mmughquot What happened to Krystal Surles She was sleepm at her menus house wake up canlused she saw a stew ol Er manquot 53w her mend die than he sliced her neck upen m drd rm km her Borderline personality disorder m persun ls many r unxumc Inch 2 In senseul rdrrmv and when ltan H mm Has relamnshms mm my peoplemam immm mlauvay quotmm mm m r Frannrc ummawldMlu andancd m Umm nu mmmmmwr mummy Hmlvm r a mu maimzuwm M mum nrulkmmlan i bah nr mm y m Emnnnal VCVWM mm x 39Emnnnnal mllumistef Emssiv svnumgmnrkmgl mgibuz Mar errm Namequot 5 am n ranum Narcissistic Personality disorder for Cocky selfscentered manipulative demanding Symptoms Excessive feelings of selfimpuriance Exag erate achievements ortalents Preoccupied with fantasies of success a power Unreasunable expectations of favorable lreatmem o In ated sense of selfsimporta nce amp a deep need admiration Disregard for he reeiings ofothers VIDEO NARCISSISTIC PERSONAL TV DISORDER Clinical psychologist39s diagnosis of Mark Zuckerberg The characte 39 I Network r in The Scan What was his 5 criteria for diagnosis l Lacks empathy is unwiiiing to recognize or identify wiihme feeling ill needs of others 1 Shows arrogant behaviors or attitudes Dependent Personality disorder Person depends too much on others to meet their emotional E physical needs one Avoid personal respunsibilily y criticism Fears of being abandoned Verv passive in relationships Can t make decisions withoutsupport from others How do they think about themselves 7 Thevthinkvew pudrlyofthemselves thinktheyerestupidworthless oeirmemerrownaoriroes Yovvtymooknlh about mum in psvtholbgVMheve Gem Holstede swve mm m workers or especimiaccepi malpowex disinzuled imaqua y lndlvidnnhsm mm m 1ch w mm mumbns a may m mmgnmd mm mung when gmups uvcx mum on ne 5m pcup c Imk a cr mumclvcs md mairnwn mum a m nmgrlemmz people u in mum namely um Flam a swan mincequot groupmemhersmp Mniml mily m he mm m Wm gander mlcs m clearcm m m cullmc Man an expert m be mm mush and mm on mm mm mm women m suppmcd m m mm Imam wander m man mlh rlve mqu m um m the pm nxnunc gmquot mics madly my m and mm m mmmen m u modal under mvdmnccmltd wum qunluy aw umemm mums UAW um mm In mm m mumbtn UK A cullun m Ihmuiemd m unmm or m39amwn slmaunm A m hvghavmdance pn n mlmm m marked by new mm a new 1390 pxtdlcmlulny w n pmmeuu for mm mud lmwnllcn mic Lungum mimtmiun mm m um m which a culmre mm a pragmadc luulreronenled pcrspcmvn suppomng mm m persevemnaaud mnn mmmm npnsmmnud shumtzr m nnmulmIL Hawdwdfar lungAHredAd erKarenHameyandErikEnksanmadxwreudsmemya nswhaanast hm AnaMim piychnlugymyJungimpsychn ngwm s mMpiyc39dnwmignaing39wmt a a mamcwunmumMmenzaxauemonnasbammmmssamr mm thnkers m m om m 151quot 39m mumw am mamas EHBJWEE psynmw 5 ms m quotcm mam ysileLmiSWeweszmm hemagv onn wcrscinusmcessm minnowsmmngmmanbammraapxnasy udingammpalpsycmw a mmdmu39cmscc hemmeo mah39qawddwmpmemm pawns m M M asnadmts he myslwd sou an ussdas mm Manuelquot pacnm39 an swims mmmmy mm m siard39ca39maaldraama mums am mmey s 3 caiied ms psychoiogy quotindividuai Psycmiogy Orgier 1975 individuai and who carried psychiatry mm m cammunny 52 mng 2 person in be nonmied or associa ed my rm surrounding Wm re orneyr Karen Hnrnev unlike Fraud 1 un Hum F Y 1 L a L a r H to bear and nurse children This theory along with Freud s theory a J 39 39 ILr mgr rhm rh uqucl gender possesses Unlike Freud Karen39s views were not because ufthe 39 39 39 39 39 reel inferior because we have for so long allowed men to ell us that we are inferior AI n to children make up for this by working to gain impressive accompiishmentsr Karen differed very much from Freud however it was stated that one of A quot J quotI 4 Navanhalo k waginm EriksonThere are three ways in which Erikson39s stages of development are different from Freud39s stages of development First Erikson placed substantially less importance on the individual39s sexual drive as a factor in normal development Instead Erikson focused his stages on the development and emergence ofa sense of identity Also unlike Freud Erikson proposed that a person39s sense of identity was not completely developed during adolescent but instead continued to develop and evolve throughout a person39s life Finally Erikson downplayed the importance of maturation in cognitive development and instead focused on the importance of cultural demands placed on children during speci c age transitions in their life Chapter 14 Psychological disorders 0 What is a phobia What are the different phobias we talked about in class 0 What is agoraphobia What is claustrophobia What is acrophobia What is social phobia 39 Phobia An irrational overwhelming persistent fear of something tPhelrson goes to extreme lengths to avoided dreaded situation or mg Claustrophobia Fear of small enclosed spaces Acrophobia Fear of heights 39 Social phobia Fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social situations Agoraphobia Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is dif cult or impossible 000 o What are the different approaches for explaining psychological disorders 0 What is the biological approach 0 What is the psychological approach 0 What is the sociocultural approach a wigismwwmmimy Biological approach Psychological disorders come from what Biology Brain genetic factors neurotransmitters Psychological approach Emphasizes what Experiences thoughts emotions 81 personality 0 characteristics Sociocultural approach Emphasizes what The social context in which a poison lives Examples Gender ethnicity socioeconomic status family relationships amp cu ture Biopsychosocial model Combinat39ion of biological factors psychological factors and sociocultural factors Makesurev uknnwahnutthedifferenQDSvrhningiraidisorderswe ismssedinriass 0 Panic dismamimum nanicz acks mis iikmm win min mu rapid humming swamin dry quotmoi aim nainsAwml inp minim o ObsessiverrnmvuiswedisorderrObsessionlinimdinzlhoulhlslcomnuisions mimic bahwiavs Dbkssionscvazla miew that is iaiima bvcomnuisions mi Emma muddy il whiz Iocompielalhe viluai umpiasmheckinp devising a counlin eneraiile anxiaty disorder39navsislanl mm instinz ionkvlhzn 5 mo mwmw excessivaiv aboulavevvlhinp kaiml ac impendingdwm Tend m be lankyedgy quotmi Doctrinalin moxie mics sicaninz mahiems amp ivvihbie e Ma nr ivrassmnr wstcmmanwemmee mood dwmdav 2vcve dememn that came an suddan v and m seems a hm n0 ulcmz nus m n ma Sevev luv 0 cwem cwcumslzncas Smcxdzhdemesszd most at 0 dry amcenevzv 3 22an mmmmeeayetc B pn ar wsnr ir39 my mood swmzs belwzen maimdemesswcemwdesznd mam armada Mame t eenevgenc Maimdemesswrunmmwm andszd 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znmhav quotlnendquot cpzmle net mm net unmet m lam mam 3h m zmdala mm whit e dvimwm ri moddmmercm Esteem m chmnc mtldN depram ortrmi e modunenimompimm Wolmrwm on llSWir avrgdmurhrws i gmy arr pmrssl eneeml Whittimed erenzebetweenmuem ibnnrmimvversuimuermmnnnvv Psychological abnormality aired cunning with respect ts expeeted performance suitable for a person in s relevant context What are the 3 criteria for bnorrnality 1 Personal distress 2 Deviance stypiest infrequent 3Mnl d 139 a apLive behavm armadasm snveclm39vdbllnwu39achsulsmadl39ycn mt muvl l Mme m wrwnlm m Mummy an e t mm mm m Mmssse MW e an t W Newsweek lruab ll mmmcnavm Wary 2x1 mslmmc39crmls m ed mmrb 5p e whatmnensw Diagnostic 8 Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM Catsleg ufpsychalugiml disorders used by trained professionals ts diagnose psyehepstheisgies e Whmt nundmAxts w Organic mental disordexs 5 5y u chsurders 5 Sexual and gender identity disorders 7 Sleep and eating disarst 9 Anxiety disurders u Persunality disurdersz gmup uf longstanding in exible and maladap ve persunalily um um impair social and aeeupeueu dinning Lududes mental retardatiuu e M e General medical conditions wnansamnssumtm Acute stress Dlsurder ls charactenzed ov the development or severe anxery dlssoclanve and otner symptoms tnat ccurs wrtmn one montn after exposure to an extreme traumatlc tressor eg witnessing a deatn or serlous accldent As a response to the traumattc event me ndrvldual develops drssoclatrve symptoms lndlvlduals wrtn Acute Stress nlsorder nave a decrease In emo onal r s n v m e to experlence pleasure n prevlouslv emovaole acuvltles and rreouentlv reel gulltv about pursuing usual Ilfe asks a E a g A person wrtn Acute tress rder mav experlence dlrnculty concentratlng leel detacned rrom helr Dames experlence tne world as unreal or dreamlike or nave s ol tne traumattc event drssoctatlve amnesla wnanpomaumsntmsunoruna PastTraumath stress msorder prsn ls a debllltatirlg llows a ternlylng event orten people perststent rngntemng tnougnts and memones or men ordeal and reel emottonallv numb especlallv wltn people they were once close to PTSD once referred to as snell snack or battle lattgu was llrst orougnt to publlc attentlun by war veterans out lt can m an nump ro nc ents r condltlon tnat ro wltn prso nave Chapter 15 Whnwi mmwwwmmmrm begmhe mmm hummnamemm Wm manun mm mm dmemmunan bexwLen m mimicxtwmem Din mum and usmemmmng Fund qud s ms zmwasmazmz Syn1m a lnwed lotus n m unmnscmus 7 Free zssauanun What duvuu dn mmquot n Swl racctmlu m rmman nxychmnzy mum assocmllan m pmmcmm Inmrmznnn wmm mmmm snnrnuusan v awarrul Fnrzxammz a mmquot mm quotugh m muxhzr and thequot van wumdmw Sivwhmcvrr cm mmmd Vourrzsnnns um wabab vmvea mfmmanun mm mun v on n mum Fvsud exed when an mun 7mm my pmbed mm DVDh Dm he hnnnth m uumnsnuus m Axoc ixemnk rgw mcimerunm mumme mmgmumwiw ammmeuwmwam m world We pea mmmw mmm mm Dinermuhmtgm cnuersad mm my unmamm harmDr murmur EthIXdeDrexmn mm Whenma k rgduwnme hava mm John says hello to the company CEO The CEO does not respond and keeps walking John interpret this as the CEO s lack of respect for him He get demoralized and feels rejected However the CEO s behavior may have nothing to do with John He may have been preoccupied about an upcoming meeting or had a ght with his wife that morning If John considered that the CEO s behavior may not be related to him personally he is likely to avoid this negative mood What is biomedical therapy A set of treatments for mental illness that include drugs psychosurgery and electroconvulsive therapy 0 Make sure you know all about the types of drugs we talked about in class I Antipsychotic drugsAn antipsychotic or neuroleptic is a tranquilizing psychiatric medication primarily used to manage psychosis including delusions or hallucinations as well as disordered thought particularly in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ExampleSeroquel Abilify etc I Antianxiety drugs Any of a group of drugs such as the benzodiazepines that are used to treat anxiety without causing excessive sedation Also called anxiolytic drug minor tranquilizer Example Xanex alprazolam is a benzodiazepine Vistaril I Antidepressant drugsAn antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder Examples SSRI Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like Prozac or Zoloft SNRI Serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitors like Effexor and Cymbalta NDRI Norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitors like Wellbutrin and many other types What is electroconvulsive therapy How does ECT used today compare to ECT used in the past Method of treating psychiatric disorders by inducing shock through electric current Electroconvulsive or electroshock therapy involves passing an electric current through the patient39s head between two electrodes placed over the temples and thus causing a convulsive seizure it was used to treat bipolar disorder and other types of depression The shock was previously induced by administering increasingly large doses of insulin until the patient was thrown into a brief coma the socalled insulinshock therapy was used for the treatment of schizophrenia Both forms of shock therapy were developed in the 1930s Their use declined after the introduction oftranquilizing drugs and antidepressant ECT is now monitored by machines more medically regulated and is used less than medications What is Gestalt therapyls an existentialexperiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility and that focuses upon the individual39s experience in the present moment the therapistclient relationship the environmental and social contexts ofa person39s life and the selfregulating adjustment people make as a result of their overall situation What is group therapy What are the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy A form of psychotherapy that involves sessions guided by a therapist and attended by several client who confront their personal problems together The interaction among clients is considered to be an integral part of the therapeutic process Pros humans are social by nature gives sense of belonging allows those to point out more oftheir own problems in relation to others problems praise given by other members develop healthy interaction skills ideal setting for addressing relational problems etc Cons Maybe be uncomfortable for some personality clashes requires overcoming of social phobias breach of confidentiality fear of rejection etc What is cyber therapy How is it done What are the advantagesdisadvantages Therapy especially psychotherapy administered over the Internet Done online through various format Pros convenience cost anonymous client maybe more confident when receiving therapy on their own turf etc Cons unable to observe body language and speech impersonal lack of receiving therapist communication empathy or what not through verbal and nonverbal signals and misunderstanding and comprehension can be skewered VIA computer What is personcentered thera py lt is a form of talkpsychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s that is based on the humanistic theory which is nondirective and empathic Believes the client39s own drive towards growth and development is the most important factor in healing Reach one s own potential of self actualization Regarding Carl Rogers s personcentered therapy What were the four key elements that Rogers saw as being necessary in any successful persontherapist relationship TherapistClient Psychological Contact a relationship between client and therapist must exist and it must be a relationship in which each person39s perception of the other is important Client incongruence or Vulnerability that incongruence exists between the client39s experience and awareness Furthermore the client is vulnerable or anxious which motivates them to stay in the relationship Therapist Congruence or Genuineness the therapist is congruent within the therapeutic relationship The therapist is deeply involved him or herself they are not quotactingquot and they can draw on their own experiences selfdisclosure to facilitate the relationship Therapist Unconditional Positive Regard UPR the therapist accepts the client unconditionally withoutjudgment disapproval or approval This facilitates increased self regard in the client as they can begin to become aware of experiences in which their view of selfworth was distorted by others Therapist Empathic understanding the therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client39s internal frame of reference Accurate empathy on the part of the therapist helps the client believe the therapist39s unconditional love for them Client Perception that the client perceives to at least a minimal degree the therapist39s UPR and empathic understanding l Equot Squot P 9quot 9quot Additional notes here


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