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by: Javonte Nolan


Javonte Nolan
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Nolan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2040 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222974/psyc-2040-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Psychology 2040 Final Exam 1 Chapter 10 Hurting Others a Aggression i Physical and or verbal behavior intended to cause harm 1 Two types a Hostile Aggression i Aggression driven by anger and is an end in itse 1 Ex Murders a Half of murders erupt from arguments and others from romantic triangles or from brawls under the in uence of narcotics or alcohol b Instrumental Aggression i Aggression that is mean to some other ends the goal is to injure other just like hostile aggression but for a speci c purpose 1 EX Terrorism a Their goal is to compel liberal forces to withdraw military forces from territory that terrorists consider their homeland 2 EX Wars a Most wars are instrumental aggression 2 Biological Theories of Aggression a Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology i Some psychologist speculated that human aggression springs from selfdestructive impulse 1 It redirects toward others from the energy of a primitive death urge or death instinct Others saw aggression as an adaptive behavior Many believed that aggressive energy was an instinctive behavior 1 And if it is not discharged it will build up unitl it explodes or until an appropriate stimulus releases it a Instinctive Behavior i An innate unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a s ecies iv Problems with Instinct Theory 1 IT fails to account for the variations in aggressiveness from person to person and culture to culture b Neural In uences i There is no speci c area in the brain that harnesses aggression 1 The amygdala a This area of the brain is specifically responsible for emotion i What is the first and biggest emotion that one will feel 11 FEAR b Fear will lead to aggression i The idea of Fight or Flight The frontal Cortex 1 This plays an inhibitory role a If I watch someone stabbing someone at a play the frontal cortex will stop you from reacting as if the stabbing were real i This cortex stops us from reacting it helps us process a situation c Genetic In uences i Aggression is in uenced by heredity 1 Our temperaments how aggressive or calm we are are brought with us into the world a A person s tempermant observed in infancy usually endures i EX A child who is non aggressive at age 8 will more than likely be non aggressive even att he age of say 48 Aggressive behavior combines a gene that alters neurotransmitter balance with child hood maltreatment 1 BUT niethe bad genes aggressiveness nor a bad environment alone will predispose an individual to be children to be aggressive or antisocial a Nature and Nurture work together to determine aggressiveness d Biochemical In uences i Alcohol 1 Alcohol will unleash aggression when and individual is provoked a It enhances aggressiveness by 111611 reduc ing people s self awareness and by reducing their ability to consider consequences Testosterone 1 Hormonal in uences such as testosterone are in all humans not only a There is a correlation between levels of testosterone and aggression 1 2 Conclusion a Men with lower levels of testosterone are less likely to b react provo i Drugs that diminish testosterone in violent males will subdue there aggressive tendencies After the age of 25 their testosterone levels decrease and the rates of committing a violent crime Those with high levels of testosterone are more prone to delinquency than those who have lower levels of testosterone After handling a gun people s testosterone levels rise and the more their testosterone rises the more hot sauce they will impose on another person s plate EXPERIMENT aggressively when ked Those who are injected with more testosterone won t necessarily be more aggressive Testosterone is like battery power i Only if the battery levels are very low will things noticeably slow down Know that Low Serotonin 1 Serotonin is known as the happy neurotransmitter a This transmitter signals happy emotions and feelings b A low level of serotonin can lead to more aggressive and violence prone behavior 1 Biology and Environment will interact with aggression i Neural genetic and biochemical in uences will predispose some people to react aggressively to con ict and provocation b Aggression as a Response to Frustration 1 Frustration 1 Anything blocking goal directed behavior 2 Frlistratinr A I Theory a The theory that frustration triggers a readiness to b aggress Note This theory is designed to help explain HOSTILE AGGRESSION not instrumental aggression i Frustration always leads to some form of aggression 1 The aggressive energy does not need to explode directly against its source victim a We learn to inhibit direct retaliation especially when others might disapprove or punishso instead we displace our hostilities to safer targets 1 EX A man is humiliated by his boss at work in front of coworkers instead of taking it out directly on his boss he waits until he gets home and takes his frustrations out on his wife and children b Displacement i The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration Typically the newer target is a safer more socially acceptable target to force aggression or frustrations on When people harbor anger from a prior provocation even if trivial people who usually will not show a response aggression will show an explosive over reaction 3 Response to Frustration a Frustration i Anything that blocks attaining a goal 1 Frustration is often compounded when we compare ourselves with others a Ex A raise in salary for a city s police of cers will lit there morale but may de ate the morale of re ghters b Relative Deprivation i The perception that one is less well off than others with whom one compares oneself One source of frustration today is the a luence of television programs and commercials 1 It turns absolute deprivationlacking what others have into relative deprivation feeling deprived of what others have c Aggression as a Learned Behavior i By experience and by observing others we learn that aggression often pays 1 Children whose aggressive acts successfully intimidate other children will likely become increasingly aggressive 2 Aggressive hockey players the ones who go to the penalty box score more points than non aggressive players Social Learning Theog 1 The theory that we learn social behavior by observing an imitating and by being rewarded and punished a video with child eating the blow up clown wobble toy i Rewards 1 Aggression can be rewarding if it gives us the outcome we want The Family 1 Physically aggressive children tend to have had physically aggressive parents who modeled aggression with screaming slapping and beating a Absentee fathers also seems to show a correlation between children being more aggressive i But if nurtured by a caring mother and extended family most children will not be extremely aggressive The Culture 1 The social environment outside of ones home also models examples 0 aggressive and nonaggressive behavior a In cultures where macho images are admired aggression is readily transmitted to new generations 39 People learn aggressive responses both by experiences and by observing aggressive models 1quot d In uences on Aggression i Aversive Incidents Three types 1 Pain a Experiment Rats would be hurt by electric shock and pain would be stopped when the other rat will approach it i The goal was to reinforce positive reactions between the two animals but instead 1 As soon as the rats felt pain they would attack one another a The greater the shock the more violent the attack b Conclusion i Pain heightens aggressiveness like stubbing ones toe or suffering from a headache Any aversive event whether a personal insult or physical pain can incite an emotional outburst 1 Even the torment of a depressed state increases the likelihood of hostile aggressive behavior 2 Heat a Does uncomfortable heat increase aggression i Yes 1 Unbearable heat will likely spawn aggressive behavior in individuals a Riots are more likely during hot summer weather 3 Attacks a Being attacked or insulted by another will spawn aggression i An eye for an eye e Arousal Sexual Arousal and other forms of arousal such as anger can therefore amplify one another Love is never so passionate as after a ght or a fright a A frustrating hot or insulting situation heightens arousal i When it does the arousal combined with hostile thoughts and feelings may form a recipe for aggressive behavior 1 f Aggression Cues i Violence is more likely when aggressive cues release pent up anger l The sight of a weapon can be considered a cue a Children who were given a toy gun to play with were more likely to too knock down another child s blocks i Guns stimulate violence 1 They serve as a psychological distance between eh aggressor and the victim a Remoteness from the victim facilitates cruelty in other words A knife can kill someone but a knife attack requires a great deal more personal contact than pulling a trigger g Media In uences Aggression i Porn and Sexual Aggression 1 People who are avid watchers of porn are more likely to be aggressive than those who do not a Pornography focuses on depictions of sexual violence i Typically a sexual violent episode nds a man forcing himself upon a woman At rst she tries to resist but then becomes aroused and her resistance melts 1 Experiment a Men who were primed with sexual and aggressive media were more likely to support rape and domestic violence they made more excuses for the aggressor and lacked sympathy or the victim Men who were primed with nonaggressive and nonsexual media were more likely to be strongly against domestic violence and rape b Viewing ctional scenes of men over powering and arousing a woman can distort one s perceptions on how women actually respond to sexual coercion i Repeated exposure to erotic films featuring quick uncommitted sex also tends to U OH Decrease attraction for one s partner Increase acceptance of extra martial sex and of women s sexual submission to men 3 Increases men s perceiving women in sexual terms Pornography is sometimes used as a catharsis for men 1 Catharsis a Emotional releases 1quot The catharsis view of aggression suggests that aggressive drive is reduced when one releases aggressive energy either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression Television is not a catharsis for aggression But there is somewhat of a correlation a Studies suggests there is some form of cause an effect but there is an infinite amount of other factors that can contribute to aggressive behavior making it dif cult to solely pinpoint television as the dirct source of causation 2 Prolonged Viewing of television can lead to a De sensitization i Repeated emotional arousing stimulus will eventually extinguish emotional response 1 Teens seem to be incredibly more desensitized to graphic depictions of violence and sex than parents when they were their age b Social Scripts 1 When we nd ourselves in new situations and when we are uncertain how to act we rely on social scripts 1 Social Scripts a Culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations c Altered Perceptions i Ex After watching many action mov1es youngster may act manly to help eliminate or scare off the threat i Avid television viewers over 4 hours a day are more likely to view the world as more violent and fear being personally assaulted more than those who watch tv less d Cognitive Priming i Evidence also reveals that watching violent videos primes networks of aggressive related ideas 1 People offer more hostile explanations for others after viewing something violent a Or when asked to nd a meaning of a homonym will suggest a more aggressive word i EX punch will be de ned as a hit rather than a drink Playing Video Games 1 Video game has a coorelation with aggression as well a With playing video games players i Identify with and play the role of a violent character Actively rehearse violence not just passively watch it Engage in the whole sequence of enacting violence selecting victims acquiring weapons and ammunition stalking the victim aiming the weapon and pulling the trigger iv Engage with continual violence and threats of attack v Repeat violent behaviors over and over vi Are rewarded for effective aggression b Violent video games will i Increase arousal Heart rate and blood pressure Increase aggressive thinking in Increases aggressive feelings iv Increases aggressive behaviors Decreases pro social behaviors 1 People will become slower to help someone who might be say be whimpering in a hallway They will also be slower to helping they re peers 5 lt h Group In uences i Groups can amplify aggressive reactions artly by diffusing responsibility 1 Diffusion of responsibility increases not only with distance but also with numbers a Through social contagion groups magnify aggressive tendencies much as they polarize other tendencies i Mobbing is a group activity i Conclusion i Many factors exert in uence on aggression 1 One factor is aversive experiences which include not only frustrations but also discomfort pain and personal attacks both verbal and non verbal Arousal from almost any source even physical exercise or sexual stimulation can transform into anger Aggression cues such as the presence of a gun increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior iv Viewing violence breeds a modest increase in aggressive behavior especially in people who are provoked and desensitizes viewers to aggression and alters their perceptions of reality v Television permeates the daily life of millions of people and portrays considerable violence vi Repeatedly playing video games may increase aggression thinking and behavior j A social Learning Approach i If aggressive behavior is learned that means that it is able to be controlled 1 Counteracting the factors that provoke aggression by reducing aversive stimulation and by rewarding and modeling non aggression will help reduce the effects 2 Chapter 11 Attraction and Intimacy Liking and Loving Others a What leads to friendship and attraction i Proximity leads to friendship intimacy and attraction 1 Proximity a Geographical nearness i Proximity kindles liking 1 Most people marry someone who lives in the same neighborhood went to school with them or lived or studied within walking distance of them 38 b How often people run into each other is more signi cant to nding out what kindles attraction i Functional Distance 1 How often people cross paths a We frequently become friends with people we see a lot i Ex Randomly assigned roommates who interact frequently will become good friends in the beginning 2 Sitting next to an area that people frequently visit like the coffee area at work near a mailbox by the newspaper stand will enable you to meet and make to friends The chance of nature of such contact helps explain why twins are not attracted to their siblings significant other Romantic love stems from frequent interaction with the potential love interest a We fall in love with whom we are similar to and who reciprocates our affection i SO although twins are roughly similar in personality they may have different tastes in people and may not have interacted enough to determine any feeling of attraction Why does proximity breed liking 1 One factor is availabilig a There are fewer opportunities to get to know someone who attends a different school or lives in another town 2 Proximity enables people to discovery commonalities and exchange rewards a Simply anticipating interaction boost liking i Exp Darley and Berscheid 1967 1 Discovered when they gave women ambiguous information about two other women and knowing that they were expecting to talk to one of the women they heard the information about they had a tendency to when asked who did they like more prefer the woman who they were expected to meet Even though they have not met her yet Ex 1 Expecting to date someone will boost liking blind dates 2 Voters who were on the losing side of the ballot will slowly begin to slightly change their opinions about the winning candidate since they have no other choice b Anticipation is adaptive i Anticipan Liking 1 Expecting that someone will be pleasant and compatible increases the chance of forming a rewarding relationship 3 Proximity leads to liking not only because of anticipation and interaction but also the fact that familiarity ultimately builds fondness a Mere Exposure Effect i The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them 1 Mere exposure to all sorts of novel stimuli boosts people s ratings of them It breeds pleasant feelings 2 This e ect can also occur subconsciously a EXP 1 i Women were given headphones to listen to a passage that they were asked to also read As the words were said in the head phones they were asked to check the paper form of the passage to see ifthere were any errors At the same time melodies were played in the in the other ear This procedure showed that the women focused their attention on the verbal material and ignored the tunes BUT when the women were asked to listen to a series of different tunes and rst asked if any sounded familiar When they replied no they were then asked which one they preferred liked out of the tunes they just heard Surprisingly they like best the tune that they previously had heard b Exp 2 1 Women were photographed on campus and later showed two images of the taken photograph one as it would look normally and the other a mirrored image of the photograph When asked which one they preferred women liked the picture that was mirrored This is because you have a tendency to like things that are the way you always perceive them In the morning you see an mirrored image of yourself when brushing your teeth and other times SO it is easier for you to have a liking to what you are constantly exposed toi familiar with c What s your favorite letter in the alphabet i People of differing nationalities languages and ages prefer the letters appearing in their own names and ones that appear the most in their own language We are constantly exposed to the letters of our names and our own written language and this exposure leads us to develop a likeness attraction to it 3 Mere exposure can be void if the exposure is too incessant a Hearing the same song over and overiwill eventually cause contemptiand a change of the radio station iv Physical Attraction 1 We are taught to look past physical appearances in individuals when choosing a partner or building a relationship a The idea that We should look to the mind and not to the outward appearances i But that is easier said and never really actually done 1 Physical attractiveness is a moderately good indicator of how frequently one will go on dates be asked on date a The more attractive the woman is the more the man likes her and wants to date again The more attractive the man is the more the woman likes him and would like to go on a date again b Not everyone will end up paired with someone stunningly attractive i People will pair up with people who are about the same level of attractiveness as themselves 1 Matching Phenomenon a The tendency for men and women to choose partners who are a good match in attractiveness and other traits i This applies for the most part to friends as well not only does the level of intellect matter but the level of attractiveness as we 2 Does Attractiveness e ect spring entirely from sexual attractiveness a Not necessarily but sort of i When attractive women were cosmetically make up altered to appear to have a facial dis gurement many people avoided sitting by or looking at them 1 But this goes for children as well a A Smonth old infant who has not been exposed to the idea of attractiveness preferred to gaze gazed longer at attractive faces b Teachers will also perceive a more attractive child as more intelligent than others We also have the tendency to assume that physical attractive people appear to be happier more intelligent outgoing and successful than others 1 Physical attractive stereotype a The presumption that physical attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well i The idea that What is beautiful is good b Who is considered attractive i There is a variability between cultures 1 Being voluptuous is attractive in cultures where food is scarce a Cultures with an abundance of food tend to nd slimness a sign of attractiveness Symmetry also plays a role in all cultures 1 Why a Symmetry indicates that you have good genes a good blood line no incestual births Evolution and Attraction 1 Evolution Psychologist look at human preference of attractive partners is due to reproductive selection a It is assumed that beauty signals biologically important information like 1 Health Youth Fertility b Women who had wider hips tend to also be on the list for attractivity c Social Comparison i We have a tendency to compare those who we see in reality to those we see in the media 1 Exp a Men were asked to watch a series of Charlie s Angels videos After watching the videos they were given a picture of a person who they were previously told if they would consider going on a blind date When the picture was revealed those who watched the Charlie s Angels tapes found the girl in the picture less attractive than those who did not i Prolonged Exposure to unrealistic images of attractive persons will lead one to see their own partner as less attractive 1 We also do this with ourselves a Frame of Reference i When we see someone really attractive we suddenly see ourselves as less attractive d The Attractiveness of Those We Love 1 e more in love a woman 1s with a man the more physically attractive she nds him 1 And the more in love people are the less attractive they nd all others of the opposite sex Which is better for attraction Similarity or Complementary 1 Similarity wins a We tend to like those who we are in common with i Religion ideas morals values beliefs etc Likeness breeds likeness 2 Complementarynot so much a It depends on how strongly you believe and how far their views are from your own i Complementa 1 The popularly supposed tendency in a relationship between two people for each to complete one another be what the other is missing Dissimilarity breeds Dislike 1 Due to the false consensus bias we assume that everyone has the same attitudes and beliefs as us a If we discover that someone does not share in the same ideas as us we automatically dislike the person 1 It is hard to like someone with dissimilar views 1 Whether someone perceives race as similar or dissimilar can contribute to racial attitudes e Liking Those Who Like Us i Does one person s like another person cause the other to return the appreciation 1 Research suggests so a Discovering that an appealing someone really likes you seems to awaken romantic feelings i EX Students like another student who says eight positive things about them opposed to someone who threw in one hint of criticism Attribution 1 Our reactions to peoples attery depends on our attributions a DO we attribute the attery to ingratiation a self serving attery i Ingratiation 1 The use of strategies such as attery by which people seek to gain another s favor a EX Is the person who s complimenting us trying to buy something get sex or to get me to do a favor 2 This usually leads attery and praise to lose its appeal a Of course if there is no ulterior motive then attery will be warmly received Self Esteem and Attraction 1 We are attracted to people like us a The way we attribute compliments matters to us 39 Someone can t tell you that you look good when its obvious you look like shit 1quot b EXP i Women were allowed to overhear a sequence of evaluations of themselves by another woman 1 Some women heard consistently positive things and others heard negative things while others that heard some that changed from positive to negative a The person who was saying the criticisms were well liked only when they consistently gave compliments c EXP 2 Women who s self esteem was purposely dropped were more likely to agree to go on a date with a male that asked them on a date 1 We like it when we feel like we gained esteem from someone else generally speaking not just women a We ll like someone more who did not originally like us before but now does i f Relationship Rewards 1 Why are we friends with our Friends 1 Reward Theory of Attraction a The theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate wi rewarding events 39 Those who reward us or who we associate with rewards we like 1 If a relationship gives us more rewards than costs we will like it and will wish for it to continue 1 a EXP i iv Students were asked to come in for an experiment Half of the students were greeted by a warm and friendly experimenter and the other half had a cold and unfriendly experimenter After they were greeted and entered the room they were given a picture of two women and asked which one was more friendly Those who were primed with the friendly experimenter found more warmth and friendliness in the photographs than those primed with the mean one b This theory also explains that 39 Proximity is rewarding it costs less time and effort to receive friendship from someone who 1 is closer by We like attractive people because we perceive that they offer more desirable traits and we can bene t from associating with them iv If others have similar opinions we feel rewarded because we presume that they like us in return We like to be liked and loved to be loved thus liking is mutual g Conclusion for Attraction and Liking others i The best indicator of two people s friendship us proximity it leads to repeated interaction and exposure 1 Someone Physical Attraction is detrimental to one s initial attraction to Liking is greatly aided by similar attitudes beliefs and values 1v We are likely to develop friendships with people who like us v According to the reward theory we like people whose behavior we nd rewarding or whom we associate with rewarding events h What is Love 1 Not exactly de nable 1 Love is more complex than liking and more dif cult to measure and even more perplexing to study a Some view loves as a triangle consisting of three components 6 Some elements are more common to all loving 9 1 Passion Where as others view love as three primary love styles 1 Eros self disclosing passion 2 Ludas Uncommitte game playing 3 Storage friendship These combined form secondary love styles relationships 1 Mutual Understanding 2 Giving and Receiving Support 3 Enjoying the loved ones company 2 Passionate Love a A state of intense longing for union with another i Passionate lovers are absorbed in each other feel ecstatic at attaining their partner s love and are disconsolate on losing it 1 If this love is reciprocated one feels fulfilled and joyous This is the love you feel when you not only love someone but you are in love with this person b Theories on Passionate love 1 Two factor theory of emotion 1 Being aroused by any source should intensify passionate feelings 2 Arousal X Its label emotion a EXP Scary Bridge Experiment b The tdea that passton IS arevved up form of love 1 People mtsattnbute thetr emottons to passtonate love when aroused When tnts love ones down there IS a penod of disillusiongespeclally for those regard marnage as a of onstuuston Gender also play arole 1 Men tend to all harder and quxcker than Women Probably because Women are better at nanoutng thexr emottons t an men 3 Sternb 111 s Theow of Love Liklng tnttmaoy atone gt E E 5 Romantic companlonate love consummate IUVE nhmacy e love intimacy Dasslon lmlmacy v commttmenx passion commttmem Iniatualiurl Empty love tpassion atone comm menl atonet Famous lave passion commitment a 1 Companionate Love 1 The affection we feel for those w th eply mterthed 1 es are Th1 love IS lower ey L It IS adeep affectlonate attachment 1 Attachment styles i Secure Attachment 1 Attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy a Children who are happy when their caregiver is around and are happy to explore but upon the absence of their caregiver they become distressed and when she returns are happy again b In the context of a relationship i People of this nature prefer the secure committed relationship Pre occu ied Anxious Attachment 1 Attachments marked by a sense of one s own unworthiness and anxiety ambivalence and possessiveness a Infants of this nature are more likely to cling to their mother and when she leaves they are distress cry and when she returns are indifferent or hostile b People of this nature may breakup repeatedly with the same person are more possessive and have a tendency to be jealous Dismissive Attachment 1 An avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others iv Fearful Attachment 1 An avoidant relationship stile marked by the fear of rejection v Egui 1 A condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to What they contribute to it a If two people feel their outcomes corresponds to the assets and efforts each contributes then both perceive equity i Strangers and casual acquaintances maintain equity by exchanging bene ts They feel freer to maintain equity b exchanging bene ts Lend me your class notes I ll lend you mine Iinvite you to a party you invite me to yours 2 Long Term Equity a Reciprocity is not necessarily paid attention toand waiting or the other to do something in return is not necessary i It is understood that you both do for one another Without having to say it 3 Those who perceive their relationship as inequitable feel discomfort and the relationship suffers a Marital partnership becomes distressed and satisfaction begins to dip i This can ultimately exacerbate the perception of unfairness j Self Disclosure i Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others 1 This occurs when the relationship is nally to the point where trust displaces anxiety and where they are free to open themselves up without fear of losing the others affection k Disclosure Reciproci i The tendency for one person s intimacy of self disclosure to match that of a conversational partner 1 Disclosure begets disclosure a 1 reveal a little about myself you reveal a little about yourself 1 Detachment i Often love does come to an end 1 Severing bonds produces a predictable sequence of agitated preoccupation with the lost partner followed by deep sadness and eventually the beginnings of emotional detachment a When relationships suffer those who do not have better alternatives will look for ways to exit the relationship i Some people exhibit loyalty 1 They try to wait for conditions to improve Others exhibit neglect While some will voice their concerns 1 They seek advice and help to improve the relationship 3 Chapter 12 Helping Others a Why do we help people i Altruism 1 A motive to increase another s welfare without conscious regard for one s self interests a An altruistic person is concerned and helpful even when no bene ts are offered or expected in return i Ex The Good Samaritan parable 2 Is there such a thing as pure altruism a Some research suggests that help is never truly altruistic that we merely call it altruistic when its rewards inconspicuous i When we call and ask for help for a woman who is screaming in the distance is it not done not only to help her but to relieve our own distress to protect ourselves and to stop ourselves from feeling guilty if we do not help her One theory suggests we do it for our own bene t 1 Social Exchange Theory a The theory that human interactions are transactions that aims to maximize one s rewards and minimize one s costs i This theory does not contend that we consciously monitor costs and rewards and minimize one s costs 1 We subtly weigh the pros and cons of a helping interaction in our head a EX If you re asked to donate blood your initial reaction might be to weigh the pros and cons before you decide to or not to Should I donate 71 might be late for class if I do The needles hurt and Ill get tired Maybe I shouldI get free refreshments and it is for a good cause 2 Rewards a Rewards that motivate helping may be internal or external i External Rewards 1 Giving back to get something in return a Example i When businesses donate money to improve corporate images or when someone offers a ride hoping to receive appreciation or friendship If I do something to get paid Internal Rewards 1 We help to increase our self worth We do it too just feel good after a feeling of satisfaction i A helpers emotional state or personal trait could contribute If I do something to make myself feel good 2 What are some internal factors that might lead someone to help a Being around someone that is in distress puts us into distress as well i EX A woman s scream When the reward is internal we are more likely to do it again we b Who receives help b Guilt i just like how it feels to feel good about doing good When we feel guilty about lying cheating stealing Naturally we will do something to get rid of it We want to relieve the bad feelings that the guilt has given us EXP Men were given a test and asked a que stion that either required them to lie or not to lie after the test the experimenter asked each person if they would like to help check some questionnaires Those who did not lie stayed only 2 minutes after the experiment to help but those who did lie stayed and average of 63 minutes c Happiness makes you want to help more i Happier people are more willing to help others Cons of the Reward theory 1 It easily degenerates into an explain by naming a If someone volunteers for Big Brother Big Sister it is tempting to explain why she volunteered But this then leads to other questions i Why did she volunteer How do we know it was to fulfill inner rewards Why else would she have volunteered 2 Because of this aw egoism has fallen into dispute a Egoism i A motive to increase one s own welfare This is the opposite of altruism which aims to increase another s welfare i Social Norms 1 Often we help others because we have been taught that it is the right thing to do a Helping can be considered a social norm a social expectation i There are two types of norms that motivate altruism helping for no gain 1 Reciprocity Norm a An expectation that people who help those who have helped them i We invest in others and expect the same result b This helps de ne social capital i Social Capital The mutual support and cooperation enabled by social network Ex A neighbor keeping an eye out for another person s home c Receiving too much help though can lead to a lowering of self esteem i People feel the need to reciprocate in order to not feel needy or dependent on help 2 Social Responsibility Norm a AN expectation that people will help those needing help i Collectivist culture that individualist culture AThey voice an obligation to help even when the need is not life threatenjng or the needy person perhaps a stranger needing a bone marrow transplant b In collectivist cultures social responsibility is applied selectively i Westerners are more inept to help those who look as though they re need for help is not due to their own negligence in other words if they look poor broke destitutewhy not lend a hand But if an individual appears to need help due to lets say laziness then help will not be given because it is not deserved c It can be contributed to attributions i Gender and Receiving Help 1 Women are typically perceived to be weaker and therefore are more likely to randomly receive help from others a Women equally offer help to both genders but males offer more help to females If we attribute the need to an uncontrollable predicament we help If we attribute the need to the person s choices they don t require help it s their own fault their needy 1 Moreover the more attractive the woman was the more often she received help 1 Proving that altruism is not the motivation c In Terms of Evolutionary Psychology who receives help According to evolutionary psychology there are genes that pre dispose individuals to self sacri ce in the interests of strangers i welfare 1 Two speci c types of sel ess or self sacri cial helping a Kin selection 1quot The idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes We are pre disposed to care for our relatives 1 Sacri cing one s self for their children ensures a continuation of the family genes b Reciprocity i Genetic self interests predicts reciprocity 1 Works best in small isolated groups a When groups are in competition i d Sodoes genuine altruism exist i It depends Groups who are mutually supported altruistic will outlast non altruistic groups 1 Distress over someone s suffering motivates us to relieve our own distress a But when we feel securely attached to someone we feel an emotion that compels to help some way to relieve the distress of not only yourself but of the other person as well i Empathy 1 The Vicarious experience of another s feelings putting oneself in another person s shoes a EX Ifyou once were a waiter waitress you will be more prone to help clean your table after you eat at a restaurantTo make your waitress waiters job easier e ConCIusion lt Three theories explain helping 1 social Exchange Theory a The idea that helping is m0tivated by desire to maximize rewards i Rewards that can either be xhterna they make us feegood or external they help us obtan a goal b Side note Sad people are more helpFul they want to make themselves Feel better i Feelgood do good eFFeCt 1 Happy people are more helpFul 2 SocialResponsibility Norm a This tempts us to help needy people even iF the help cannot be reciprocated 3 Reciprocity Norm a Malltes us help others who have helped us beFore Evolutionary PsyCh suggests two types 0 helping 1 Devotion to Kin 2 Reciprocity a Evolutionary psyCh also suggests that genes 0F selFish individuals are more likely to survive than the genes 0 selFsacriFicing individuals Thus selFishness is our natural tendency since that is the main gene that has survived and that helping has to be taught to us via society We can evaluate these three theories according to the ways in which they charaCterize prosocial behavior as based in a tic For tac exchange When empathy is aroused we are motivated to assist others in need or in distress because we relate to them and understand how they FeeIAeVen when their helping is anonymous and their own mood is unaFFeCted helping clear the table For a waiter f When will we help people i It depends on a number of factors 1 The Number of Bystanders a The number of people present will aid or prevent us from helping someone in distress i The more peoplethe less likely or the longer it takes for tone to help 1 EXP Kitty Bartender stabbing case 2 Interpreting a Once we notice a distressing event we must interpret it i We look around to others to observe their reaction if no one is over reacting and passing by like nothing is wrong then there must be no reason to call for help 1 The Bystander Effect a The nding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders 3 Responsibility a The less people there are or the closer we are to the event we become more responsible if we don t help and that person is actually hurt i In 1997 when Princess Diana was in her car accident nine paparazzi continued to take pictures of her all had a cellphone but Q one called for help 1 There excuse they thought the other person would eventually call a This is an example of Di usion of Responsibility 4 When someone else does a We are more likely help someone if we have previously seen someone else helping earlier b OR we are also more likely to help when someone else acknowledges somebody is in distress by screaming for help 5 If we have enough time a Time constraints will keep us from helping others especially if we are on our way to do something that is important to us i EXP 1 Students in a seminary were either told strongly they were late for an appointment or told nonchalantly that they had extra time before it was time for them to go a Upon heading over there was a man slumped over coughing and appearing to be in pain those who had time and were told non chalantly stopped and helped the ailing man while those in a rush rarely stopped to help 10 6 Similarity a You are more likely to help those who are similar to you i We are more empathetic to those we can relate to 1 Therefore we help those who we like g Who Will Help i It might depend on one s personality 1 Some people are just reliably more helpful than others a Those who are more positive empathetic and self ef cacious or more likely to help Religious Faith 1 Faith predicts long term altruism h How can we increase helping i Reduce ambiguity 1 This will help increase your sense of responsibility a Interpreting and saying something will help Guilt and Concern Self Image 1 Door in the Face Technique a A strategy for gaining a concession i After someone rst turns down a large request the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request 1 After denying the rst request people usually feel guilty if they do not accept the second more reasonable request b Same goes for the reverse i Offer an amount or a task so small that if denied the individual has no choice but to feel like a Tight wad after the fact i How do we socialize Altruism i Five Ways 1 Teach Moral Inclusion a Include people who differ from you within your circle that way you are able to include them in your morals i Moral Exclusion 1 The perception of certain individuals or groups as outside boundary within which one applies moral values and rules fairness Moral inclusion is regarding others as within one s circle 2 Model Altruism 3 Learn by Doing a Actions will lead to behavior i Doing a good deed will lead to a need to do more good deeds until it becomes habitual 4 Attributing behavior to altruistic motives a Over istitication EffectL 39 The result of bribing people to do what they already like doing they may see their actions as externally controlled rather than internally appealing 1 When we provide people with enough justi cation that will prompt them to do a good deed it may be possible to to prompt them to do a good deed on their own Because they believe that it is bene ting them to do a good deed and they feel good doing it since they are doing it for themselves partially because they have to justify why they would have done something without much pay they must justify to themselves that the reason why they may have spent 5hours painting a house for no moneywas because they wanted to do it because it is good to help others 5 Learning about Altruism a Learning and reading about altruistic acts might lead you to change your behavior to become a more altruistic individual 1quot E0 j Conclusion i We can reverse those factors that inhibit helping We can reprimand or use the door in the face technique to evoke guilt We can teach altruism to people 1 If we provide people with enough justi cation for them to decide to do good without much money they will attribute their own behavior to altruistic motivation


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