VIEWS AMER LANDSCAPE
VIEWS AMER LANDSCAPE LA 1203
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Date Created: 10/13/15
LA 1203 Reading Midterm PEOPLE ONLY KNOW WRI39I1NGS QUOTES WHO TRAVELED WITH THEM AUTHORS WRITINGS The Shot Heard Round the World RALPH WALDO EMERSON Reflected Distinction HENRY JAMES Old Yellowstone Days The Virginian OWEN WISTER The Gettysburg Address ABRAHAM LINCOLN Ride the Rockies and Save Your Soul MARY ROBERTS RINEHART On Tour through the Yellowstone RUDYARD KIPLING Divine Abyss JOHN BURROUGHS Two Yosemite Poems HARRIET MONROE Scrapers of the Deep Winds CARL SANDBURG Gulping the Great West THOMAS WOLFE A Nation39s Park GEORGE CATLIN Preservation for All FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED Should Cars be Allowed in Yosemite JAMES BRYCE The Marks of Human Passage WALLACE STEGNER Pilgrim at Tinker Creek ANNIE DlLLARD A Sand County Almanac February Good Oak ALDO LEOPOLD The Atchafalaya JOHN MCFEE A Tour through the Yellowstone RUDYARD KIPLING ALDO LEOPOLD Those ashes come spr ng Prairie clovers great scab of bark from roadsidequot The particu ar oaksand hillstump that I measured has a diameter of 30 inchesquot These things I ponderl will return tothe foot ofthe orchardquot We come upon a great slab of bark freshly tornquot These l ponder as the kettle singsquot ANNIE DlLLARD MUSKRAT Muskrat went under bridgequot I have learned that the only way to approach a feeding muskrat for a good look is to commit myselfto a procedure so ridiculous that only a total unselfconsciousness will permit me to live with mysel quot Mus rats are bread and butter of the carnivorous food chainso do ottersquot Sta king is a game played in the actual presentquot He was 8 inches in the body and six in the tallquot JOHN BURROWS an hin about oin Down It was quite worthwhile to go down intothe canyon on muleback if only to fall in love with a mile and to learn what a surefooted careful and docile creature when he is on his good behavior a mule can bequot On the second day we made the descent into the canon on mule backquot We re not to be ridiculed out of going downquot But we were not to be dissuaded or ridiculed out of the adventure There is always satisfaction in going tothe bottom ofthingsquot FREDRICK LAW OLMSTED KEY WORDS Commision Preservation Yosemite The establishment by the government of great public ground for the free enjoyment of the people under certain circumstances is thisjusti ed and enforced as a political dutyquot This duty of preservation is the rst which falls upon the state under the Act of Congress because the millions who are herea er to bene t by the Act have the largest interest in it and the largest interest should be rst and most strenuously guarde quot The main duty with which the commissioner should be charged should be to give every advantage practical by that which is peculiartothis groundthis peculiarity exists only in this talking onosemite Caused congress to treat it differentlynatural sceneryquot ABE LINCOLN Civil War Great Civil Warso conceivedLong enduredquot It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly carried onquot It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotionquot Lincoln Gettysburg address MARY ROBERTS RINEHART Rockies Cities call l have heard them But there is no voice in all the world so insistent to me as the wordless call ofthe Rockies I shall go backquot RANDOM QUOTES And tothink that this showplace has been going on all these days an none ofwe ever saw itquot Rudyard Kipling DAVID HARMON Edited MIRROR OF AMERICA National Park idea there are few places whose qualities are so outstanding that they are worth preserving from undue human intervention because through our act of self restraint these places realize their capacityto enlighten us about ourselves It is a compound ofidealism and commercialism Muir and Burrows Nature Writers JOHN MUIR A MEETING IN THE VALLE Muir wrote a letterto Emerson inviting him with all his earnestness to stay and see Yosemite with him Muir described Emerson as serene as a se uoia A er Emerson visited Yosemite for 5 days Muir followed him to see the Mariposa Grove Accompanied by many famous people including Robert Underwood Johnson Burrows and Theodore Roosevelt OWEN WISTER OLD YELLOWSTONE DAYS Recalled what the old Yellowstone park was like in its earlier years Established formulas and phrases that are now pure American like gun fights and stuff Created the old western genre Also wrote the Quintessential novelmovie called The Virginian There was a town named a er Owen Wister bc he was on railroad board and they name towns a er these members MARY ROBERTS RINEHART RIDE THE ROCKIES AND SAVE YOUR SOUL Traveled with Howard Eaton TrueFalse Main message National parks are diverse enough to be places of self discovery for everyone JOHN BURROUGHS DIVINE ABYSS the Grand Canyon ature writer along with Muir CARL SANDBURG SCRAPERS OF THE DEEP WINDS First discovered ntroduced by Harriet Monroe Wrote in Free Verse Man Hatsquot is about dedicating the Grand Canyon to man because each man sees himselfin the canyonquot THOMAS WOLFE GULPING THE GREAT WEST Great Parks Tripquot led by Wolf who was accompanied by Ray Conway and Edward M Miller heir plan 10 National Parks and 4632 road miles in 13 days FREDRICK LAW OLMSTEAD PRESERVATION FOR ALL ther of Landscape Architecture Designed Central Park Associated with Chicago California governor appointed Olmsted as head of commission First superintendent of New York City s National Park Management of Yosemi e The report by Fredrick Law Olmsted about National Parks has not shaped new parks since then because it wasn t available and could not d He was NOT associated with Adirondack ABRAHAM LINCOLN The Gettysburg Addressquot RALPH WALDO EMERSON The Shot Heard Round the Worldquot Composed Concord Hymn inscr bed on the base ofthe Minute Men statue now part of Minute Man National Park HENRY JAM ES Reflected Distinctionquot Independence National Historic Park James believed Philadelphia was supreme in culture and society compared to other cities which was the perfect setting for history HARRIET MONROE Two Poems Cataracts Yosemite s Waterfalls amp The HetchHetch quot Valle Recognized the talent of others including Rupert Brooke Hart Crane Robinson Jeffers Marianne Moore and Stephen Spender Carl Sandburg free verse Chicago Renaissance GEORGE CATLIN A Nation s Parkquot First painted portraits of American Indian Life First person to envision the idea ofa national park I would ask no other monument in my memory nor other enrollment with the famous dead then to be known as the founder of such an institutionquot George CatIin Nation s Park Amoun st the famous deadquot George CatIin ANNIE DILLARD Stalkingquot Pigrim at Tinker Creekquot krats Tinker Creek is in Virginia s Blue Ridge Physiographic Providence ALDO LEOPOLD February Good Oak amp Wrote San County Almanac The ShackquotSan County located in the Central Lowlands Wisconsin Agri19 1775 Paul Riviere Battle of Lexington and Concord Minute Man National Historic Park Concord Hymn in commemoration of Shot Heard Around the World and Battle of LexingtonConcord 1864 Yosemite 1 scenic reserve Signed by Abraham Lincoln 1869 Grand Canyon Powell went down it Physiographic province Colorado plateau March 1 1872 Yellowstone National Park igned by Grant 1 National Park Possible Questions Who did Rineheart traveled tothe Rockies with Howard Eaton What happened in April 19 1775 aul Revere s ride Battle of Lexington Concord What was the poem written about April 19 1775 Concord Hymn about the arched bridge where the minute men stood The Concord Hym Commerates April 19th 1775 short heard around the world and The Battle of Lexington and Concord Who wrote the Concor ymn Ral h Waldo Emerson Who was John Muir Found the Sierra Club set land aside in the Antiquities Act Who wanted to go up the Grand Canyon unr Who wanted to go down the Grand Canyon urrows Who were the nature writers according to David Harmon Muir and Burr Who wrote Old Yellowstone Days 1936 Owen W39nston Where did Muir and Emerson meet Yos m39 Wister travelled west to write his most famous novel which was Virginian Who is the main character in Ride the Rockies and Save Your Soul Rinehart is the main character Howard Eden leads the vacation into Rockies Who headed commission of Yosemite Fredrick Law Olmsted When Muir met Emerson he called him a what sequoia not a negative comment What month is in the San County Almanac ebruary subtitle the good oak Who was Aldo Leopold Forresterthat taught at Wisconsin in Kila National Forrest that proposed primitive areas Where is San County located isconsin central lowlands physiographic province A Nation s Park written by Geor e Catlin Painted Native Americans called them noble savages Had the rst idea ofa national park in A Nation s Park Good Poetry is dif cult to nd about national parks Professionals shied away Who used free verse arl Sandburg romoted by Harriot Monroe who established Poet Magazine Arthur a part of Chicago Literary Renaissance Car rg Why should Philadelphia have so many historical events Har Ja Gettysburg National Military Park Harmon irs national park acquired through use of taking land by government True or False Good Poetry about national parks by pros is easyto nd alse Who used free verse in poetry Car Sandberg True or False Frederick Law Olmsted s arrangement of Yellowstone National Park has shaped all managements of national parks Fase Yosemite The Sand Hills Central lowlands province Wisconsin University of Wisconsin Glacial Monument in my memoryquot atl39n I Who had the first idea ofa national park Catlin he was also an Indian painter Which expedition is Cornelius Hedges part of hb xpedition in 1870 which created 15 national park Yellowstone What is the expedition that came 1 year a erWashburn ayden Expedition of 1871 True or False Langford in 1870 tells the story of Mors berg party felt of Yosemite FALSE How many acres were they supposed to be given if living off of irrigation Who did Olmstead bring with him to Biltmore ifford Pinc 0 Who Wrotecomposed the song Symphony no 9 From the New Worldquot Ant an D orak What river do you hunt Beavers Missouri TrueFalse The Washington Monument was named one of the 7 Wonders by civil engineers False Who was NOT associated with Yellowstone National Park Gifford Pinchot Surrounded by the horrors of the Civil War the president action can be regarded as recognition that no matter how dif cult our straits as a society we can turn to our native landscape for peace beaut and hopequot This quote descrbes what landscape Yosemite President Lincoln What are the 4 sections of the Rocky Mountains Southern Wyoming Middle and Nothern Wilderness Act protects the forever wildquot False New York State Constitution does Mercator projection ma Distorts landmasses at the poles and not the equator Hotsprings Arkansas 1832 What happened Set aside as a health preserve but now it is a national park What happens to be a physiographic province Central lowland coastal plain What section is Baton Rouge in Mississippi Emba ment What physiographic province is Baton Rouge in C astal Plains Which of the following is associated with Yellowstone ac son What physiological province is Niagara falls in Central Lowland Mono lake Basin and range Who was the forrester brought to Biltmore Estate by Olmstead True or False Powell lost his arm in the Battle of Gettysburg I ll h Fa se 0 Which of the following is NOT used to de ne a physiographic province Political Bounda True or False Judge Hedges is associated with a member of Henry Washburns expedition that went to Yellowstone in 1870 T rue True or False Lee s Ferry is on the Colorado River upstream a se What is the Andericks Reserve protected by New York State Constitution Yosimite First Scenic Reserve Created by Federal Action 1964 Abe Lincoln signed legislation establishing Yosemite grant for Preservation both ofthe Yosemite Valley and the Big Tree Groovequot Frederick Law Olmstead took rst steps in federal land preservation Yellowstone March 1 1872 Grant president First and largest national park John Wesley Powell in 1869 went down Grand Canyon 1870 Yellowstone group came to conclusion that Yellowstone should become a national park Who had idea to set Yellowstone National Park aside as a National Park e Who went with Ferdinand Hayden on the Hayden Expedition into Yellowstone William Henry photographer Tho Moran Painter What expedition was hedges a part of Washburn Expedition NOT HAYDEN expedition How many years did it take for Yellowstone to be signed as a National State Park a er the idea was set into action ears True or False Nathaniel Pitt Langsford s September 20 1870 journal entry opened with Last night and also this morning in camp the enter party had a rather unusual discussion The proposition was made by some memberthat we utilize the result of our exploration bytaking up quarter sections of land at the most prominent points of interest that is those plaes that would eventually become a source of great pro t to the ownersquot The making of Yellowstone National Park rue True or False Underthe Antiquities Act of1906 President Theodore Roosevelt establishedcreated National monuments as historic relics or natural wonders in order to protect them T ue Under the Homestead act of 1862 160 acres were suggested for family land How did this change John Wesley Powell said 160 acres was too much or too little He suggested 80 acres with waterirrigation and 2560 acres to support a f milythrough stock raising 4 sections Why did declaration signed in Philadelphia Henry James Least liked by professor MAP PROJECTION It is not poss ble to represent on a at map the spatial relationships of A globe is required if want all on same projection Angle Distance Direction Area Scale MERCATOR PROJEC39I10N MAP cylindrical 1569 ormal at equator and stretched out at poles GOODE S INTERPRETED PROJECTION oks like two maps most the time Looks like an orange peel attened out Equal area projects where both shapes and sizes are correctly represented LARGE SCALE Large denominator Smaller area More detail SMALL SCALE Small denominator Large area ess e an WAYS OF SHOWING RELIEFELEVATION ON MAP Hillocks picture looks like little hills Hachures picture looks like centipede Line all coming out from center Contour lines Circles inside of circles Also the use of color and shading to show relief WHAT DETERMINES PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGION Combination oflandforms soils water features vegetation and related resources Physiographic Region Provinces Sections Political Province does NOT determine physiographic region PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGION Two or more provinces PROVINCE Subdivision of Physiograghic Region wo or more sections Central lowlands Interior Low Plateau SECTION Subdivision of a province 640 acres Mississippi Embaymen Alluvial Plain COLORADO PLATEAU Painted forest Grand Can on Petri ed Forest PACIFIC BORDER Redwoods Port Lovos Fort Ross BUE RIDGE Great Smokey Mountains Biltmore Estates Ha erry PIEDMONT Had a picture shaded of this on mineOn East Coast by down by Virginia tone mountain Char otte University of Virginia Montice o COASTAL PLAINS Everglades Atchafalaya NEW ENGLAND Vermo Minutemen New York City CASCADES Nor h of Sierra Nevada GULF COASTAL PLAIN Atlantic INTERIOR LOW PLATEAUS Mammoth Cave CENTRAL LOWLANDS Niagra Falls BASIN AND RANGE Drain internall The Great Salt Lake Lake Bonneville LEES FERRY Grand Canyon FALL LINE Differences in underling earth structure such as the river descends from uplands to lower elevations In Eastern United States Divides the costal plain from the giedmont Little rock Arkansas on fall line Mobile Alabama NOT on fall line SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA CALIFORNIA Andreas Fau Fancy Garden and Filolo Mansion misioner Black area is reservoir Earthquakes are common ROCKY MOUNTAINS There are 4 sections o E O o 3 Wyoming Basin Southern ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS New York State Constitution Forever Wildquot protects Adirondack Olmsted did not have anything to do with these mountains 7 WONDERS OF THE WORLD World trade center Transalaskan pipeline Golden gate bridge anama canal Kennedy space center Interstate highway system Hoover dam NOT WASHINGTON MONUMENT JOHN WESLEY POWELL Homestead Act 1862 160 acres for a family Lincoln Land west of 9839 meridian Arid 8 acres with water and 2560 4 sections needed to support a family through stock raising lnitially said160 acres and decided too much for stock raising GRAND CANYON Antiquities Act of 1906 Established national monuments and land as historic relics to preserve President Roosevelt Incase ou wanthel memorizin Eve sin Ie one of these on test multi Ie times YELLOWSTONE GRANT signed NOT Lincoln be careful on truefalse ln Rocky Province STONES are Hard Heavy Massive Jagged Hayden Remember Hayden s Expeditionquot Hedges Muran painter Jackson photographer YOSEMITE YouSoooMite but I Never Lick Old Men Nevada Sierra Nevada Lincoln Olmstead Muir GRAND CANYON Fucking Chace Crawford Pleasant and GRAND Ferry Powell Colorado Plateau MINUTE MEN en Shot Heard Around the World Battle of LexingtonConcord LA 1203 Midterm Review 10182010 55200 PM Map Projection o It is not possible to represent on a flat map the spatial relationships of Angle Distance Direction Area 0 Scale o All on the same projection A globe is required o Must drop off one of those to make a 3D figure of Earth on a 2 D paper Mercator Projection Cylindrical o First published in 1569 Goode s Interrupted Projection o Looks like an orange peel flattened out o Not everything is correct on the map Large Scale o Smaller area more detail larger RF numberDenominator small Small Scale o Large Area less detail smaller RF numberDenominator Large 0 Represents one of something cm in etc Ways of showing Relief or elevation on a map o Hillocks o Hochures o Contour Lines 0 Also the use of color and shading San Francisco Bay Area Ca o San Andreas Fault o Black area is reservoir o Water commissionerfancy garden and house o Filoli Mansion and Garden o Earthquakes very common o 1906 earthquake and fire city of SF wanted to get more water Line shows maximum extent of continental glaciations o Fall line 0 Water falls are rivers stone head of navigation 0 O O O 0 Black line where the waterfalls are coming from the gulf or Atlantic AtlanticGulf Coastal Plain Rocky Mountains o This area a rugged barrier that extends from Canada through the US to northern New Mexico The Rocky mountains are composed of a number of separate ranges which are roughly parallel to each other o Southern Northern Middle Rocky Mtns o Hole is Wyoming Basin Middle section of Rocky Mtns Piedmont foot of the Mtns Appalachian o Stone Mtn Charlottesville Monticello John Wesley Powell o A report on the lands of the Arid Region of the US with a more Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah 1878 o Homestead Act 1862160 acresA Lincoln 0 Managed correctly they could have land and was used to maintain a family thinking of eastern lands western lands wouldn t work o Land west of the 98th MeridianArid o 80 acres with water o 2560 acres needed to support a family through stockraising 4 sections o 160 acres too much or too little o 1 section640 acres Physiographic Subdivisions o Map on Moodle o 19 of them o Know where each are located o Know the names and locations of all o Know where different features are located yosimite mono lake 50 questions All Random Mult Choice True False Map Images H Iquot 9quot 45 Pquot Fquot l 9 10 1 H 12 13 14 What is physiography o Area represented by a host of provinces that operate on and off the earths surface soil water etc Political boundaries are not a part of this Which happens to be a physiographic section Mississippi river illuvial plain What happens to be a physiographic province Central lowland coastal plain interior low plateau Where s BR located In coastal plain and MS alluvial coastal plain April 19 1775 Minute Man National Historic ParkPatriot s Day 0 1864 O Yosemite National Park First Scenic Reserveduring Civil War Abe Lincoln signed over 10 sq miles to the state Of CA March 1 1874 Yellowstone o Signed into law by Pres Grant 0 First National Park in the World 0 Credit of Idea of creating parks George Catlain painter 1869 o Associated with Grand Canyon What national park is Olmstead associated with Grand Canyon Many Mormons crossed Colorado River Which of the following places is in the Col Plateau provinces Grand Canyon Judge Cornelius Hedgens Associated with Yellowstone Which of the following is associated with Yellowstone Louis Jackson Expedition went where Yellowstone George Catlain associated with Yellowstone Yes 15 1 0391 1 l 18 19 20 2 H 22 23 24 2 U1 26 o Second Lt Donald Washburn yes o Ferdnand V Hayden 0 Hayden expedition a year later What park is Paul Revere associated with o Minute Man National Park Frederick Law Olmstead o Associated with Yosemite o Perturbed at politics in NYC went west to help Meraposa company come up with some kind of plan o Got billproposal passed by Lincoln o First scenic reservegive land to state of CA o Head of commission Fred Law Olmstead o Was not associated with Adirondack Mtns What physiological Province is Yosemite in o Sierra Nevada What physiological province is Niagara Falls in o Central lowlands Salt Lake City o Basin and Range o Its internal drainage no outlets to the sea Mono Lake o Basin and Range Mammoth Cave o Interior low plateaus Adirondacks Park o What lawact protects it to make it forever wild 0 State Constitution of NY Antiquities Act o Allows president to set aside historic scientific valuable lands artifacts to protect them o Passed in 1906 Biltmore Estate o Olmstead Pincho o Blue Ridge Province 1994 o Group of civil engineers listed 7 wonders of engineering in the US Alaska pipeline Golden gate bridge Hoover Dam Interstate Hwy World Trade center Kennedy Space center 0 Panama Canal o Washington Monument not one Who is father of profession of Land Arch o Fredrick Law Olmstead 28 What fed Law of public protection o Antiquite 29 Grand canyon petrified valley Sedona o Colorado plateau 30 Red woods pt low pt ross o Pacific border 1 Harbors ferry Smokey mtns Biltmore estate o Blue ridge 32 Stone mtn Charlottesville Un Of Va o Piedmont 3 Atchafalaya okifinokie o Coastal Plain 34 NYC Boston Vermont minute maid o New England 35 How many years passed btwn Yellowstone national park and law signed by president o 2 years 36 Fur Company St Louis newspaper to hunt beaver in which river o Missouri river 37Nathania P Langford Sept 20 1870 o True 38 Tim Palmer book promise of wilderness said following o Neitherfase o Landscape Yosemite O O O O O O N l LA LA 39Physioogica province that drains internally o Basin and Range 10182010 55200 PM 10182010 55200 PM LA Midterm Review Names and m Fredrick Law Olmsted Father of Landscape Architecture overseeing Yosemite Wrote ill 39 quotn ll IThe main duty with which the i i to be charged is to be given every advantage possible and give other parts to its public domainquot Now we are gathered in such Civil War can long endure The duty of preservation falls because millions hereafter can benefit from the actsquot IThe establishment by the government of great public ground for free 39 of people under certain 39 is justified and Owen Wister 1936 o Wrote about the west Jon Muir o 9 0 David Harmon stated Muir could be called a nature writer 0 Called Emerson sequoia Ralph Waldo o Sequoia Sign of respect and high figure Emerson o Wrote the i we gt 1 minute men George Catlin Battle of Lexington i first to write about national park ideas Painter Famous for Indian Life painted native Americans called them noble savages Letter published in 1833 for protecting the nations II would ask no other monument of memory nor any other enrollment of the dead than the reputation of being the founder of such a great institutionquot Proud of the idea of a nations party Thomas Wolfe Frantic trip through many national parks Carl Sandburg Free Verse Chicago Literary Renaissance Promoted by Herriot Monroe who Mary Roberts Rinehart 39 Poet Magazine in 1911 Rode through the Rockies with Howard Eaton WT ities call I have heard them but there is no voice so consistent to me as the wordless call of the 39 Aldo Leopold L Lu ll iliil Chill riter of o llThe Good Oak Represents the month of February quot 39 r a as the kettle sings and the burns to red coal on white ashes he next morning we came about a slab and quot Old immigrate road and in times the has a diet of 30 inches hose ashes come spring Prairie clovers great scab of from roadside Leopold s sand Counties Wisconsin Central Lowlands Province Annie Dillard hen the i I 2 went under the bridge 8 inches long in bodyquot quot he Wonderful thing about llThey are bread and butter of the food chainquot IStalking is a game played in the actual present John Burroughs Wrote the lbwWM 95vlb h hen he is in good behavior a On the 2nd day we made the on Backquot It s quite worthwhile to go into the canyon on back if only to fall in love with a milequot But we were not dissuaded or ridiculed out of adventure There is always 39 going to the of thingsquot Abe Lincoln Signed Mariposa Yosemite Grant in 1864 Gettysburg national park first park acquired by Ilt is for us the living to be dedicated here to the great past of the nation before us we take the increased quot IGreat Civil war so conceived long endured Rudyard Kipling m i lAnd to think t Is showplace has been going on all these days and none of we ever saw itquot Henry James Wrote about Philadelphia in IWhy should this place lead to s David Harmon Author of m H Stated that only MUIr and Burroughs could be called nature writers Nature is hard to find William Henry Jackson Photographer Gilford Pinchot Forester who worked on the Biltmore estate in north Carolina chosen by FLO John Wesley 0 Recommended 4 sections 2560 acres for a family dependent on livestock Powell 0 Recommended 80 acres for a family with irrigation Thomas 0 Painter that went into yellow stone with jackson Merran Music 0 FerdetRovet Composed Grand Canyon Sweet Paul Winters Composed Canyon Album River Run Divorchak Composed Symphony No 9 in E minor and From the new world Additional Authors and Books JAMES BRYCE Should Cars be Allowed in Yosemite CHARLES DICKENS The Factories of Lowell BAYARD TAYLOR A Second World MARK TWAIN The Hawaii Volcanoes WALLACE STEGNER The Marks of Human Passage BERNARD DE VOTO Footloose in Democracy ANNIE DILLARD Pilgrim at Tinker Creek Chapter 11 Section II Stalking ALDO LEOPOLD A Sand County Almanac February 7 Good Oak JOHN MCPHEE The Control of Nature Atchafalaya JOHN WESLEY POWELL Canyons ofthe Colorado June 8 to August 25 1869 RALPH WALDO EMERSON From Nature 1836 Terms Physiographic Provinces and Associations Section Smaller unit of Physiographic Province can be divided Physiographic 2 or more physiographic provincesunits Region Key Provinces 9 Central Lowlands 18 Coastal PlainBR Gulf of Mexico Basin Interior local Plateau Miss River Basin Minute men Historical park April 18 1775 PP New England 17 Paul Revere Yosemite 1864 1st national scenic Reserve created by federal action Lincoln signed PP Sierra Nevada 3 Fredrick Law Olmstead State of California received property rights Yellowstone March 1 1872 151 National park in the world Grant signed Judge Cornelius Hedges Washburn Expedition in 1870 Thomas Moran Grand Canyon 1869 John Wesley Powell lost arm in Shiloh PP Located in Colorado Plateau 6 Lee s Ferry Colorado River Niagara Falls PP Central Low Lands 9 Salt Lake city PP Basin and Range 5 Harpers Ferry Great Smokey mountain s Blue Ridge 14 Stone Mountain Charlottesville Piedmont 15 Cape 0 Coastal Plain18 AtterickOokeefenkee New York City 0 New England17 Minutmen boston vermont Basin and Range Water drains internally not to the ocean Map Projection Angel distance direction area scale Mercator Projection 1569 Cylinder American Society of civil engineers 7 wonders Interstate highway Kennedy space center world trade center hoover dam golden gate pipeline Antiquity act of 1906 Set aside Monuments Central Park Designed by Olmstead and Bow Filioli Mansion and garden House made of brick Anemzme s cmur and Shzdmg Cumuur HwHuckS Hzchures Am 7M V w J1 LA 1201 Midterm Reading Part Author of Mirror of America is David Harmon Mary Roberts Rhinehart quotRide the Rockies and Save Your Soul road the Rockies with Howard Eaton Owen Wister 01d Yellowstone Days The Virginian Patterned after Theodore Roosevelt who was a friend of his from Harvard Who headed the commission overseeing the management of reassessing National Parks Frederick Law Olmstead Why did Yosemite go to a state instead of making it a National Park Yellowstone had to be protected by the federal government because Wyoming was only a territory Concord Hymn commemorates Minute Man John Muir and Ralph Waldo Emerson first met in Yosemite and Muir called him a Sequoia because he was not stubborn or difficult to deal with he was an outstanding representative of his species Walt Munt was in Aldo Leopold s Almanac Aldo Leopold forester primitive area in a National Forest first wilderness area before we created a wilderness system attended U of Wisconsin bought worn out piece of property best known for giving ethics to the conservation movement George Catlin quotA Nation s Park 193 2 idea of setting aside national parks for indigenous people and wildlife David Harmon stated in his preface only two people could be considered nature writers Iohn Burrows and John Muir who were good friends T or F David Harmon stated in The Mirror ofAmerica that good poetry by professional poets about national parks is hard to find True What did Henry James write Re ected Distinction Ab out Philadelphia Why is this place special Why were so many good ideas developed here Used free verse as a part ofpoetry CarlSandburg Chicago was the American literary capital from 1912the early 20s Harriet Monroe A promoter of the exhibition where Olmstead was a designer in Chicago Painter whose fame is known as American Indians and had a letter published proposing a nations park George Catlin 1832 is when George went to ST Louis 1833 is the first published account of anybody thinking about a national park Thomas Wolfe Gulpl39ng the Great West grand tour of National Parks quotThese things I ponder Aldo Leopold in his almanac Sand County Almanac quotroadside oak Sam Hill quot8 inches long and another 6 in the tail Andy Dillard muskrats quotmuskrats are the bread and butter Andy Dillard quotIt is quite worthwile to go down into a canyon on a mule ohn Burrows quotGoing Down quotThe main duty with which the commissioners should be charged Frederick Law Olmstead Commission Report quotIt is for us the living rather to dedicate Abraham Lincoln Gettysburg Address quotI would ask no other monument to my memory or no other George Catlin National Parks Preservation for All Olmstead On Tour through Yellowstone LA 1203 Reading Midterm Things to study Memorize authors with writings RALPH WALDO EMERSON39 The Shot Heard Round the World l l L y H NROE Two Yosemite Poems ll w l 7 i 39 WALLACE STEGNER The lVIarks of Human Passage BERNARD DE VOTO ose in Democracy 39 quotquot 39 r quot L HDMH Ll Italics paragraphs by David Harmon Quotes that come from articles Possible Questions Notes from theArticles MIRROR OF AMERICA Edited by David Harmon National Park idea there are few places whose qualities are so outstanding that they are worth preserving from undue human intervention because through our act of self restraint these places realize their capacity to enlighten us about ourselves It is a compound of idealism and commercialism JOHN MUIR A MEETING IN THE VALLEY Muir wrote a letter to Emerson inviting him with all his earnestness to stay and see Yosemite with him ed Yosemite for 5 days Muir followed him to see the Mariposa Accompanied by many famous people including Robert Underwood Johnson Burrows and Theodore Roosevel l lquot Originated the humorous mystery novel rode with Howard Eden Drawn to the physical challenges of the great wilderness parks of the west Encouraged women to follow her lead Main message National parks are diverse enough to be places of self discovery for everyone RUDYARD KIPLING ON TOUR THROUGH THE YELLOWSTONE The Allahabad Pioneer British Indian newspaper paid for Kipling to travel in exchange for his writings First arriving to Yellowstone he wished he was dead but by the end of the trip he admired all of Yellowstone s beauties Visited Mammoth Hot Springs Firehole River where he marveled at wild beavers the Upper Geyser Basin Mary s Lake where he washed his handkerchief in the springs Interested in the young maiden from New Hampshire who quoted at the end JOHN BURROUGHS DIVINE ABYSS At the Grand Canyon Burroughs Medal given each year to best nature writer Burroughs more than Muir brought the genre before the wide public and showed them how to draw the natural world into their hearts Burroughs bookish style and Muir reverent style close friends Muir went down the canyon with Burroughs on a mu e Wrote for Century in 1911 excerpt CARL SANDBURG SCRAPERS OF THE DEEP WINDS First introduced by Harriet Monroe One of the leader of the Chicago Renaissance His favorite form of poetry a celebration in free verse and colloquial not formal talk of landscape and people of the United States Grand Canyon His house is now a National Historic Site Many Hats is about dedicating the Grand Canyon to man because each man sees himself in the canyon THOMAS WOLFE GULPING THE GREAT WEST Great Parks Trip led by Wolf who was accompanied by Ray Conway and Edward M Miller Their plan 10 National Parks and 4632 road miles in 13 days Unfinished diary of suggestive free verse Started in Oregon Crater Lake National Park Yosemite National Park Sequoia National Park Grand Canyon National Park Zion National Park Bryce National Park Yellowstone National Park Mt Rainier National Park Fredrick Law Olmsted PRESERVATION FOR ALL California governor appointed Olmsted as head of commission and his plans were taken over by John Muir and Robert Johnson after the commission did not receive his lans First landscape architect First superintendent of New York City s National Park Bene t the public with national parks Management of Yosemite The report by Fredrick Law Olmsted about National Parks has not shaped new parks since then because it wasn t available and could not be used Abraham Lincolni The Gettysburg Address Gettysburg National Military Park was created 3 decades later in 1895 1896 Supreme Court Case set the legal foundation of today s National Park System against the RR s desire to go through battle grounds Carl Sandburg elaborated on Lincoln s thought Ralph Waldo Emersoni The Shot Heard Round the World The village was the scene of the Minute Men s Victory in the opening battle of the Revolution Composed Concord Hymn inscribed on the base of the Minute Men statueinow part of Minute Man National Park Henry Jamesi Re ected Distinction Independence National Historic Park James believed Philadelphia was supreme in culture and society compared to other cities which was the perfect setting for history Hailed Independence Hall and its immediate surroundings which would later be set aside in 1948 as Independence National Historic Park Harriet MonroeiTwo Poems Cataracts Yosemite s Waterfalls amp The HetchHetchy Valley Addressed nature in general rather than speci c nature wonders Reason the grandeur embodied in the most famous national parks is a daunting subject to capture in verse Interested in National Parks after visiting the Grand Canyon Founded Poetry Magazine of Verse in 1912 Recognized the talent of others including Rupert Brooke Hart Crane Robinson Jeffers rianne Moore and Stephen Spender Carl Sandburg free verse Chicago Renaissance George Catlini A Nation s Park First painted portraits of American Indian Life First person to envision the idea of a national park He voiced the need for some great protecting policy of government to secure a nation s Par to protect both the lifeways of Indians and the native game upon which they depended Annie Dillardi Stalkingquot Pilgrim at Tinker Creek Muskrats Tinker Creek is in Virginia s Blue Ridge Physiographic Providence Aldo Leopoldi February The Shack Sand Counties are in the Central Lowlands Physio graphic Province near Baraboo Wisconsin where he Two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm 1 breakfast comes from a grocery 2 heat comes from the furnace Sandhills Sanded b c of glacial dam melted Teach forestry Sand County Almanac Good Oak goes through years as the oak was sawed Possible Questions Report about the Management of Yosemite Olmsted Character that Rineheart traveled to the Rockies with Howard Eaton April 19 1775 Paul Revere s ride Battle of Lexington Concord What was the poem written about April 19 1775 Concord Hymn about the arched bridge where the minute men stood Who wrote the Concord Hymn Ralph Waldo Emerson Who was John Muir Found the Sierra Club set land aside in the Antiquities Act Who wanted to go up the Grand Canyon Muir Who wanted to go down the Grand Canyon Who was Aldo Leopold Forrester that taught at Wisconsin in Kila National Forrest that proposed primitive areas Where is San County located Wisconsin central lowlands h siographic province l VD u L i I 39 Good Poetry is difficult to nd abo Professionals shied away l Arthur a part of Chicago Literary Renaissance Carl Sandburg Why should Philadelphia have so many historical events Harry James Gettysburg National Military Park Harmon First national park acquired through use of taking land by government Quotes quotThose ashes come spring Aldo Leopold Prairie clovers great scab of bark from roadside Aldo Leopold The particular oak sand hill diameter of 30 inches 0 Leo old 391 quotThe establishment by the government of great public ground for the free enjoyment of the people under certain circumstances is this justi ed and enforced as a political duty Fredrick Law Olmsted Great Civil War so conceiv d e Lincoln 1 l m It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion Abe Lincoln 1 would ask no other monument in my memory nor other enrollment with the famous dead then to be known as the founder of such an institution George Catlin Nation s Park v w 59 j l f And to think that this showplace has been going on all these days an none of we ever saw it Kipling FINAL REVIEW REead intro to all the mirror of Americas that talk about the author READING PART 25 questions 2pts each Read materials Mirror of America Memorize names of all authors and what they wrote amp know a little about the authors Who wrote the marks of human passage A Wallace Stagner also wrote the biograohy of John westly powel going down colorado What is it about A Stagner appears in end of mirror of America Devoto invites stagner to join in with him on dinosaur NP put a dam in park and the human cry against it in What position did devoto hold A wrote from the EASY CHAIR of harpers magazine this meant he wrote about the conflict of Dinosaur invited stagner to participate picted up by readers digest which picked up public opinion and they won Who wrote Hawaiian Volcanos A Mark Twain Samual Clemons Comparing Vesuvius to volcano in Hawaii twain thought it was just a soup kettle insignificant kiloea compared to Vesuvius vesuvius was a near toy a childerens toy a soup kettle Who was a member of parlement that was an author and what did he write A James Brice Should Cars be allowed in Yosemitee wrote about cars in yosemitee Who wrote Factories of low massacusetes Charles Dickens What was it about A is in extent is what carols are about created as a utopium work city very impressed with the women working in the factory bc of their high degree of culture and poetry in part what its about What else did he write about Christmas charols scrooge Who wrote Nature A Ralph Waldo Emmerson Phi beta kappa address nature came out of address Charles Dickens asked his readers to compare what town to haunts of desperate misery Lowel These places valley of humiliation great relief gothic gallery are found in THE SECOND WORLD known today as what A MAMOTH CAVE Who wrote THE SECOND WORLD A Taylor T or f from a historic view of his writings critics only give him credit for filling the expectations of his mid 19 century readers of his day and not much lasting qualities TRUE Who went hot footed at night time across the volcano A Mark Twain had to feel with his feet whether is was soft or hard to see if he was still on the trail What did u like best which one did you dislike best Dinosaur national momument is associated with which of the following Green n yampa rivers earl douglass echo canyon Utah Colorado boarder A all of the above Who is earl douglas A paleontologist Andrew carnegy built library and concert hall amp there was need to get exhibits for that museum He was in charge of brining a dinosaur from dinosaur park to carnegy museum got it made a national park from souvenier hunters has a protected area with bones One ofthe ghters of the dam was Sierra Club published its very first battle book on dinosaur in 1955 What was the name of it A this is dinosaur echo park country and its magic river The good guys won dam wouldn t have worked anyway and rock wasn t good Harmon says about the whole thing this was the time when the conservation community became a political force Why book ended anthology in that particular spot It was not the first time ecology was an environmental argument but because of all of the excitement and publicity the environment became a political force Relationship between Stagner and DeVotto can be described as Birds of a fether friends combatants HARMON DESCRIBES THEM AS JUST FRIENDS Who wrote quotaccording to Jackson the accurately messured the attitude of attant is 5300 feet or a little it is evidently the highest point in the state of maine ktaadn Who wrote about Maine A HENREY DAVID THOROUGH Which of the following authors won a for his western expansion ACROSS THE WIDE MISSOURI A Devotto Stagner wrote a history on which ofthe following people A John Wesley Powell Which of the following is not associated with dino national monument Green and yempa salt lake earl douglas Utah and Colorado boarders ASalt lake According to harmon marks the coming of age of the conservation movement as a TRUE According to harmon ai rm mzfum Hi marks the coming of i FALSE According to harmon aee in the TRUE Dino national Monument is associated with 0 Green ampYampa River YES 0 Earl Douglas YES 0 Eco Canyon YES 0 Uta hColorado Border YES 0 Great Salt lake NO Henry thorough wrote which of the following Hawaiian volc footloose in cars in yosemitie cataadn in the main woods A KAADIN in the main woods Which of the following wrote ASTHETICS no one as inheritance of American citizen A Devotto Earl douglas tried to protect his diggings from which of the following Souvoner hunters Landscape Architecture 1203 Charles Fryling Jr Views of the American Landscape Louisiana State University Robert Reich School of Landscape Architecture The Gift Outright The land was ours before we were the land39s She was our land more than a hundred years Before we were her people She was ours In Massachusetts in Virginia But we were England39s still colonials Possessing what we still were unpossessed by Possessed by what we now no more possessed Something we were withholding made us weak Until we found out that it was ourselves We were withholding from our land of living And forthwith found salvation in surrender Such as we were we gave ourselves outright The deed of gift was many deeds of war To the land vaguely realizing westward But still unstoried artless unenhanced Such as she was such as she would become Robert Frost Written in 1942 recited at JFK s inauguration in 1961 Topography Sharon Olds After we ew across the country we got in bed laid our bodies delicately together like maps laid face to face East to West my San Francisco against your New York your Fire Island against my Sonoma my New Orleans deep in your Texas your Idaho bright on my Great Lakes my Kansas burning against your Kansas your Kansas burning against my Kansas your Eastern Standard Time pressing into my Paci c Time my Mountain Time beating against your Central Time your sun rising swiftly from the right my sun rising swiftly from the left your moon rising slowly from the left my moon rising slowly from the right until all four bodies of the sky burn above us sealing us together all our cities twin cities all our states united one nation indiVisible with liberty and justice for all A Look at the Landscape Maps Scale Area Direction Map Scale Graphic Verbal Representative Fraction l250000 ll000000 l4000000 Large Scale Smaller Area More Detail amp Larger RF Number Denominator Small Small Scale Large area Less Detail Smaller RF Number Denominator Large Hillocks Hachures Contour Lines Thematic Maps Use symbols to show one class of geographical information Mercator s Projection Cylindrical Projection First Published in 1569 gtgtAlaska appears far larger than Mexico whereas in fact Mexico is larger in land area Good s Interrupted Projection Robinson Projection Continental Drift Pangaea Supercontinent 225 Million Years Ago San Andreas Fault Filoli Garden Change and time are constant In the begging So far scientists have not found a way to determine the exact age of the Earth One guess of the Earth s age is 46 billion years ago Dinosaurs lived from late in the Triassic period about 225 million years ago until the end of the Mesozoic era about 65 million years ago Dinosaur Valley State Park Great Plains Physiographic Province is located just northwest of Glen Rose Texas or about forty miles south southwest of Fort Worth The Park was opened to the public in 1972 The Tumabout Map is an example of how standard practices in map drafting can shape the way we think about the earth and our neighbors The Tumabout Map showed the south direction at the top of the map where normal convention always places north The ratio between the distance or area on a map and that same area or distance on the land is the scale of the map It is represented in three ways 1 A simple fraction or ratio called the representative fraction or RF 2 A written statement of map distance compared land distance 3 A graphic representation such as a bar graph denoting size The RF is generally written in the form l62500 where one unit on the map equal 62500 of those same units on the ground The larger the scale the smaller the area represented Large scale and small scale refer to the Representative Fraction RF Example ll000000 which is the same as ll000000 When we speak of large scale maps we are saying the RF is a larger number That is the denominator is small The smaller the denominator the larger the scale Large Scale Smaller Area More Detail Larger RF Number Denominator Small Small Scale Large area Less Detail Smaller RF Number Denominator Large It is not possible to represent on a at map the spatial relationships of angle distance direction area and scale all on the same projection A globe is required to do that The systematic transformation of locations on the earth a three dimensional object to locations on map at surface is called projection The Mercator Projection that was first published in 1569 is a cylindrical projection and shows land areas near the poles to be exaggerated in area Direction and shape however are correct In a Mercator Projection Alaska appears far larger than Mexico whereas in fact Mexico is larger in land area Goode s Interrupted Projection is an equalarea projection where both the shapes and the sizes of landmasses are represented with a large amount of accuracy The Robinson Projection which was designed by the Rand McNally Company presents an uninterrupted and visually correct map of the earth s landmasses In 1988 the National Geographic Society adopted the Robinson Projection as the way to show landmasses Hillocks Hachure and Contour Lines are all ways of showing relief or elevation on a map Shading and color can also be used The 1810 map of Lewis and Clark used Hillocks Thematic maps are data maps of a speci c subject or for a specific purpose Pangaea Supercontinent 225 Million Years Ago In 1912 Alfred Wegener 18801930 a German meteorologist published his theory of continental drift He pictured the land of the earth as a single vast continent that he named Pangaea from the Greek for all and earth The west side ofthe 700mile San Andreas Fault is part ofthe earth s Pacific plate and moves northwest wile the east side is a part of the North American Plate In 1906 this transform fault slipped up to 21 feet 7 gutting San Francisco Filoli house and gardens are located thirty miles south of San Francisco on the eastern slope of the Coast Range in the Pacific Border Physiographic Province The property is on the southern end of Crystal Springs Lake which is part of the Water Department of San Francisco The lake and gardens are near or on top of the San Andreas Fault The house and garden was built for Mr and Mrs Boums who named if F iloli by combining the first two letters from the words of the family credo Fng for a just cause w your fellow man M a good life Continued Look at the Landscape Design Must Fit the Land Maj or Pierre L Enfant 7 Washington DC 1791 Design With Land and Function Frederick Law Olmsted 7 Central Park Greensward Plan 1858 7 World Columbian Exposition 1893 Andrew Jackson Downing Senator James McMillan 190102 Crosby Arboretum 7 Pinecote E Fay Jones Architect 7 Edward Blake Landscape Architect Everglades National Park Frederick Law Olmsted 18221903 is recognized as the founder of American landscape architecture father of the profession of landscape Architecture and the nation s foremost designer of parks Olmsted established his home and office Fairsted outside of Boston in1883 This became the world39s first fullscale professional office for the practice of landscape design The first Olmsted design was Central Park in New York City in 1858 The painting by John Constable of Wivenhoe Park in 1816 shows European landscape pastoral and picturesque as it appeared to Frederick Law Olmsted as he traveled in Europe before he design Central Park The painting Kindred Spirits by Asher B Durand in 1848 showed Thomas Cole and William Cullen Bryant in the Catskills of New York State Cole is the founder of the Hudson River School of painting the first school or stile of art from the New World William Cullen Bryant an American Romantic poet and journalist was the person who came up with the idea of a central park in New York City The Greensward Plan is the name used by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert VauX for their entry in the design competition of 1858 Their plan was the winning entry Design elements of the plan included separation of circulation transverse roads ramble wild or natural area a mall and open areas for passive recreation Central Park in New York City is in the New England Physiographic Province The World Columbian Exposition of 1893 was held in Chicago that is in the Central Lowlands Physiographic Province Andrew Jackson Downing b 1815 d 1852 an Architect was the leading American garden writer and garden designer of his day He was born in Newburgh New York in 1815 Downing edited The H orticulturalist and wrote a Treatise on the theory and practice of landscape gardening adapted to North America 1841 This book has a chapter on 39Landscape or rural architecture39 which may have been the source from which Olmsted took the term landscape architecture39 Downing got Calvert VauX to move from England to the United States VauX was an Architect and the future partner of Olmsted Andrew Jackson Downing was a protagonist for public parks and had he not drowned at the age of 36 it is likely that Downing rather than Olmsted would have received the commission to design Central Park in New York Major Pierre L Enfant a Frenchbom American military engineer architect and city planner did the base plan for Washington DC in 1791 Thomas Jefferson strongly in uenced L Enfants work as well as the general location of the federal district Robert Mills made a design for the Washington Monument which he described as a grand circular colonnaded building from which springs an obelisk shaft This original design created in 1833 was to include a tomb for Washington at the base of the obelisk The colonnaded building was to be surrounded by statues of Revolutionary War heroes Senator James McMillan Chair ofthe W 39 39 DC 39 p quot appointed Daniel Bumham architect to head the commission charged with creating a plan for the entire park system in the District of Columbia Other commission members Charles McKim architect Frederick Law Olmsted Jr landscape architect and Augustus SaintGaudens sculptor did the nal drawings for the plan The Crosby Arboretum and Everglades National Park are both in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province Washington DC is on the Fall Line between the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces Most of the federal city is in the Coastal Plain Marjory Stoneman Douglas has been called the quotmother of the Evergladesquot she was an environmentalist activist feminist and independent She died in 1998 at 108 years old Her name is synonymous with the Everglades for her tireless groundbreaking efforts to protect this watery region a region her adversaries considered a worthless swamp Douglas is perhaps most known for her book The Everglades River of Grass Which was a bestseller that was first published in 1947 Where the grass and the water are there is the heart the current the meaning of the Everglades The truth of the river is the grass 7 Marjorie Stoneman Douglas View by Physiography 39Physiography of any area represents the product of a host of processes that operate at or near the earth s surface Landforms Soils Water Features Vegetation Related Resources 39Physiographic Region Province Section F all Line 39The Coastal Plain Physiographic Province Sections North Atlantic South Atlantic Florida Peninsula East Gulf Coast Mississippi Embayment Mississippi River Alluvial Plain amp West Gulf Coast Fall Line Cape Hatteras National Seashore Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Everglades National Park Atchafalaya 39New England Physiographic Province Battle of LexingtonConcord April 191775 7 MinuteMan National Historical Park 1959 Physiography of any area represents the product of a host of processes that operate at or near the earth s surface These processes include combinations of landforms soils water features vegetation and related resources Physiographic areas are defined by the composite patterns of landscape features The physiographic province is the basic unite Two or more provinces make a physiographic region and a physiographic province can be made up of two or more sections or smaller units Physiographic Provinces of the contiguous United State are the following 1 Coastal Plain 11 Superior UplandCanadian Shield 2 New England 12 Great Plains 3 Piedmont 13 Rocky Mountains 4 Blue Ridge 14 Basin and Range 5 Ridge and Valley 15 Colorado Plateau 6 Appalachian Plateau 16 Columbia Plateau 7 Adirondacks 17 Sierra Nevada 8 Interior Low Plateaus 18 Cascades 9 Interior Highlands 19 Paci c Border 10 Central Lowlands 20 Alaska Paci c Mountain System Interior Province Brooks Range Arctic Coastal Plain Two lines line of glaciation and the fall line are important dividers or edges of several physiographic provinces A Fall Line is the geologic place where waterfalls and rapids begin on rivers that are roughly parallel The waterfalls are caused by differences in underlying earth structure as the river descends from uplands to lower elevations In the eastern United States the Fall Line marks the edge of the hard rock of the Piedmont Physiographic Province and the softer sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain The Fall Line marked the limit of inland travel by ships and a location for waterpower as a source of energy Many of our large cities are located on the Fall Line Trenton NJ Columbus GA Philadelphia PA Montgomery AL Baltimore MD Tuscaloosa AL Washington DC Little Rock AR Richmond VA Just west of Dallas TX Raleigh NC Waco TX Columbia SC Just north of San Antonio TX Augusta GA Del Rio TX Macom GA Coastal Plain The Coastal Plain extends 2200 miles from Cape Cod in the north to the Mexican border in the south It continues south for an additional 1000 miles along the Gulf coast of Mexico The Wright brothers Orville and Wilbur made the first successful ight in a heavier thanair craft on December 17 1903 at Kitty Hawk North Carolina The site was chosen after the brothers consulted with the U S Weather Bureau The Cape Hatteras Lighthouse our nation s tallest brick lighthouse was built in 1870 The light tower is 208 feet in height It was located about 1600 feet from the shore when first built In 1987 the lighthouse was only 120 feet from the ocean and coastal erosion was threaten the survival of this historic structure The National Park Service moved the light a halfmile inland which placed it again 1600 feet from the shore This relocation was accomplished in 1999 The Mississippi is the world s fourth longest river system It deposits roughly 200 million tons of sediment a year to its delta Loess Bluffs are created by deep deposits of windblown topsoil known as loess pronounced LOWess It was formed during the Ice Age when glaciers covered the northern half of the continent At this time nearly continuous dust storms swept in and deposited the loess New England All of the New England Province was covered by ice during glaciations Coastal features resulted from the drowning of glaciated and streamcarved land In many respects this area is a continuation of the Appalachian highlands Piedmont Blue Ridge Ridge and Valley and Appalachian Plateau The Atlantic coast from Cape Cod north becomes a rocky coast whereas the coast from Cape Cod south becomes a sandy beach Daniel Chester French designed the Minute Man statue in 187175 as a commission in preparation for the Centennial by the City of Concord Massachusetts Battle of LexingtonConcord April 191775 The North Bridge 7 Paul Revere s Ride with Samuel Prescott and William Dawes MinuteMan National Historical Park l959 By the rude bridge that arched the ood Their ag to April39s breeze unfurled Here once the embattled farmers stood And fired the shot heard round the world Ralph Waldo Emerson 18031882 The following are a few glaciated landforms Esker A long narrow ridge of coarse gravel deposited by a stream owing in an icewalled valley or tunnel in a decaying glacial ice sheet Kame A small conical hill or short ridge of sand and gravel deposited during the melting of glacial ice Kettle Hole A depression left in a mass of glacial drift apparently formed by the melting of an isolated block of glacial ice Drumlin A streamlined hill or ridge composed of glacial drift The ridge is elongated in the direction of the ice movement with a slightly steeper side facing the direction from which the ice came Frederick Law Olmsted designed Shelbume Farms In 1886 Dr William Seward and Lila Vanderbilt Webb began acquiring farmland on the shores of Lake Champlain to create a model agricultural estate They were assisted in the effort by two of the most prominent planners in the country7architect Robert H Robertson and landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted Sr Olmsted s vision guided the layout of farm field and forest Robertson designed the buildings Physiography Continued Piedmont Physiographic Province Stone Mountain GA Charlottesville VA University of Virginia Monticello Blue Ridge Physiographic Province 7 Harpers Ferry National Historical Park 7 Great Smoky Mountains National Park 7 Shenandoah National Park 7 Biltmore Estate Asheville NC 39 Frederick Law Olmsted 1822 1903 Gifford Pinchot l 865 1946 Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province 7 Natural Bridge Lake Champlain7Hudson River Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province Catskills Piedmont The Piedmont province extends from the Hudson River to Alabama The Coastal Plain lies adjacent to the east The Piedmont is the easternmost section of the Appalachian highlands It is made up of the outwash material of the Appalachians Piedmont is a term that comes from two French words 7 pied meaning foot and mom meaning mountain In describing an area the word means that the area is at the foot or base of a mountain Stone Mountain Georgia is a mile and a half long exfoliating granite dome that stands 650 feet above the surrounding piedmont residual soils The mountain is a granite dome which was formed 300 million years ago from magma Three sculptors worked on the Confederate Memorial Carving Gutzon Borglum 19151925 Left because of a dispute and took is design with him He went to carve Mount Rushmore in South Dakota Augustus Lukeman 19251928 Removed Borglum s head of Lee and replaced it with his own Lee Thirtysix yeas passed with the property returning to the original owner Then in 1958 the state of Georgia purchased the mountain and a design competition was held The winning design was by Hancock Walker Kirkland Hancock 19631972 The Stone Mountain Confederate Memorial 90 by 190 feet and is recessed 42 feet into the mountain It depicts three heroes of the Civil War Confederate President Jefferson Davis Generals Robert E Lee and Thomas J Stonewall Jackson The memorial was dedicated in 1970 Blue Ridge This Province has a very clear boundary on the west where a wide and continuous lowland the Great Valley lies between the Blue Ridge and the first ridge of the Ridge and Valley Province Mount Mitchell 6684 feet in elevation is the highest point in the Appalachian highlands Stream Piracy is when a river of stream captures the upper reaches of another water course that at the time of capture also owed through a water gap of a ridge The pirate stream deepens its valley more rapidly diverting the head waters of the other stream The diverted stream leaves what is called a wind gap in the ridge The Shenandoah River is a good example of this process It captured the waters of Beaver Dam Creek The Shenandoah River joins the Potomac River just before in passes though the Blue Ridge at Harpers Ferry The expansion west across the United State has many steps and stories One of the early steps took place at Harpers Ferry located at the pass through the Blue Ridge were the Shenandoah River converges with the Potomac River Here the transportation race west met as the traditional canal water system and the new progressive railroad system passed next to each other On July 4 1828 two formal ceremonies occurred The land at Harpers Ferry eventually affected both In Baltimore Charles Carroll the only living signer of the American Declaration of Independence placed the cornerstone for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad In Washington on the same day President John Quincy Adams dug the firs shovel full of earth for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Both transportation systems passed through the Blue Ridge at Harpers Ferry The following are names of historic figures who have some connection with Harpers Ferry George Washington Thomas Jefferson Meriwether Lewis John Brown Robert E Lee J EB Stuart Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson George Armstrong Custer Philip H Sheridan Abraham Lincoln Frederick Douglass WEB Du Bois The Blue Ridge Parkway was began in 1935 and completed 52 years later The parkway now is 469miles long along the crest of the Blue Ridge With roughly 20 million annual visits the economic impact for the 29 Virginia and North Carolina counties that the parkway traverses amounts to more than 2 billion annually A parkway is a lineal park for recreation Olmsted s last great project wa the Biltmore Estate for George W Vanderbilt near Asheville North Carolina Vanderbilt wanted a deer park and Olmsted thought that it would be best as a forest Frederick Law Olmsted suggested that the country s first scientifically managed forest should be established at Biltmore Estate Gifford Pinchot 18651946 is America s first professionally trained forester was brought to Biltmore by Olmsted The Cradle of Forestry the first forestry school in America was established at Biltmore Eighty thousand acres of Biltmor s 120 000 acres became a part of he Pisgah National Forest Ridge and Valley This Province extends from the Saint Lawrence River to Alabama The area is characterized by linear ridges which often are parallel to each other but not necessarily From the air the landscape is distinctive and striking with wooded ridges and often cleared lowlands between the ridges The Ridge and Valley Province in the Appalachians has one of the most distinctive terrain patterns in North America with its characteristic folded and faulted sedimentary rocks which erodes into long ridges and valleys Bear MountainHerriman State Park Pallisades Interstate Park Commission Hudson River Valley Saved in the early 1900s after the state of New York tried to relocate Sing Sing Prison to Bear Mountain Preservation was led by Union Pacific railroad president EW Harriman Bear MountainHarriman State Park became a reality in 1910 First section of the Appalachian Trail was open on Oct 7 1923 from Bear Mountain to the Delaware Water Gap National Trails Act 1968 Appalachian Plateau Seen from the air this Province resembles a very choppy sea of small mountains with slopes pointed in all directions Old Economy Pennsylvania a Harmony Society Community was established in 1824 Physiography Continued Adirondacks Physiographic Province Forest Preserve 1882 Park Blue Line 1892 7 NY State Constitution Forever Wild Article 14 1894 Interior Low Plateaus Physiographic Province Mammoth Cave Interior Highlands Physiographic Province 7 Ozark Plateaus 7 Ouachita Mountains Hot Springs AK 1832 Central Lowlands Physiographic Province University of Illinois Shadow dictates place of library Niagara Falls 7 Sand Counties Baraboo WI Aldo Leopold 7 Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore 7 Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge Superior UplandsCanadian Shield Physiographic Province Hawk Ridge North Shore Range Lake Superior Churchill Manitoba Canada Great Plains Physiographic Province Carlsbad Caverns 7 Palo Duro Canyon Adirondacks The region as a whole is drained by a roughly radial pattern of rivers Most of this Province is included in the Forever Wild Park Adirondack Statistics Adirondack State Park 6 Million Acres Adirondack Forest Preserve 23 Million Acres 8000 Sq miles ofmountains 2000 miles offoot trails 240 leantos 35 campsites 200 lakes at least a square mile area There are over 2000 high peak mountains There are over 40 high peak mountains over 4000 feet The highest peak is Mount Marcy at 5344 feet There are over 50 species of animals Over 220 Birds Over 30 species of reptiles and amphibians 66 species offish Over 2300 lakes and ponds 1500 miles ofrivers 30000 miles of brooks and streams Lake Placid hosted the Winter Olympics in 1932 and 1980 The New York State Constitution Article 14 1894 protects the Forever Wild Blue Line area of the Adirondacks Superior UplandsCanadian Shield This area is a relatively small extension into the United States of the enormous Precambrian Shield of Canada It resembles the Adirondack Mountains Glaciation is the most obvious landscape feature in the Superior Upland Physiographic Province The rock layer of the Canadian Shield at Hudson Bay is one of the oldest rocks on earth Their age is in the range of three and a half billion years Drainage pattern in the Superior UplandsCanadian Shield is called deranged because of its very irregular pattern Polar Bear Thalarctos maritimus 7 The prospect of global warming is seen as a threat to polar bear survival It is reported that global warming has raised the temperature in the Canadian Arctic by 4C in the last 50 year which means that the habitat for polar bears is disappearing Some authors list the Superior Uplands and the A J39 J 39 M 39 as I 39 39 39 sections of the Canadian Shield Province Interior Low Plateaus Landforms are closely related to the type and arrangement of the basic rock layers In the limestone areas one nds caves such as Mammoth Cave in Kentucky The erosional forces that formed the cave system of Mammoth Cave also shaped the landscape of the entire region Sinkholes on the surface of the land are a clear expression of these forces shaping the landscape Natural features like Mammoth Cave helped define our national identity in the 19th century Mammoth Cave was part of the very beginning of American tourism It was publicized during the War of 1812 and became an attraction by 1816 It was authorized as a national park in 1926 and was fully established in 1941 In your readings you found that in Bayard Taylor s A Second World names such as Valley of Humiliation Gothic Gallery Great Relief and Fat Man s Misery were given to many of the features in Mammoth Cave This was done to make the cave more interesting to the general public Mammoth Cave National Park was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1981 World Heritage Sites are under an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage adopted by United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO in 1972 Interior Highlands The Province is composed of the Ozark Plateaus in the north and the folded Ouachita Mountains in the south The Ozarks Plateaus is a hilly landscape on stratified rocks while the Ouachita Mountains are ridges and valleys eroded on upturned folded strata The federal government by the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 acquired Hot Springs Arkansas The area had long been used by native Indians for bathing but never clamed by any tribe because of their belief that the hot springs were important to all people and tribes On April 20 1832 President Andrew Jackson signed legislation to set aside quotfour sections of land including said hot springs reserved for the future disposal of the United States which shall not be entered located or appropriated for any other purpose whatsoeverquot This initial federal protection was for the health benefits of the area Hot Springs was designation as the eighteenth national park on March 4 1921 After an unsuccessful attempt to obtain Frederick Law Olmsted s personal landscaping services the government authorized one U S Army Captain John R Stevens to oversee a number of ambitious landscaping and building projects in the 1890s These included a grand entrance mountain drives a lake park on Whittington Avenue fountains and a brick bathhouse for the indigent In 1933 grading began on the Grand Promenade behind Bathhouse Row Central Lowlands Gently rolling landscape with some at areas The stream patterns are dendritic with major streams meandering across ood plains The University of Illinois at Urbana built an addition to their University Library underground so that it would not cast a shadow of corn study eld that has a long history in corn research Lurie Garden Millennium Park Chicago Illinois Central Lowlands Physiographic Province Chicago39s motto quotUrbs in Horto City in a Garden quotThe Lurie Garden is a design inspired by C hicago39s distinct natural and cultural history quot Kathryn Gustafson Gustafson Guthrie Nichol Ltd Aldo Leopold wrote A Sand County Almanac With Essays on Conservation It was publish in 1949 a year after his death ghting a forest re on a neighbors property Aldo Leopold s shack sits near a sandy ood channel of the Wisconsin River The landscape was formed near the close of the last ice age Wisconsin when the sand counties was laid down in vast alluvial deposits One cataclysmic glacial outburst ood caused 500 feet of sand to be placed injust one day forcing the Wisconsin River to change course A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community 7 Aldo Leopold The Muir family immigrates to America from Dunbar Scotland in 1849 The family lives in Buffalo Township Wisconsin at Fountain Lake Farm and latter Hickory Hill Farm near Portage Wisconsin The Fountain Lake is where Muir taught himself to swim and it was were he spent many hours enjoying nature So deep was Muir s love for Fountain Lake and its water meadows that he spent the rest of his life trying to purchase it but he was never able to do it I want to keep it untrammeled for the sake of its ferns and owers and even if I should never see it again the beauty of its lilies and orchids are so pressed into my mind I shall always enjoy looking back at them in imagination even across seas and continents and perhaps after I am dead 7 John Muir The county has established the Muir Memorial County Park at Fountain Lake New York State Reservation at Niagara Goat Island amp NY Edge Frederick Law Olmsted Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge is the second refuge established in 1901 Pelican Island is the rst Bison Bison bison Buffalo are the big draw at Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge The refuge was set aside for them at a time when the species were almost extinct The thriving herd here was started from a nucleus of 15 donated by the New York Zoological Society and released in 1907 The Great Plains Higher in elevation greater relief less rainfall and composed primarily of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments as compared with Paleozoic sediments and conditions in the Central Lowlands Scotts Bluff National Monument Sentinel for Mitchell Pass Prairie schooner 150000 emigrants passed this point during the 1850s and 60s In 1852 an estimated 50000 men women and children stopped here on their way west Devils Tower National Monument Wyoming America39s First National Monument Devils Tower rises 1267 feet above the Belle Fourche River Once hidden erosion has revealed Devils Tower This 1347 acre park is covered with pine forests woodlands and grasslands Deer prairie dogs and other wildlife are seen Also known as Bears Lodge it is a sacred site for many American Indians President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower the first national monument in 1906 Physiography Continued Rock Mountains Physio graphic Province Sections Southern Rockies SnowmassMaroon Bells Wilderness Colorado Wyoming Basin Middle Rockies Grand Tetons Yellowstone Northern Rockies Bitterroot Glacier Canadian Rocky Mountains Basin and Range Physio graphic Province Mono Lake Great Salt Lake Guadalupe Mountains Bristlecone Pine Saguaro Death Valley 7 Gila Wilderness iBosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge Rocky Mountains This area forms a rugged barrier which extends from Canada through the United States to northern New Mexico The Rocky Mountains are composed of a number of separate ranges which are roughly parallel to each other Steep mountainsides promote the development of many talus slopes landslide scars and mud ows A few small glaciers still persist at high elevations The Rocky Mountains Physiographic Province is divided into four sections Southern Rockies SnowmassMaroon Bells Wilderness US Air force Academy Wyoming Basin Middle Rockies Grand Tetons Yellowstone Northern Rockies Bitterroot Glacier Canadian Rocky Mountains Dead trees becomes home for many creatures while returning nutrients to the land and sometimes can become sculpture or inspiration for man Not all trees need to be harvested The Maroon BellsSnowmass Wilderness was established with 1964 Wilderness Act and total size now is approximately 183500 acres Located in the Gunnison and White River National Forests The wilderness is near the town of Aspen Colorado A moraine is a debris or till pile of earthen material shaped and carried by glaciers Types of moraines are Lateral Moraine and Terminal or End Moraines Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloz39des 7 Elk Wapiti Cervus elaphus 7 White Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus 7 Mountain Goat Oreamnos americanus 7 Mountain Sheep Ovis canadensis Stream deltas are similar to alluvial fans In both cases the carrying capacity of a stream comes to an end Alluvial fans are deposited at the foot of mountain slopes in arid regions Deltas are located where the stream ows into another body of water and drops its load of sediments Aspen Colorado SnowmassMaroon Bells Wilderness Rocky Mountain National Park Vail Beaver Creek Glacier National Park WatertonGlacier International Peace Park Waterton Lakes National Park Canada Banff National Park Canada Jasper National Park Canada Kootenay National Park Canada Wells Gray Provincial Park British Columbia Canada Basin and Range This province is an area of distant vistas where landforms many miles away are clear in the dry desert air Water courses drain internally and not to the sea Mono Lake is located near the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province It is loosing water due to the diversion of water by the California Water System which takes water south to the Los Angeles area Tufa Calcareous and siliceous rock deposited by springs in the bottom of Mono Lake Mono Lake and the Great Salt Lake are good examples of the internal drainage of the province Rednecked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus breed on Arctic and sub arctic tundra winters chie y at sea in Southern Hemisphere The Great Salt Lake now occupies the former location of Lake Bonneville some 16000 years ago Promontory Point in the Grate Salt Lake is where the Central Paci c and the Union Paci c Railroads meet and the golden spike was driven to make the connection on May 10 1869 Bristlecone Pines Pinus longaeva our oldest tress Inyo National Forest atop of one of the ranges in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province Death Valley National Park National Monument 1933 National Park 1994 Alluvial Fans are deposited by streams at the foot of a mountain slope They resemble deltas in origin both are where the stream looses capacity to carry their load Sand dunes Note the gentle windward slop and the steeper slip face The wind direction is from right to left Windblown sand moves up the gentle slope to the brink When the buildup of sand at the brink exceeds the angle of repose the sand grain slides down the steep face The dune moves downwind Saguaro National Park Arizona First park set aside especially to protect a plant species Cereus giganteus 1848 Carnegiea gigantea 1908 Guadalupe Mountains National Park El Capitan 8085 feet elevation Las Vegas Nevada Physiography Continued Colorado Plateau Physiographic Province Grand Canyon Monument Valley Petrified Forest Painted Desert Sunset Crater Sedona Bryce Canyon Zion Columbia Plateau Physiographic Province Craters of the Moon National Monument Sierra Nevada Physiographic Province Y0semite National Park Cascades Physiographic Province Pacific Border Physiographic Province Redwoods Point Lobos A o Nuevo Monterey Bay Fort Ross Built by Russia in 1812 End ofuse182136 Colorado Plateau The Province covers approximately 150000 square miles and lies generally over 1 mile above sea level This is an area where essentially horizontal rock layers dominate Painted Desert Petri ed Forest National Park December 8 1906 Petri ed Forest National Monument was created by President Theodore Roosevelt stating that the mineralized remains of Mesozoic forests are of the greatest scienti c interest and value and it appears that the public good would be promoted by reserving these deposits of fossilized wood as a National monument with as much land as may be necessary for the proper protection thereof September 23 1932 Over 53000 Painted Desert acres added to Monument December 9 1962 Petri ed Forest National Park was established by an act of Congress Common Raven Corvus corax The Painted Desert Inn Architect Interior Designer Mary Colter The Inn opened in 1940 Shut down for the war in 1942 and resumed service in 1946 Grand Canyon Monument Valley Petri ed Forest Painted Desert Sunset Crater Sedona Bryce Canyon Zion Columbia Plateau A region of over 100000 square miles and it is one of the world s major areas of lava It is generally arid to semiarid since it lies in the rain shadow of the Cascades One of the world s major areas of lava Craters of the Moon National Monument Idaho Sierra Nevada This province is carved from the largest continuous mountain block in the United States The block was uplifted along a marginal fault on its east side The mountain range crest near the eastern margin Cascades A series ofvolcanoes lie on top ofan uplifted landscape Since the volcanoes rise thousands of feet above their surroundings they act as landmarks that can be seen for many miles Examples are Lassen and Shasta in California Crater Lake Three Sisters Jefferson and Hood in Oregon Saint Helens Adams Rainier Glacier and Hood in Washington Paci c Border The province consists of a series of mountain ranges along the Paci c Coast The Great Valley of California lies between the Sierra Nevada and the California Coast Ranges 7 Redwoods Point Lobos A o Nuevo Monterey Bay Fort Ross Built by Russia in 1812 End ofuse182136 Physiography Continued Alaska Sold to US in 1866 for 7200000 Paci c Border Range C0astal Trough Province Alaska MountainsAleutian Region Interi0r Province Br00ks Range Arctic Coastal Plain Tongass National Forest Seven Wonders of the United States ASCE 94 1 TransAlaska Pipeline 2 Golden Gate Bridge 3 Hoover Dam 4 Interstate Highway System 5 Kennedy Space Center 6 Panama Canal 7 World Trade Center Fort Ross or Fort Rossz39ys California was build by the Russians in 1812 and was used by the till some time between 1821 and 1836 Statehood 1959 49th State 586400 Sq Miles Alaska Sold to US in 1866 for 7200000 Alaska in area is equal to about one fth the continental United States and it can be divided into four major provinces the Paci c Mountain system 12 3 1 the Paci c Border Ranges 2 The Coastal Trough province 3 the Alaska MountainsiAleutian region 4 Interior Province 5 Brooks Range and 6 Arctic Coastal Plain Paci c Border Range Coastal Trough Province Alaska MountainsAleutian Region Interior Province Brooks Range Arctic Coastal Plain In 1866 the estimated seal population of Alaska was 5000000 In the rst twenty years of its operation the Alaska Company took enough sealskins to repay the entire cost of the Alaska Purchase 7200000 In 1911 when the Fur Seal Treaty between United States Canada Japan and Russia was nally approved there were only 3 percent of the original seal population remaining Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 Clear cutting Tongass National Forest lt 17 Million Acres America s Largest National Forest Temperate Rain Forest Chilkat River Lakeview State Campground Alaska Yellowrumped Warbler Dendroz39ca coronata California Poppy Eschscholzz39a californica CottonGrass Eriophorum gracile Seven Wonders of the United States ASCE 94 American Society of Civil Engineers 1 TransAlaska Pipeline 2 Golden Gate Bridge 3 Hoover Dam 4 Interstate Highway System 5 Kennedy Space Center 6 Panama Canal 7 World Trade Center Trans Alaska Pipeline 7 Prudhoe Bay to Valdez Alaska Stamp image Mt McKinley is a Smithsonian photo by John Eastcott amp Yva Momaatiuk Sitka Rose Rosa rugosa State ower of Alaska In Alaska we have a magni cent opportunity to show more respect for wilderness and wildlife values than did our forebears The wonders of the wilderness still abound there if we spoil them we cannot excuse their defilement with pleas of ignorance 7 Stewart L Udall The Quiet Crisis Yosemite Sierra Nevada Physiographic Province Two Valleys Merced Tuolumne Frederick Law Olmsted John Muir first got to Yosemite in 1868 Yosemite 1864 Ceded to State of California First Scenic Reserve Created by Federal Action Yosemite Reservation 1890 Yosemite Forest Reservation high country Recession 1905 Yosemite National Park 39Yellowstone National Park 1872 National Park Service Act 1916 Yosemite First Scenic Reserve Created by Federal Action Yosemite Reservation 1864 Many proposals have been made for Central Park in New York City They include an airport athletic stadium theater fullrigged ship street railway race track church permanent circus a cathedral and a tomb for Ulysses S Grant Central Park increases the value of land adjacent to the park and increases the taX revenues to the city Large urban parks pay back to their communities far more than their cost Many years earlier George Catlin Emerson and Thoreau had recognized the need to preserve ne natural landscapes However it was the young landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted who took the first steps in federal land preservation Olmsted and others persuaded Congress to pass a bill to preserve Yosemite for public use resort and recreation The Yosemite was ceded to California and administered along lines recommended by Frederick Law Olmsted making the first scenic reserve created by federal action 1864 Abraham Lincoln signed the legislation establishing the Yosemite Grant for the preservation both of the Yosemite Valley and the Big Tree Grove Surrounded by the horrors of the Civil War the President s action can be regarded as a recognition that no matter how difficult our straits as a society we can turn to our native landscape for peace for beauty and for hope 7 Tim Palmer Yosemite The Promise of Wilderness Yosemite California State Park contained tensquaremile strip of Yosemite valley and a square mile of big trees the Mariposa Grove Many visitors think only of Yosemite Valley when they think of the park but the Valley occupies only a small fraction of the 1200 square miles of mountain wilderness encompassed within the borders of the park Much of this land and maybe even more lands are needed to keep Yosemite Valley in a healthy condition Frederick Law Olmsted chaired the Yosemite Commission which was charged by the State of California to manage the Yosemite Grant Olmsted wrote The rst first thought to be kept in mind is the preservation and maintenance as exactly as is possible of the natural scenery Olmsted wamed against any construction or development that would unnecessarily obscure distort or detract from the dignity of the scenery Unfortunately state administrators suppressed his plan and it was lost until rediscovered in 1952 Bridalveil Falls has far the richest as well as the most powerful voice of all the wind in the glossy leaves of the liveoaks and the soft sifting hushing tones of the pines to the loudest rush and roar of storm winds and thunder among the crags of the summit peaks 7 John Muir Muir saw that men were eyewitnesses to creation if only they opened their senses to it 1868 Muir first went to Yosemite And from the eastern boundary of the vast golden ower bed rose the mighty Sierra miles in height and so gloriously colored and so radiant it seemed not clothed with light but wholly composed of it like the wall of some celestial city 7 John Muir Friends urged John Muir to write about his beloved Yosemite In 1889 after a decade away from Yosemite Muir brought Robert Underwood Johnson The Century magazine editor with him to the Yosemite They found overgrazing by sheep that had denuded the high country as well as the beautiful valley Johnson began a campaign to protect the Yosemite He got Muir to write two articles for The Century The Treasures of the Yosemite and Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park Thomas Moran illustrated the articles Johnson then personally went to Congress to support the Park On October 1 1890 the high country of Yosemite became a ForestReservation Interior Secretary Noble adopted the words NationalParks in naming Yosemite Sequoia and General Grant The three were all protected in 1890 The Park Service staged a f1refall in 1962 for the amusement of tourists It was an interesting historic recreation but no embellishment is necessary for the natural beauty of Yosemite 7 Sun created Firefall Galen Rowell Last Light on Horsetail Fall El Capitan 1973 One or two days in autumn Acorn Woodpecker M elanerpes formicivorus Olmsted Point Yosemite National Park 7 Yellowbellied Marmot M armota flaviventris The Malmot is a social animal living in colonies near tree line Burrow entrances are located beneath rocks so this species is also known as a Rockchuck Tuolumne Grove of Giant Sequoias Walk in the sequoia woods at any time of year and you will say they are the most beautiful and majestic on earth Beautiful and impressive contrasts meet you everywhere the colors of tree and ower rock and sky light and shade strength and frailty endurance and evanescence 7 John Muir 1911 Sequoia Fog 7 Like the Redwoods on the Paci c Border the Sequoia of the Sierra Nevada need moisture in the air for growth In 1903 John Muir spend three days camping with President Roosevelt in Yosemite Passing through Wawona Tree in Mariposa Grove Theodore Roosevelt amp John Muir 1903 1905 Muir campaigns for return of Yosemite Valley to Federal control Yosemite Valley was returned to federal control in 1906 1906 7 San Francisco earthquake and re 1907 7 Campaign starts to save Hetch Hetchy 1909 7 Muir meets President Taft in the Sierra 1913 7 Hetch Hetchy granted to San Francisco 1914 7 Muir dies on Christmas Eve Yellowstone Middle Rockies Section Rocky Mountain Physiographic Province 1832 George Catlin 1858 Henry D Thoreau 1864 Yosemite Abraham Lincoln 1869 John Wesley Powel John Colter Jim Bridger Sept 1869 David E Folsom Charles W Cook amp William Peterson August of 1870 Firehole amp Gibbon Rivers Henry Washbum 2nd Lt Doane Judge Cornelius Hodges 7 Walter Trumbull Journalist Nathaniel Pitt Langford Sept 29 1870 7 Truman C Everts 1871 Ferdinand V Hayden William H Jackson Thomas Moran March 1 1872 US Grant reserved and withdrawn from settlement and dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuringground for the bene t and enjoyment of the people 1832 George Catlin What a beautiful and thrilling specimen for America to preserve and hold up to the view of her re ned citizens and the world in future ages A nation s Park containing man and beast in all the wild and freshness of their nature s beauty 1858 HD Thoreau Made a plea for National Preserves in which the bear and the panther and some even of the hunter race may still exist and not be civilized off the face of the earth not for idle sport or food but for inspiration and our own true recreation Yellowstone National Park is both our rst and largest National Park covering 3472 Square miles The geyser basins occupy less than a tenth of the area Yellowstone National Park has an area of 3472 square miles 2 million acres of some of the world s most spectacular thermal wonders of geysers hot springs pools and many other natural landscapes The week after Maj John Wesley Powell emerged from his 1869 trip down the Colorado river three men David E Folsom Charles W Cook and William Peterson all from Diamond City Montana traveled to the Yellowstone area Little was reported about their discoveries but what was said was of interest A year 1870 latter Henry D Washbum surveyor general of Montana headed an expedition into the Yellowstone area A small detachment of the US cavalry acted as an escort to the party In the expedition was Judge Cornelius Hedges and Nathaniel Pitt Langford who later became the rst superintendent of Yellowstone At a camp re near the con uence of the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers in August of 1870 the group came to the conviction that the Yellowstone should become a national park Nathaniel Pitt Langford s September 20 1870 journal entry opened with the following Last night and also this morning in camp the entire party had a rather unusual discussion The proposition was made by some member that we utilize the result of our exploration by taking up quarter sections of land at the most prominent points of interest that is those places that would eventually become a source of great pro t to the owners Afterwards Cornelius Hedges declared that he did not approve of any of these plansithat there ought to be no private ownership of any portion of that region but that the whole of it ought to be set aside as a great National Park and that each one of us ought to make an effort to have this accomplished The journal continues that the proposal then met with an instantaneous and favorable response from alliexcept onei of the members of our party and each hour since the matter was rst broached our enthusiasm has increased The summer of 1871 brought a much larger party to the Yellowstone This one was led by Ferdinand V Hayden He was the surveyor general of the Montana Territory Hayden knew the importance of documentation so he brought with his party William Henry Jackson the photographer and Thomas Moran the painter Yellowstone National Park Act reserved and withdrawn from settlement and dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuringground for the bene t and enjoyment of the people Signed by President Ulysses S Grant on March 1 1872 In 1872 when Yellowstone became the rst National Park Wyoming was not yet a State Wyoming became a State in 1890 The Yellowstone could not be a State Park because there was no State Photo WH Jackson Early Yellowstone Park Ranger Harry Yount game hunter for the Survey and the first ranger of the Yellowstone National Park Bear Jams In the late 40s and early 50s black bears were very common alongside Yellowstone roads Old Faithful Inn the world s largest log hostelry is built of fir and lodgepole pine It has a 90foot high internal space that has awed guests since it was built in 1904 Parking at Old Faithful Inn A pleasuringground problem Old Faithful Inn Interior The Inn was built in 1904 from fir and lodgepole pine logs designed by architect Robert Reamer for the Yellowstone Park Association a subsidiary of the Northern Paci c Railroad at a cost of 140000 with an additional 25000 for furnishings The building materials came from Yellowstone National Park itself Pacific salmon spend most of their lives in the ocean returning to freshwater to spawn The are common and widespread in Canada and northern United States They range south in mountain areas The precise number of species in this group are unknown because their appearance varies with the environment Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos horribilis Despite the fact that Yellowstone National Park has an area of 3472 square miles 2 million acres more land is needed for Grizzly Bear habitat Wapiti Elk Cervus elaphus Seasonal elk range and migration routes in and out of Yellowstone National Park Wapiti is an Indian word for white a reference to the light color on the rump Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator 7 Killdeer Charadrius vociferus 7 Moose Alces alces the largest members of the deer family Bison Buffalo Bison bison Buffalo once grazed the continent from the Rocky Mountains of the West as far east as Georgia They were hunted nearly to extinction Yellowstone has over 200 active geysers ithe greatest concentration in the worldiand around 3000 hot springs Petrified Trees Specimen Ridge Yellowstone Yellowstone Fires 1988 Clear Cutting Forest Outside the boundary of Yellowstone National Park Stephen Tyng Mather 1867 1930First Director of the National Park Service former journalist then industrialist Twenty Mule Team Borax and Sierra Club member who wrote Secretary Interior Franklin Lane about problems in Yosemite National Park in 1914 The following is from Reader s Digest Scenic Wonders of America A New Yorker the well traveled wilderness loving F rederickLaw Olmsted the landscape architect who designed Central Park and many other city parks provided the impetus for the first step toward a national park system After a pleasure trip to Yosemite Valley more than a century ago he and a group of associates persuaded Congress to pass a bill which PresidentLincoln signed in 1864 preserving Yosemite Valley for public use resort and recreation Map to Grand Teton National Park The designation and development of Grand Teton National Park is very different from that of Yellowstone All parks have their own story and all are different Grand Teton Mountains Jackson Hole Middle Rockies Section Rocky Mountain Physiographic Province 39Mountain Men John Colter Jim Bridger Jedediah Smith David Jackson 391822 John Jacob Astor s American Fur Co newspaper advertisement wishes to engage 100 young men to ascend the Missouri The great beaver bonanza 600 per pelt 1000 per yr but cost of supplies at summer rendezvous 39Grand Teton National Park 1924 Horace Albright took John D Rockefeller to Jackson Hole and adjacent Grand Teton l927 Snake River Land Co 1929 Teton Mountains National Park 1943 Grand Teton National Monument Harold Ickes amp Franklin Delano Roosevelt vetoed a bill to prevent a Grand Teton National Monument 1950 The New Grand Teton National Monument See httpwwwgrandtetonnationalparkcominfohtmhist for a good history of the establishment of Grand Teton National Park Mountain Men Jim Bridger 1822 John Jacob Astor s American Fur Co newspaper advertisement quotWishes to engage 100 young men to ascend the Missouriquot The great beaver bonanza 600 per pelt 1000 per yr but cost of supplies at summer rendezvous Travelers who know the Sierra Nevada in California are struck by the similarity between its abrupt eastern dropoff and the form of Grand Teton Actually the two mountain systems were formed in the same manner Both mountain blocks were tilted sharply upward with steep eastern escarpments Grand Teton National Park evolved over time and a lot of con ict between locals opposed to the Park and the National interest to establish protection of the landscape The rst Grand Teton National Park was established by Congress in 1929 This park included only the Teton Range and eight glacial lakes at the base of the mountains The economics of the time helped establish this rst park Jackson Hole National Monument was established in 1943 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt included Teton National Forest acreage other federal Properties including Jackson Lake and 35000 acres donated by John D Rockefeller Jr although these lands remained private until December 16 1949 because of controversy In 1950 the New Grand Teton National Park brought together the original 1929 Park and the 1943 National Monument with the Rockefeller donation The John D Rockefeller Jr Parkway was established in 1972 connecting Grand Teton National Park with Yellowstone Two main features lie within the park boundaries the eastern half of the Teton Range and the at valley of Jackson Hole quotvalleyquot in fur trader slang The western boundary meanders along the crest of a range that slopes to the west The steep east face of the Grand Tetons rise 6000 feet above the valley oor The hole at Jackson Hole Grand Teton WY Time Line of History for Grand Teton 1872 Yellowstone National Park 1897 Colonel SBM Young acting Superintendent of Yellowstone proposed expanding Yellowstone s boundaries southward for the protection of migrating elk herds 1898 Charles D Walcott head of the US Geological Survey made a proposal protect the Teton Range and the northern Jackson Hole 1915 Stephen Tyng Mathers accepted the position of directing head of the nation parks from Secretary of Interior Franklin K Lane Mathers wrote an irate letter about Sequoia and Yosemite and problems with cattle grazing inside the parks 1916 National Park Service Act 1917 Mathers and Horace Albright sent a report of Secretary of the Interior Franklin Lane on the need to expand Yellowstone National Park to the Tetons Jackson Lake and the headwaters of the Snake River 1918 Congressman Frank Mondell introduced a Teton acquisition to Yellowstone Bill 1919 The revised 1918 Bill was unanimously approved by the House but died in the Senate when Idaho Senator John Nugent with fears of losing sheep grazing permits opposed the Bill Also opposing the Bill was the regional US Forest Service personnel Jackson Bole businessmen dude ranchers and some ranchers 1919 Proposals emerged to dam outlets of Jenny Lake Emma Matilda and Two Ocean Lakes 1923 Meeting at Maud Noble s home Park Service and concerned citizens 1924 Horace Albright took John D Rockefeller to Jackson Hole and adjacent Grand Teton 1926 Second visit by Rockefeller to the Jackson area 1927 Snake River Land Co established by Rockefeller Campaign to buy 35000 acres for approximately 14 Million 1929 The first Grand Teton National Park Teton Range and eight glacial lakes Senator John Kendrick of Wyoming introduced the Bill Bill was passed and signed by President Calvin Coolidge 1933 Senate Subcommittee convened to investigate the Snake River Land Company 1934 Wyoming Senator Robert Carey introduced a bill to expand park boundaries One compromise dealt with reimbursement to Teton County for lost taxes 1935 A new Bill and the 1934 Bill failed 1937 1938 Park Service prepares a document outlining the history of park extension and the importance of the park on tourism 1942 Letter from John D Rockefeller Jr to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt with concerns about the 35000 acres of land 1943 Franklin Delano Roosevelt creates Jackson Hole National Monument Teton National Forest Jackson Lake and 35000 acres donated by John D Rockefeller Jr 500 cattle across newly created monument land Gutting the Jackson Lake Ranger Station by the Forest Service Wyoming Congressman Frank Baqrrett introduced a bill to abolish the Jackson Hole National Monument It passed both House and Senate President Roosevelt exercised a pocket veto killing the bill 1950 The New Grand Teton National Park The Bill was signed by President Harry S Truman 1972 John D Rockefeller Jr Parkway established Pronghorn Antilocapra americana Sagebrush Artemisz39a tridentata TeddyBear Cholla Opuntz39a bigeloviz39 Crimson Columbine Aquilegiaformosa Grand Canyon Colorado Plateau John Wesley Powell 18341902 Colorado and Green River 1869 John Wesley Powel A Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States with a more Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah 1878 Homestead Act 1862 160 Acres A Lincoln Land west of the 98th Meridian Arid 80 Acres with Water 2560 Acres needed to support a family through stockraising 160 Acres too Much or too Little 1 Section 640 Acres 1896 John Muir amp Gifford Pinchot National Forestry Commission 1908 Theodore Roosevelt Grand Canyon National Monument Antiquities Act of 1906 The Grand Canyon is a World Heritage Site It exposes some of the oldest rock formations in the world with dating going back 17 billion years The Canyon is one mile deep and 277 miles long covering 1904 square miles 1908 Theodore Roosevelt Grand Canyon National Monument Antiquities Act of 190 Under the Antiquities Act of 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt established National Monuments as historic relics or natural wonders totaling 14 million acres of public land including Arizona s Grand Canyon and Petri ed Forest and Alaska s Mount McKinley The joining of the Central Paci c and the Union Paci c Railroads Photograph A J Russell May 10 1869 Promontory Point Utah WH Jackson Two Months Later John Wesley Powell 1834 1902 lost his arm at Shiloh A widely held myth was Rain would follow the plow Powell understood the falsity of this myth John Wesley Powell A Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States with a more Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah 1878 Homestead Act 1862 160 Acres A Lincoln Land west of the 98th Meridian Arid 80 Acres with Water 2560 Acres needed to support a family through stockraising 4 Sections 160 Acres too Much or too Little 1 Section 640 Acres Thomas Moran and his daughters at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon circa 1910 From 1899 to 1920 Moran spent nearly every winter at the Grand Canyon I Thomas Moran logo 1837 1926 Thomas Moran The Grand Canyon of the Colorado Thomas Moran 1892 for the Santa Fe Railroad Rapids on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon Mather Point South Rim Grand Canyon National Park Bright Angel Trail on the Tonto Plateau from the South Rim Grand Canyon Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter 1869 1958 Interior Designer Architect The fact that all of Colterls Grand Canyon buildings still stand and serve historic functions is testament to the high esteem others have held for her work Hermits Rest 1914 Bright Angel Lodge 1935 El Tovar interior 1905 Hopi House 1905 Victor Hall 1936 Colter Hall 1933 Colter shows off a set of necklaces at the preview party for the Laboratory of Anthropology Santa Fe NM exhibition of her jewelry Hopi House Grand Canyon National Park by Mary Colter She did not copy history but fashioned her environments from their essence Lookout Studio South Rim Grand Canyon Mimbres Pottery motifs inspired Mary Colterls Super Chief china design South Rim Winter Grand Canyon National Park Gifford Pinchot and John Muir were fast friends in 1896 while they were working together with the National Forestry Commission The Commission went to Arizona s Grand Canyon for a meeting and the two friends left the group to sleep outside near the rim of the canyon Pinchot wrote about that night in freezing weather We made our beds of cedar boughs in a thick stand that kept the wind away and there he talked till midnight It was such an evening as I have never had before or since This was almost the last time the two were friends President Theodore Roosevelt Devils Tower Wyoming Great Plains Physiographic Province became our first National Monument by a declaration of President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 The President used the Antiquities Act for this declaration In 1908 a canny speculator who later became a Senator recognized the tourism potential of the Grand Canyon and sought to control access to the Canyon s spectacular views by acquiring a series of mining claims on the public domain lands of the Canyon Although this would have been legal it was an alarming proposal to President Theodore Roosevelt who wanted to make the Canyon a National Park for all the people However there was not enough time to have the inspiring overlooks designated as a National Park so the President used a creative technique in applying the Antiquities Act of 1906 Congress passed this Act that gave the President the power to create National Monuments for the preservation of historic landmarks and other objects of historic or scientific interest Twelve years after Roosevelt s death the United States supreme Court upheld the President s declaration of Grand Canyon National Monument California Condor Gymnogyps califomianus John Wesley Powellls F Battery Shiloh National Military Park Site of the Battle of Shiloh April 1862 where Powell lost his arm Tennessee Coastal PlainEarly Military Field Hospital Classification of lands into three types 1 Irrigatable 2 Forested 3 Pasture Music Antonin Dvorak 18411904 Czech Symphony No 9 in E Minor Op 95 From the New World Largo Second Movement Goin Home Ferde Grofe 18921972 Grand Canyon Suite 1931 Paul Winters Canyon River Run In 1891 Mrs Jeanette M Thurber invited Dvorak to become the director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York City at a salary of 15000 a year with four months off He was not interested at first but changed his mind because of the bene ts He arrived in New York in 1892 Bring worldwide renown to the institution Create an American national school of composition Dvorak s attention was drawn to the music of African Americans by Harry T Burleigh a talented black student at the National Conservatory who sang for him He was also interested in the Native American music and the music of American birds Spillvill Iowa a Czech settlement Central Lowlands Physiographic Province Iroquois Kickapoo Indians From the New World first performed in Carnegie Hall on December 15 1893 Controversy 7 It was based entirely on African American themes No it was based on Indian themes No it was completely Czech I am satisfied that the future music of this country must be founded upon what are called the Negro melodies These can be the foundation of a serious and original school of composition to be developed in the United States When first I came here I was impressed with this idea and it has developed into a settled conviction These beautiful and varied themes are the product of the soil They are American They are the folksongs of America and your composers must turn to them All the great musicians have borrowed from the songs of the common people 7 Dvorak AnAdagz39o introduction in the first movement gives way to a rhythmic Allegro molto The Largo second movement features the tremendously popular Goin Home theme The Scherzo marked M olto Vivace can be heard as entirely Czech in nature or as some do as an Indian dance with chanting and singing The Finale Allegro confuoco presents not only its own but some themes from the earlier movements as well Ferde Grofe 18921972 Ferde Grofe was born in New York City on March 27 1982 and died on April 3 1972 He was an American composer pianist and arranger For ten years he was a violist in the Los Angeles Symphony and also played the piano and conducted in theaters and cafes In 1920 he became the pianistarranger in the Paul Whiteman band and in 1924 he orchestrated Gershwin s Rhapsody in Blue Grofe is best known for his Grand Canyon Suite 1931 for orchestra Many of his works incorporate nonmusical elements such as the sound of jackhammers and sirens Paul Winters Winters was rst in the Grand Canyon in 1963 In 1980 he came back for two weeks and traveled 279 river miles and returned the next ve years for shorter Visits Canyon River Run Grand Canyon Sunrise Morning Echoes Bright Angel Raven Dance Bedrock Cathedral River Run Elves s Chasm Air Sockdolager Grand Canyon Sunset Canyon Wren 7 Catherpes meXicanus The wonders of the Grand Canyon cannot be adequately represented in symbols of speech nor by speech itself It is the land of music a land of song Mountains of music swell in the rivers hills of music billow in the creeks and meadows of music murmur inthe rills that ripple over the rocks All this is the music of the waters 7 John Wesley Powell 1895 LA 1203 Final l Iquot S P Equot 9 N 9 5 Kindred Spirits 1849 Asher B Durand painted a duology for Thomas Cole the founder of Hudson River School of Painting painting shows Thomas Cole and William Bryant on a ledge above Kaaterskill Cove in the Catkills of New York acquired by a member of the Walton and on the exhibit in Arkansas Crystal Bridges Museum of Art taken out of the new York library Albert Bierstadt The Rocky Mountains 1863 sold for the highest price at the American Sanitation Commission to raise money for the American Sanitary Commission secretary of the group Fredrick Law Olmsted Thomas Cole series of paintings The Course of EMpire a The Course of Empire The Savage State 1834 The New York Historical Society b The Course of Empire The pastoral or Arcadian State 1834 The New York Historical Society c The Consummation of Empire 18351836 The New York Historical Society d Destruction 1836 The New York Historical Society e Desolation 1836 The New York Historical Society William Bartram Franklinia alatamaha picture of the flower first native born artist in the new world his father is John the king s botanist they went to Georgia and found this plant and named it after their friend Benjamin Franklin and put the name of the river which they found the plant as the species among the alatamaha river called the llost plant because it disappeared John Bartram the King s Botanist because he was given the title he is the father of the crown the bartrams were involved with the international trade of the plants gave plants to North America William bartram is the son first native born artist naturalist of the new world started off at age 13 his painting was sent off to England The Hudson River School 1820 found only one painting out of nine that were landscape paintings Afterwards it virtually flipped now far more landscape paintings in galleries Where did Thomas Cole get his art education In Europe so he was influenced by European art and met several American artists in Europe where people got their art education Cole was used as a model for one painting What artist painted a picture that was sold during the American Sanitation auction A Hudson river school painter very large paintings Albert Berdstat The Rocky Mountains brought the highest price at the auction At one point Gifford Pinchot was friends with John Muir when were they friends When they both were trying to protect and establish forest reserves then they became on the opposites sides John Muir preservationist and Pinchot conservationist wise of use What issue were the on opposite sides Hedge Hetchy the second valley of Yosemite the twin valley one of John Muirs favoriate places in Yosemite in 1906 an earth quake and caused a fire in San H O H H H W Franscisco and a lot of property damage San Francisco felt they needed a bigger water supply and they went into Yosemite to the Hedge Hetchy to find water even though the hedgehetchy was protected in 1906 they wanted a dam Gifford Pinchot was the head of the committee trying to get the dam built and John Muir fought and established the sierra club to try to protect the Yosemite and specifically to not build the dam John Muir lost Who did John James Audubon coarthur with in the quadrapods fourfooted animnals in North America Reverend Charleston Bachman Audubon and Bachman coarthorred Bachmans warbler named after him the painting of the warberl by Audubon was what plant The lost tree franklin alatamaha was lost and came back in large numbers and now has dropped out of sight again it was bachmna s second wife who helped paint the background of the painting of the bachman s warbler Aldo Leopold responsible for establishing what era What important landscape What was the designation What kind of area why was it important Aldo Leopold a forrester US forrest service department of agr got the secretary of agr to set aside an area of Mexico Gila National Forest set aside the Gila put his signature on designation of the Gila primitive area New Mexico central west edge of New Mexico why did we need to have a wilderness built past How long did it take to lobby to get wilderness 20 years How long did it take Yellowstone 2 years why go through 20 years if the sec of agr Could create a primitive area Then some future of secretary of agr could just declare that it s something else It became important to Legislation passed What was the first wilderness area The Gila primitive area was grandfathered in as the first What person is associated with the Natural Bridge of Virginia Thomas Jefferson he bought the land George Washington was also associated because he surveyed it Jefferson put a cabin and used it as our presidents use today camp david as a retreat area natural bridge a gateway to the west Also a gateway to the west and harper s ferry and st Louis All things are connected like the blood that connects us whatever we do to the web we do to ourselves quote from chief seattlenegotiation between the fed gov t and the Indian tribe in the north west the chief seattle spoke those words How can you buy the sky How you can the rain and the wind Quote from Chief Seattle We love this earth as a new born loves its mothers heartbeat if we sell you the land care for it as if a mother cares for it quote from chief seattle What is the section number 1 square mile a township is 6 miles by 6 miles or 36 square miles each square mile is numbered of the property owned by the school board under the township and Range Survey System And it belongs to whom 16 and it goes to the school board for public education Thomas Jefferson was big on edu so every township has one square mile for public education Some school boards still own section 16 Four more sections the inside corner within the township the next ring inside within all four corners section 8 11 26 and 29 They didn t know what the use was needed for those sections but they knew there was a need for land by gov t for the people 5 sections out of 36 were reserved for public ownership the rest is being put into private ownership Louisiana s survey system The French assess to the waterway Mississippi river thin sliver of land but access to circulation 5 N O N N N N W N 4 N U39I NNN cages N RD 0 O W W N W 0 040 Mb 0 0 WWW wpoxi 4 O In either survey system it was measurements that determined where the lines were parish or county lines did NOT fall on that system What department of gov t do you find the US forest service in the fourth service department of agriculture forestry is throught of as a crop a renewable resource the department of the national parks and us fish and wildlife services are in the interior department of gov t in interior because when Yellowstone was created it wasn t a state so it naturally went into interior Thomas Jefferson besides that survey system and many other things he bought what piece of land The Louisiana Purchase for 15 million dollars the same amt of money that it costs the people that run monochello the piece of property What did Thomas Jefferson have put on his tombstone What was he proud of NOT the fact that he was president but the fact that he was the author of the Declaration of Independence the statue of Virginia for religious freedom father of the University of Virginia Who was the author for the first international best seller of the new world published in 4 languages What was its name who was its author Travels noth and South Carolina east and west florida William bartram white cliffs known as bornw cliffs of port Hudson the governor of West Florida came to Port Hudson for part of his travels What of the following greenlands was under the control of the park service National Battle Fields Grass plants national forest farm forest service National wildlife services department of interior department of park serivce monuments national parks seashores historic monuments Washington dc public lands park system what national park serice true Louis and clarks expeditions was looking for a water route was the expediation valueable even though they didn t find it Yes Who climbed the 100 foot douglas furr just to find out what a stormw as all about John Muir scrambled under a waterfall to find out what it felt like for water to fall in the middle of winter from the eastern boundary for the rised the Sierras like the walls of sun celestial city Quote by John Muir Harvard Henry David Thoreau built a cabin what was the size of the cabin 10 feet by 15 feet n wilderness is the preservation of the world Quote by Henry David Thoreau Who was born in Dunbar Scotland Statue of this person is there as a young boy John Muir he had a strict father hwo forced him to memorize the bible and the new testament 3 quarters of the old testament recited by memory What university did john muir go to University of Wisconsin the family cmae to portidge Wisconsin not far away from Barathouh a parathanon a house and a chicken coop owned by Aldo Leopold Who founded the mountain of the holy cross William Jackson First of photogprahy man selectus what museum Museum of Modern Art in New York City Zone system of photogprahy white white to black black who was given credit Han Seledons Hansel Adams Achfayla the sediment deposition soils in the water Wildnerness act of 1964 had a compromised division compromise could not get wildnerness from the buereay of land mgt Idea of national parks Geouger catlin What did catlin write Letters and notes on the manners and commissions of the north American Indians Bob marshall was a forrester a socialist Aldo Leopold was the ethics and inspiration of the environments Recreation value of wilderness Yes wHat the the value of a yardstick of bein able to keep the area a benchmark Henry david throeau representsagainst the boarder of society TRUE LA 1203 FINAL EXAM Thomas Cole started Hudson River School of Painting 1825 o 1820 1 in 10 paintings was of landscape in gallery at Hudson River School of Painting 0 1880 7 9 out of 10 paintings were oflandscape Hudson River School of Painting 7 series of 5 pictures 7 Course of Empire nature to culmination of empire back to nature 7 there names were 0 1 The savage stage raw nature 0 2 The Arcadian and pastoral state 0 3 Consummation of empire 0 4 distraction o 5 destruction desolation Asher B Durand 7 painted Kindered Spirits involved Thomas Cole and William Cullen Bryant HRSOP 7 The Rocky Mountains sold at auction for Albert Bierstadt 7 for sanitation committee FLO secretary for sanitation committee Chief Seattle How can you buy the Sky Land belongs to all people Associated with the natural bridge George Washington Thomas Jefferson Camp David What s on Jefferson s Tomb Author of the Declaration of American Independence Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom And Father of the University of Virginia didn t mention being president Jefferson promoted surveying a plan for a 36 sections Township 1 section 1 square mile 640 acres 0 In the middle 16 school board 8 11 26 29 future government needs 0 Ordinance for expansion to create 14 new states 1784 Louisiana Purchase 7 Jefferson 7 15 million dollars from France 1803 Louisiana survey system is the French long lots system 7 sliver of land with access to water First native born artist naturalist wrote Travels first international best seller William Bartram Bartram found a plant 7 Franklinia alatamaha the lost planttree Henry David Thoreau 7 transcendentalist 7 rebel against the established orders of society 0 Author of Walden 7 Life in the Woods 0 Built a cabin 10 X 15 28035 kept ajoumal o Wilderness is preservation of the world wilderness protection 0 2 best gifts America gave the world I 1 idea of nature protection I 2 all people are created equal Henry David Thoreau 7 went to Harvard George Gatling 7 artist ethnologist 7 traveled up the Mississippi River 0 painted Indians 7 created an Indian gallery saw the loss of native people as a problem 0 Tried to protect buffalo and Indians try to set up a national park for them wrote letters customs 0 Couldn t sell his Indian gallery to the United States 7 reminded the people how we treated Indian 0 Took his gallery to Europe 7 success at first 7 ended up broke John Muir born in Scotland Dunbar wanted preservation went to school in University of Wisconsin 0 1864 Yosemite 7 First Scenic Reserve created by Federal Action 1892 sierra club established 0 Friends with Gifford Pinchot forester 7 camped in Grand Canyon I became enemies their issue of differences was Hetch Hetchy Dam Sullivan Dam in the national park Muir lost battle I Rakera Act 7 signed by Woodrow Wilson in 1913 William Henry Jackson photographed the Mount of the Holly Cross Ansell Adams 7 zone system of photography f64 white to black see all the grays in between 0 Helped establish the first school of photography 0 First museum to highlight photography 0 Member of sierra club 0 MUSIC 0 Atonin Dvorak 7 going home symphony 9 o Ferde Grofe 7 grand canyon suite 0 Paul Winters 7 canyon river run 0 Properties Managed by Park Service 7 dept of interior 0 National Parks Monuments Recreation areas Battle elds capital parks cemeteries 0 Forest service in dept of agriculture 0 National Forests and National Grasslands multi use ideals 0 Fish and Wildlife Services 7 dept of interior 0 National Wildlife Refuges How many years until Yellowstone National Park was set aside as a National Park 7 2 years How many years of lobbying for National Wilderness Program 7 20 years 0 All the lands were designated under the original national wilderness act I National parks I Refuges I Forests Lands could not come of the Bureau of Land Management Now we can get lands from BOLM Wild by Law video 1 Aldo Leopold forester academic ethical person of idea of protection of wilderness got Hela national forest started in Mexico got secretary of Agriculture to set it aside 2 Bob Marshall socialist counter 7 went to Alaska Bob Marshall wilderness area all forests should be owned by all people 7 radical belief 3 Howard Zeinizer 7 lobbyist 7 big coat stuffed pockets with bills yers for wilderness Secretary could change its use of national forest Leopold Zeinezer Marshall 7 creator of Wilderness Society 0 Benefits Values of Wilderness 0 Protection of Natural Areas and their inherent scenic qualities 0 Area acts as a Benchmark allows for the evaluation of man s development of other areas 0 Maintenance of habitat for endangered species and other forms of life that may be important to man s future 0 Recreation benefits that provide for the experience of solitude It may be that this experience for man will be of the highest importance since many feel that this encourages man s thinking and creativity 0 Scientific Research 0 Atchafalaya 7 part of coastal plain o landscape rising 7 sediment building up brown water QUOTES FOR FINAL 0 Know all authors and what they wrote 0 Who authors were what they were noted for o Muir of America authors read each paragraph before each literature written by Harmon 0 Deals with natural parks Match author to what they wrote And from the glorious colored and so radiant like the walls of some Celestial city 7 John Muir o Climbed a 100 foot fern to see the storm be in the wind According to Jackson who in his capacity geographical surveyor of state altitude is Ktaddan is 5300 feet it is then evidently the highest point in the state of Maine Henry David Thoreau Aesthetics one may lack words to lack impart of beauty parks reserved for American citizen Bernard Devoto Taylor wrote A Second World Mammoth Cave Who went hotfooted in a night time adventure Mark Twain Mount Masouvias Italy child s play compared to Kilowaya Another name for Mark Twain 7 Samuel Clemens James Brice 7 wrote Should Cars be allowed in Yosemite member in Parlament impressed with National Parks 1912 Marks of Human Passage 7 written by Stagner Charles Dickens wrote 7 Factories of Lowell interested in working conditions 0 He wants you to pare Lowell with other places compare towns with misery Lowell Valley of Humiliation great relief gothic gallery Mammoth Cave tf from historic views of his writings gave Taylor credit for ful ll expectations for l9century readers 7 True tf Eco Park starts conservation movement False Missouri 7 Bernard Devoto Across Missouri Devoto got Pulitzer prize in 1947 Nature was written by Ralph Waldo Emerson Thoreau was in the crowd Dinosaur National Monument associated with ALL OF THE ABOVE In Muir of America Harmon stopped where he did because Eco Park Devoto is involved with Eco Park in the 1950 s 40 years after Hetch Hetchy Know story of Eco Park big battle Devoto and Stagner involved trying to build another Dam in Eco Canyon but this time the environment won Difference between Hetch Hetchy and Eco finally environmental community became apolitical entity power David Brower 7 series of books known as Battle Books 0 This is Dinosaur Eco Park Country and its Magic River Earl Douglass 7 went to Dinosaur to look for bones had problems with souvenirs hunters tried to get permits to protect him tried to set aside as a national park 0 Bureau of Recreation wants to put a Dam there Wallace Stagner and Devoto were friends Devoto occupied to the easy chair in Ha1pers Magazine got Stagner to join into the battle Powell was in Grand Canyon and Eco Park Stagner wrote a biography of Powell and Devoto LA 1203 Lecture Final 1 Who was the first nativeborn American artistnaturalist from the New World I William Bartram 2 Who was William Bartram39s father I John Bartram 3 What wasJohn Bartram I The King39s Botanist for George III 4 What flower is this and who painted a picture of it I John and William Bartram discovered the Franklinia Franklinia alatamaha William Bartram painted the image of the Franklinia 5 Where wasthe Franklinia discovered I It was discovered along the Altamaha River in Georgia 6 What flower is known as the quotLost Treequot and why I The Franklinia because it was not found in the wild after the Bartrams collected it and brought it back to their garden 7 Who was the Fanklinia named after I Ben Franklin 8 quotKindred Spiritsquot was a eulogy for whom I Thomas Cole 9 What are the Values of Wilderness I Protection of Natural Areas I Maintenance of habitat I Recreation I Scientific research 10 TRUE OR FALSE Henry David Thoreau representstranscendentalism individual as rebel against the established orders of sociew I TRUE 11 What two public land survey systems are used in Louisiana I Township amp range and French arpents I MNOT Parish BoundariesM 12 How many years of lobbying were spent for the National Wilderness Act I 20 years Big Compromise 2 years for Yellowstone 13 what is the name of this painting The painting above Kindred Spiritsquot 14 Who painted this picture o Asher B Durand 15 Who are the two men in this painting vvi 39 I uullen 16 Who founded the Hudson River School of Painting Thomas Co e 17 What was the interest of the Hudson River School of Paintings A A A American scenery The artist ofthe Hudson River School played an important role in helping Americans see and appreciate nature and wilderness 18 Where was Thomas Cole educated o He waseducated in Europe born in Lancashire England 19 What was the title of the series of 5 paintings created by Thomas Cole o The Course of Empirequot 20 What 5 paintings comprised The Course of Empirequot The Savage State 0 The Pastoral or Arcadian State o The Consummation of Empire 0 Destruction 0 Desolation 21 ln17nvquot I YYquot o FALSE in 1820 lpainting in 10 was a landscape painting in 1850 9 paintings out of 10 were landscape paintings N N N 1 N U When did the Hudson River Schooi of Painting begin and end 0 It began in 1825 and ended in 1870780 0 It was the first American Schooi of Painting What year wasthe Erie Canai constructed 0 1825 Whatartist from the Hudson River Schooi of Painting painted forthe American Sanitary Commission auction 0 Aibert Bierstadt What was the name ofAibert Bierstadt s painting exhibited at the New York Metropoiitan Fair as a fundraiser for the American Sanitary Com mission 0 The Rocky Mountains the painting beiow waft s Who was the secretary of the Sanitary Commission 0 Frederick Law Oimsted Where wasJohn Muir born Dumbar Scotiand quotAndfrom the eastern boundary ofthe vast golden flower bed rose the might Sierra miles in height and so gloriously colored and so radiant itseemed not clothed with light but wholly composed ofit like the wall ofsome celestial city 0 John Muir ML v rm 5 fir Wm H H 0 John Muir What university did John Muir attend 0 University of Wisconsin What was written on Thomas Jefferson s tomb stone 0 Here was buried ThomasJefferson 0 Author ofthe Deciaration ofAmerican Independence 0 Author of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom 0 Father of the University of Virginia What was not mention on Thomas Jefferson s tomb stone 0 His role as President What country was the Louisiana Purchase from 0 France 1803 How much was the Louisiana Purchase 0 15 million Who purchased the Virginia s Natural Bridge 0 Thomas Jefferson bought Natural Bridge After becoming President of the United States Jefferson built a twoOroom cabin on the grounds He used it as his Camp David What was the land division by Township and Section The Grid Survey System under Jefferson 0 Township is 6 square miles 0 Township contains 36 sections What was the purpose of Section 16 0 Section 16 was in the center and was for the school board and education What other sections had special use 0 Sections 8 11 26 and 19 the inside corners What were their special uses 0 These four sections were to be held for some future public purpose like future use of government What was Lewis and Clark looking for on their expedition 0 They were searching for a water route across the country Northwest Passage quotHow can you buy the sky How can you own the rain and the wind 0 Chief Seattle quotThis we know All things are connected like the blood that unites us We did not weave the web of life We are merely a strand in it Whatever we do to the web we do to ourselves 0 Chief Seattle quotWe love this earth as a newborn loves its mother s heartbeat If we sell you our land care for it as we have cared for it 0 Chief Seattle Who was Chief Seattle 0 He was Chief of the Suquamish and the Duwamish Indians He was present at the negotiations in the 1850s with Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the territory Who wrote The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America 0 John James Audubon amp Sons and John Bachman What are quadrupeds o Fourlegged mammals From what university did Henry David Thoreau graduate o Thoreau graduated from Harvard College 4 30 U1 0 U1 U39IU39I WN U1 4 U1 U1 U1 0 U1 l U39I 00 U1 RD 0 O 0 0 N How big was the Henry David Thoreau s wooden cabin o 10 X 15 feet quotIn wilderness is the preservation of the world 0 Henry David Thoreau Who was credited for the idea of National Parks 0 George Catlin What is the title of the book George Catlin wrote 0 quotLetters and Notes on the Manners Customs and Conditions of the North American Indians George Catlin created an Indian Gallery Collection John Muir and Gifford Pinchot were on opposing sides of what issue 0 John Muir and the Sierra Club fought for a decade to save Yosemite s Hetch Hecthy Valley but lost the fight Gifford Pinchot was for the damming of the Hetch Hetchy by the O Shaughnessy Dam TRUE OR FALSE John Muir and Gifford Pinchot were both forest preservers o TRUE Who created the idea of Zone System Photography black white and grey photography 0 Ansel Adams Who helped found the first museum collection of photography in 1940 o Ansel Adams Who photographed the Mount of the Holy Cross 0 William Henry Jackson Who founded the Museum of Modern Art in New York City 0 Ansel Adams What department houses the US Forest Service 0 Department of Agriculture Who are the three people listed in llWild by Lawquot 0 Aldo Leopold 0 Bob Marshall 0 Howard Zahniser What did the three men listed in llwild by Lawquot achieve 0 They passed the first wilderness act Facts about Aldo Leopold 0 He is the author of A Sand County Almanac 0 He is from the Sand Hills in Wisconsin 0 He established the Gila Wilderness which was the first primitive wilderness area n the wilderness act It was established in New Mexico as the first primitive area in National forest Who came up with the idea of a Central Park in New York City 0 William Bryant a poet Franklinia Altamaha 0 Found by William and John Bartram on the Altamaha River in Georgia Brought it back to their garden in Philadelphia 0 William painted it o Named after Benjamin Franklin and the Altamaha River 0 Known as quotlost owertree because it was not in the wild when found William Bartram 0 John Bartram s son 0 1st native born artist naturalist from New World 0 Found Franklin and painted it 0 1st international best seller Travels 4 different languages 0 Came to Port Hudson and found petrified cypress Iohn Bartram 0 William Bartram s father 0 Found Franklinia 0 King s Botanist George III Asher B Durand o quotKindred Spirits o Took over Hudson River School of Paintings after Thomas Cole died Kindred Spirits o Painted by Asher B Durand 0 Features Thomas Cole painter and William Bryant poet 0 Eulogy for Thomas Cole Albert Bierstadt o Painted Rocky Mountains picture Rocky Mountains Picture 1863 0 Albert Bierstadt o Auctioned in NY Metropolitan Fair fundraiser for American Sanitary Comm Fredrick Law Olmstead was secretary of for 25000 as highest priced painting 0 Hudson River School of Painting Thomas Cole 0 Painter 0 Course of Empire Series 183436 Describe how nature is a cycle 0 1 Savage State Nature strong dominant o 2 Patriarchal Acadian State Nature strong dominant with sign of humanity o 3 Consummation of Empire strong structural civilization 0 4 Destruction civilization being destroyed o 5 Desolation Ruins of empire inhabited by nature again Founderstarter of Hudson River School of Painting 0 In 1820 110 paintings were landscape paintings in 1850 910 were 0 Interest in realistic depictions of nature and celebrate American scenery See and appreciate nature and wilderness o Began 1825 ended 187080 0 1st school ofAmerican Painting Featured in Kindred Spirits Art school in Europe Born in Lancashire England Traveled up Hudson River and came back with 3 paintings that immediately sold John Muir Forest preserver Fought with Gifford Pinchot about HetchHetchy and lost 0 Were friends when assembling forestry commission but not after this Born Dunbar Scotland Went to University ofWisconsin Climbed 100ft tree to experience wind storm Rakera ActSigned by Woodrow Wilson President of Sierra Club 1892 1864 Yosemite 1st scenic reservefederal action Battle Books This is Dinosaur echo park country and its magic river quotAnd from eastern boundarygolden ower bedSierracelestial city Gifford Pinchot Fought with Muir over HetchHetchy won chairman of committee 0 HetchHetchy controversy San Francisco had earthquake and a lot of fires and there wasn t enough water to put out fire so they wanted a dam to avoid this in the future 0 Dam destroyed 12 Yosemite Idea to cut trees and grow them Forest preserver GWVanderbuilt recommended him to work on Biltmore Iohn Bachman CoAuthor with James John Audubon and sons on The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America 0 Quadruped 4 legged animal Reverend Warbler named after Aldo Leopold One of the creators of the Wilderness Societypassed Wilderness Act 64 o In Wild by Law video Established Heela Primitive Area in Heela National Forest New Mexico 0 1St area ofwilderness act Academic forester establisher of ethics Author ofA Sand Country Almanac From Sand Hills Wisconsin Gila Wilderness Taught at University of Wisconsin Thomas Jefferson Associated with Natural Bridge of Virginia 0 Bought it and made a 2 room cabin for Camp David 0 Also associated with George Washington who surveyed it as General Tombstone Father of UVA author of declaration author of statue of VA for religious freedom nothing about being president Promoted surveying planTownship and Range LA Purchase 1803 15 mill France SurveyingTownship and Range T Iefferson Township 6X6 miles 36 sections 0 1 section1 sq mile 640 acres 8112829 put aside for future use such as government use 16 in the middle for school system LA Survey System uses Township and Range amp French Long Lots system 0 Land with water access 0 DO NOT use parish boundaries Chief Seattle quot How can you buy the sky own the wind and rain quotWe didn t weave web of life quotNewborn loves its motherheartbeat Chief of Suquamish and Duwamish Negotiation of 1850s with Commissioner of Indian Affairs for territory Disbelief that Americans acquired land Land belongs to all Henry David Thoreau Represents transcendentalism o TranscendentalismRebel Against established orders of society Harvard grad 10X15 cabin 28 owned by Emerson quotIn wilderness is preservation of the world Wrote Ktaadn in the Maine Woods 0 quotAccording to IacksonKtaadn is 5300 fthighest point in Maine 0 Wrote Life in the Woods His time in Walden o Said 2 best gifts America gave world 0 1 Idea of Nature Protection 0 2 All people created equal Ansel Adams 0 Established 1st museum of photography 40 o Invented zone photography black white and grey o quotIn mind s eyephotograph 0 1st photo exhibit 0 Museum of Modern Art in NYC 0 Member of Sierra Club Bayard Taylor 0 Wrote A Second World which is about Gothic Gallery 0 Valley of Humiliation Great Relief Gothic Gallery 0 Found in Mammoth Cave Prose about it Mark Twain 0 AKA Samuel Clemens o Wrote The Hawaiian Volcanoes Compared Vesuvius Italy to Kilauea Hawaii and said Vesuvius was quota child s volcano o Barefoot at night Ann Ronald 0 Worlds for the Wild George Caitlin o Wrote quotLetters and Notes on Mannersof Native American Indians 0 Created Indian Gallery Collection 0 Couldn t sell it in American brought it to Europe where it was popular and then not He ended up broke 0 1st to come up with idea for National Park trying to protect buffalo and Indians 0 Painter ethnologist o Traveled up MS River National Wilderness Act 64 0 Bob Marshall Aldo Leopold Howard Zienizer 0 Created definition of wilderness 0 Protected millions ofacres of federal land Heela for ex 0 Designated national parks refuges forests monuments wildlife 0 Couldn t not designate Bureau of Land Management can now 0 20 years oflobbying 2 years for Yellowstone 0 Created because secretary of agriculture had too much power William Henry Jackson 0 Photo of Mount ofHoly Cross Bob Marshall One of the creators of the Wilderness Society Wilderness act Wild by Law Video SocialistcounterZionistauthorforester AlaskaClimbed peaks Believed people should own forest radical belief lloward Zienizer 0 Creator ofWilderness society wilderness act 0 Wild by Law video 0 Lobbyist big coat with pockets full of yers Iames Bryce 0 Should Cars he allowed in Yosemite 0 Member of British Parliament 0 Speeches ofimportance National Parks Wallace Stegner 0 Marks ofHuman Passage about conservation of Echo Park and Powell 0 2M1 to last author in David Harmon s Book Mirror ofAmerica Literary Encounters with the National Parks 0 Friends with De Voto o Fought for Dan ofEcho Park nature won 0 Bio on Powell and De Voto Bernard De Voto 0 West Expansion across the Missouri Pulitzer Prize 47 Footloose in Democracy Harper s MagazinePicked up by Readers DigestWrote about Echo Park quotAestheticsuntouched Last author in David Harmon s Book Mirror ofAmerica Literary Encounters with the National Parks David Brower o This is Dinosaur Echo Park Country and it s Magic Rivers Ralph Waldo Emerson 0 Nature William Bryant 0 Poet o In Kindred Spirits o Came up with idea of Central Park NYC Earl Douglass 0 Found dinosaur bonesfossils in Echo Park coming of age conservation movement sent by Carnagie Made area with fossils national park tried to protect diggings Bureau of Recreation Dino National MonumentEcho Canyon Green and Yampa Rivers Thomas Moran o Painter of Grand Canyon Lewis and Clark 0 In search for water passage across country US Stuff 0 Agriculture Department 0 US Forestry service I National Grasslands I National Forests 0 Interior Department 0 Park Service I Parks Monuments battlefields cemeteries DC green lands 0 Green lands lands kept in natural state 0 Bureau of Land Management 0 US Fish and Wildlife I National Wildlife Refuges Extra Stuff 0 Atchafalaya rising because of sediment deposits 0 Harmon stopped in Echo Park 0 1825Erie Canal Constructed 0 Music 0 Dvarkquotgoing home Symphony 9 o Grofe quotGrand Canyon Suite 0 Winters quotCanyonquot quotRiver Run Values of Wilderness 0 Protection of Natural Area 0 Maintenance of Habitat 0 Recreation 0 Bench Mark 0 Scientific Research Franklinia Altamaha 0 Found by William and John Bartram on the Altamaha River in Georgia Brought it back to their garden in Philadelphia 0 William painted it o Named after Benjamin Franklin and the Altamaha River 0 Known as quotlost owertree because it was not in the wild when found William Bartram 0 John Bartram s son 0 1st native born artist naturalist from New World 0 Found Franklin and painted it 0 1st international best seller Travels 4 different languages 0 Came to Port Hudson and found petrified cypress Iohn Bartram 0 William Bartram s father 0 Found Franklinia 0 King s Botanist George III Asher B Durand o quotKindred Spirits o Took over Hudson River School of Paintings after Thomas Cole died Kindred Spirits o Painted by Asher B Durand 0 Features Thomas Cole painter and William Bryant poet 0 Eulogy for Thomas Cole Albert Bierstadt o Painted Rocky Mountains picture Rocky Mountains Picture 1863 0 Albert Bierstadt o Auctioned in NY Metropolitan Fair fundraiser for American Sanitary Comm Fredrick Law Olmstead was secretary of for 25000 as highest priced painting 0 Hudson River School of Painting Thomas Cole 0 Painter 0 Course of Empire Series 183436 Describe how nature is a cycle 0 1 Savage State Nature strong dominant o 2 Patriarchal Acadian State Nature strong dominant with sign of humanity o 3 Consummation of Empire strong structural civilization 0 4 Destruction civilization being destroyed o 5 Desolation Ruins of empire inhabited by nature again Founderstarter of Hudson River School of Painting 0 In 1820 110 paintings were landscape paintings in 1850 910 were 0 Interest in realistic depictions of nature and celebrate American scenery See and appreciate nature and wilderness o Began 1825 ended 187080 0 1st school ofAmerican Painting Featured in Kindred Spirits Art school in Europe Born in Lancashire England Traveled up Hudson River and came back with 3 paintings that immediately sold John Muir Forest preserver Fought with Gifford Pinchot about HetchHetchy and lost 0 Were friends when assembling forestry commission but not after this Born Dunbar Scotland Went to University ofWisconsin Climbed 100ft tree to experience wind storm Rakera ActSigned by Woodrow Wilson President of Sierra Club 1892 1864 Yosemite 1st scenic reservefederal action Battle Books This is Dinosaur echo park country and its magic river quotAnd from eastern boundarygolden ower bedSierracelestial city Gifford Pinchot Fought with Muir over HetchHetchy won chairman of committee 0 HetchHetchy controversy San Francisco had earthquake and a lot of fires and there wasn t enough water to put out fire so they wanted a dam to avoid this in the future 0 Dam destroyed 12 Yosemite Idea to cut trees and grow them Forest preserver GWVanderbuilt recommended him to work on Biltmore Iohn Bachman CoAuthor with James John Audubon and sons on The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America 0 Quadruped 4 legged animal Reverend Warbler named after Aldo Leopold One of the creators of the Wilderness Societypassed Wilderness Act 64 o In Wild by Law video Established Heela Primitive Area in Heela National Forest New Mexico 0 1St area ofwilderness act Academic forester establisher of ethics Author ofA Sand Country Almanac From Sand Hills Wisconsin Gila Wilderness Taught at University of Wisconsin Thomas Jefferson Associated with Natural Bridge of Virginia 0 Bought it and made a 2 room cabin for Camp David 0 Also associated with George Washington who surveyed it as General Tombstone Father of UVA author of declaration author of statue of VA for religious freedom nothing about being president Promoted surveying planTownship and Range LA Purchase 1803 15 mill France SurveyingTownship and Range T Iefferson Township 6X6 miles 36 sections 0 1 section1 sq mile 640 acres 8112829 put aside for future use such as government use 16 in the middle for school system LA Survey System uses Township and Range amp French Long Lots system 0 Land with water access 0 DO NOT use parish boundaries Chief Seattle quot How can you buy the sky own the wind and rain quotWe didn t weave web of life quotNewborn loves its motherheartbeat Chief of Suquamish and Duwamish Negotiation of 1850s with Commissioner of Indian Affairs for territory Disbelief that Americans acquired land Land belongs to all Henry David Thoreau Represents transcendentalism o TranscendentalismRebel Against established orders of society Harvard grad 10X15 cabin 28 owned by Emerson quotIn wilderness is preservation of the world Wrote Ktaadn in the Maine Woods 0 quotAccording to IacksonKtaadn is 5300 fthighest point in Maine 0 Wrote Life in the Woods His time in Walden o Said 2 best gifts America gave world 0 1 Idea of Nature Protection 0 2 All people created equal Ansel Adams 0 Established 1st museum of photography 40 o Invented zone photography black white and grey o quotIn mind s eyephotograph 0 1st photo exhibit 0 Museum of Modern Art in NYC 0 Member of Sierra Club Bayard Taylor 0 Wrote A Second World which is about Gothic Gallery 0 Valley of Humiliation Great Relief Gothic Gallery 0 Found in Mammoth Cave Prose about it Mark Twain 0 AKA Samuel Clemens o Wrote The Hawaiian Volcanoes Compared Vesuvius Italy to Kilauea Hawaii and said Vesuvius was quota child s volcano o Barefoot at night Ann Ronald 0 Worlds for the Wild George Caitlin o Wrote quotLetters and Notes on Mannersof Native American Indians 0 Created Indian Gallery Collection 0 Couldn t sell it in American brought it to Europe where it was popular and then not He ended up broke 0 1st to come up with idea for National Park trying to protect buffalo and Indians 0 Painter ethnologist o Traveled up MS River National Wilderness Act 64 0 Bob Marshall Aldo Leopold Howard Zienizer 0 Created definition of wilderness 0 Protected millions ofacres of federal land Heela for ex 0 Designated national parks refuges forests monuments wildlife 0 Couldn t not designate Bureau of Land Management can now 0 20 years oflobbying 2 years for Yellowstone 0 Created because secretary of agriculture had too much power William Henry Jackson 0 Photo of Mount ofHoly Cross Bob Marshall One of the creators of the Wilderness Society Wilderness act Wild by Law Video SocialistcounterZionistauthorforester AlaskaClimbed peaks Believed people should own forest radical belief lloward Zienizer 0 Creator ofWilderness society wilderness act 0 Wild by Law video 0 Lobbyist big coat with pockets full of yers Iames Bryce 0 Should Cars he allowed in Yosemite 0 Member of British Parliament 0 Speeches ofimportance National Parks Wallace Stegner 0 Marks ofHuman Passage about conservation of Echo Park and Powell 0 2M1 to last author in David Harmon s Book Mirror ofAmerica Literary Encounters with the National Parks 0 Friends with De Voto o Fought for Dan ofEcho Park nature won 0 Bio on Powell and De Voto Bernard De Voto 0 West Expansion across the Missouri Pulitzer Prize 47 Footloose in Democracy Harper s MagazinePicked up by Readers DigestWrote about Echo Park quotAestheticsuntouched Last author in David Harmon s Book Mirror ofAmerica Literary Encounters with the National Parks David Brower o This is Dinosaur Echo Park Country and it s Magic Rivers Ralph Waldo Emerson 0 Nature William Bryant 0 Poet o In Kindred Spirits o Came up with idea of Central Park NYC Earl Douglass 0 Found dinosaur bonesfossils in Echo Park coming of age conservation movement sent by Carnagie Made area with fossils national park tried to protect diggings Bureau of Recreation Dino National MonumentEcho Canyon Green and Yampa Rivers Thomas Moran o Painter of Grand Canyon Lewis and Clark 0 In search for water passage across country US Stuff 0 Agriculture Department 0 US Forestry service I National Grasslands I National Forests 0 Interior Department 0 Park Service I Parks Monuments battlefields cemeteries DC green lands 0 Green lands lands kept in natural state 0 Bureau of Land Management 0 US Fish and Wildlife I National Wildlife Refuges Extra Stuff 0 Atchafalaya rising because of sediment deposits 0 Harmon stopped in Echo Park 0 1825Erie Canal Constructed 0 Music 0 Dvarkquotgoing home Symphony 9 o Grofe quotGrand Canyon Suite 0 Winters quotCanyonquot quotRiver Run Values of Wilderness 0 Protection of Natural Area 0 Maintenance of Habitat 0 Recreation 0 Bench Mark 0 Scientific Research LA 1203 STUDY GUIDE 1 What is the Franklinia A FLOWER FOUNDED BY JOHN AND WILLIAM BARTRAM ALONG THE ALTAMAHA RIVER IN GEORGIA IT WAS NAMED AFTER BENJAMIN FRANKLIN THEY BROUGHT IT BACK TO THEIR GARDEN IN PHILIDELPHIA 2 What is Kindred Spirits PAINTING BY ASHER B DURAND IN 1849 IT WAS A PAINTING OF THOMAS COLE STANDING NEXT TO WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT 3 What is the Rocky Mountains painting PAINTED BY ALBERT BIERSTADT 1863 IT WAS EXHIBITED AT THE NEW YORK METRO FAIR AS A FUNDRAISER FOR THE AMERICAN SANITARY COMMISSION I WAS SOLD AS THE HIGHEST PRICED PAINTING 4 Who painted quotThe Course of Empire what was it about and name all 5 paintings PAINTED BY THOMAS COLE IT WAS A SERIES DESCRIBING HOW NATURE IS A CYCLE a THE SAVAGE STATE 1834 NATURE IS STRONG AND DOMINANT b THE PASTORAL OR ACADIAN STATE 1834 NATURE STILL STRONG WITH SIGN OF HUMANITY c THE CONSUMMATION OF EMPIRE 183536 STRONG STRUCTURAL CIVILIZATION d DESTRUCTION 1836 CIVILIZATION BEING DESTROYED e DESOLATION 1836 THE RUINS OF THE EMPIRE BECOME INHABITED BY NATURE ONCE MORE 5 Who was head of the Hudson River School of Painting THOMAS COLE NOT AN ACTUAL SCHOOL 6 Who was the first native born artist naturalist from the new world WILLIAM BARTRAM 7 Which Bartram was the king s botanist JOHN BARTRAM 8 True or False In 1820 9 painting out of 10 on gallery walls were landscape paintings FALSE IT WAS NOT UNTIL 1850 9 When was the Hudson River School of Painting opened 1835 10 Who was given credit for starting the Hudson River School THOMAS COLE 11 Who claimed the Hudson River School after Cole s death ASHER DURAND 12 Where did Thomas Cole receive his art training IN EUROPE 13 Who is John Muir AUTHOR ADVOCATE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT TRAVELED THROUGHOUT THE WILDERNESS 14 Who is Giffod Pinchot FORESTER RECOMMENED BY OLMSTEAD TO WORK ON BITMORE ESTATE HE HAD AN IDEA TO PLANT TRESS AS WELL AS CUT THEM DOWN 15 John Muir and Pinchot fought over what event THE HETCH HETCHY RIVER VALLEY DAM IN YOSIMITE 16 Why did they build a dam in the HetchHetchy Valley SAN FRANSICO HAD AN EARTHQUAKE FOLLOWED BY A WIDESPREAD FIRE THEY DIDN T HAVE ENOUGH WATER TO PUT OUT THE FIRES 17 Were Muir and Pinchot ever friends YES THEY HELPED ASSEMBLE THE US FORESTRY COMMISSION 18 Who is John Bochman COAUTHOR WITH JOHN JAMES AUDUBON WAS A REVEREND AND GOT AWARBLER NAMED AFTER HIM 19 Who established the Heela Primitive Area and where is it located ESTABLISHED BY ALDO LEOPOLD IN THE HEELA NATIONAL FOREST IN NEW MEXICO IT WAS THE FIRST PRIMITIVE AREA WITH THE HELP OF THE WILDERNESS ACT OF 1964 20 What was the Wilderness Act of 1964 AN ACT THAT CREATED THE DEFINITION OF WILDERNESS IT PROTECTED MILLIONS OF ACRES OF FEDERAL LAND 21 Thomas Jefferson is associated with what national piece of landscape THE NATURAL BRIDGE OF VIRGINIA IT WAS SURVEYED BY GEORGE WASHINGTON AND JEFFERSON BOUGHT AND USED IT WHEN HE WAS PRESIDENT 22 Who said llHow can you buy the sky own the rain and the windquot CHIEF SEA39I39I39LE 23 Who said llWe did not weave the web of life We are mereya strand in it Whatever we do to the web we do to ourselves CHIEF SEA39I39I39LE 24 What is the Township and Range Grid Survey system DIVIDED SECTIONS OF LAND INTO TOWNSHIPS EACH TOWNSHIP BEING 6 SQUARE MILES 6 sq miles 36 sections 1 section 640 acres a 1 in 4 of the square miles would be used for school Section 16 was assigned to the school board b Sections 8 11 26 and 29 were set aside for quotfuture usequot 25 The US Forest Service is in what department of the federal government DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE THEY USE MULTIUSE MANAGEMENT 26 The National Park Service is in what agency of the government DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 27 Thomas Jefferson designed his own tombstone what was on it HE WAS THE FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AUTHOR OF THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM HOWEVER HE DID NOT HAVE THE FACT THAT HE WAS PRESIDENT 28 What was Thomas Cole s first painting in the llCourse of Empire series THE SAVAGE STATE 29 The French Long Lots survey system is located where LOUISIANA AND PARTS OF CANADA IT GAVE ACCESS TO WATER RIVERS AND BAYOUS 30 Which of the following is not part of the two major survey systems used in Louisiana NONE OF THE SYSTEMS TOOK INTO ACCOUNT OF PARISH BOUNDARIES 31 What are green lands LANDS THAT WERE KEPT IN THEIR NATURAL STATE 32 What does the National Park Service control NATIONAL PARKS MONUMENTS RECREATION AREAS SEASHORESLAKESHORES PARKWAYS AND BA39I39I39LEFIELDS HISTORIC SITES 33 National Grasslands are under what agency US FOREST SERVICE DEPT OF AGRICULTURE 34 Lewis and Clark s expedition was looking for what AWATER ROUTE ACROSS THE COUNTRY 35 Who climbed up a tree to experience a storm JOHN MUIR 36 llAnd from the eastern boundary of the vast golden flower bed rose the mighty Sierra miles in height and so gloriously colored and so radiant it seemed not clothed with light but wholly composed of it like the wall of some celestial cityquot JOHN MUIR 37 Henry David Thoreau was a graduate of what university HARVARD 38 Leopold taught where UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 39 How big was Henry David Thoreau s cabin Whose property was he on 10x15 CABIN FOR 28 DOLLARS THE PROPERTY WAS OWNED BY EMERSON 40 lln wilderness is the preservation of the world HENRY DAVID THOREAU 41 Who was born in Dunbar Scotland JOHN MUIR 42 Where did Muir attend school UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 43 Who took the photo of the mount of the Holy Cross WILLIAM HENRY JACKSON 44 Who helped establish the first museum of photography in 1940 ANSEL ADAMS w JACKSON 45 Who invented the Zone System of Photography ANSEL ADAMS quotIn my mind s eye I visualize how a particularsight and feeling will appear on a print If it excites me there is a good chance it will make a good photographquot 46 Who established the first photographic exhibit ANSEL ADAMS 47 The Wilderness Act of 1964 could be designated out of what areas NATIONAL PARKS MONUMENTS FORESTS AND WILDLIFE BUT NOT OUT OF THE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 48 Who was given credit for the first idea of a national park GEORGE CATLIN A PAINTER 49 Who were the 3 men given credit for the creation of wilderness a ALDO LEOPOLD WAS AN ACADEMIC FORESTER AND ESTABLISHED EI39HICS b BOB MARSHALL WAS A FORESTER AND SOCIALIST HELPED FOUND THE WILDERNESS SOCIETY IN 1935 c HOWARD ZAHNISER HE WAS A LOBBYIST BEAUICRAT AND WORKED FOR THE WILDERNESS SOCIETY 50 What are the values of wilderness a PROTECTION OF NATURAL AREAS keeping natural and scenic qualities b BENCHMARK evaluation of man s use of the land c MAINTENANCE OF HABITAT protecting endangered species and future species d RECREATION bene ts that provide for a person s experience e SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LA 1203 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE PART 1 READING NOTES AUTHORS AND WRITINGS Marks of H uman Passage Wallace Stegner Should Cars Be Allowed In Yosemite James Bryce A Second World Bayard Taylor The Hawaiian Volcanoes Mark Twain A Footloose in Democracy Bernard De Voto Western Expansion across Wide Missouri De Voto Christmas Carol Charles Dickens Factories in Lowell Massachusetts by Charles Dickens Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson Ktaadnquot in the Maine Woods Henry David Thoreau A U TH 0R INFORMA TION Wallace Stegner Joined in on a ght for the Damn of Echo Park Friends with DeVoto according to Harmon Wrote biography about DeVoto and Powell The Marks of H uman Passage is about Powell going down the Colorado River James Bryce Member of Parliament Bayard Taylor Critics only gave Taylor credit for lling expectations of his mid 19111 century readers he only pleased the readers with Second World Valley of Humiliation Great Relief Gothic Gallery Found in mammoth cave Kentucky Mark Twain Samuel Clemens Compared Vesuvius to a Hawaiian volcano called Kilauea He thought Vesuvius was insigni cant children s volcano or soup kettle He went barefooted at night time De Voto Held easy chair with Harper s Magazine and wrote about Echo Park Involved with Eco Park in the 1950 s 40 years after Hetch Hetchy Picked up by Reader s Digest Story of Echo Park Big battle De Voto and Stegner involved trying to build another Dam in Echo Canyon but this time the environment won Difference between Hetch Hetchy and Echo Finally environmental community became a political entity Won Pulitzer Prize in 1947 with Western Expansion across Wide Missouri Quote Aesthetics one may lack words to express the impact of beauty but no one was felt it is left untouched Charles Dickens In Factories in Lowell Massachusetts he was impressed with women factory workers and their poetry In Christmas Carol he criticized society Asked readers to compare Haunts of Desperate Misery to Lowell Massachusetts Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature Henry David Thoreau Quote According to Jackson accurately measured altitude of Ktaadn is 5300 ft or a little more than a mile above level of the sea highest point in the state of Maine OTHER STUFF YOU NEED TO KNOW Dinosaur National Monument associated with all the rivers Not Great Salt Lake Earl Douglas found dinosaurs for the Carnegie Museum Made the area with the fossils a national park Tried to protect his diggings from the souvenir hunters According to Harmon Echo Park marked coming of age of the conservation movement Not ecology PART 2 LECTURE NOTES PAINTINGS Kindred Spirits byAsher B Duran 1894 Two people in the painting are Thomas Cole and William Cullen Bryant The Rocky Mountains by Albert Bierstaalt Sold it at Sanitation Commission Auction in NYC for 25000 which helped fund the commission Course of Empire by Thomas C ole nature to empire then back to nature l The Savage State 2 The Pastoral Acadian State 3Consummation of Empire 4 Destruction 5 Desolation FrankliniaAlt maha by William Bartrum found by John Bartrum IMPORTANTNOTEs Thomas Cole Started Hudson River School of Painting 1820 1 paintings out of 10 were landscape paintings hung in school 1880 9 out of 10 painted were landscape paintings hung in school Went up Hudson River came back with 3 landscape paintings immediately sold Was educated in art in Europe Chief Seattle Quotes W can you buy the sky how can you own the rain and the win This we know all things are connected web oflife We love this earth as the newborn loves his mother s heartbeat All said by him in his lecture of disbelief that Americans could acquire land William Bartrum First nature born artist naturalist from the new world Plant associated with the Bartrums Franklinia Altamaha Found along Altamaha River Ben Franklin brought it back to Philly Wrote Travels the rst international best seller ame all the way to port Hudson and found petri ed cypress George Catlin artist ethnologist 7 traveled up the Mississippi River Created an Indian Paintings gallery39 saw the loss of native people as a problem Couldn t sell his Indian gallery to the United States 7 reminded the people how we treated Indian Took his gallery to Europe success at rst ended up broke Tried to protect buffalo and Indians try to set up a national park for them T 1is was the rst idea of a national park Wrote Letters and Notes on the Manners of Customs of Indians John Muir Born in Scotland Dunbar went to school in University of Wisconsin Wanted preservation 1892 Sierra Club established he was president Put out a series of books called Battle Books the first one This is Dinosaur Echo Park Country and Its Magic River in 1955 David Brower is the executive director Quote Mighty sierra miles in height light walls of celestial city Climbed a 100 feet Douglas fur to experience windstorm The Hetch Hetchy Dam Sullivan Dam Muir friends with Gifford Pinchot forestry partner with Muir together they set up Forestry Commission There was an earthquake that caused a fire in 1906 Citizens wanted Yosemite as a water reservoir to protect from future fires Pinchot became chainnan of committee to build the Dam The Dam destroyed half of Yosemite the twin valley Muir did not want the Dam lost the battle and the two became enemies Thomas Jefferson Natural bridge in Virginia Thomas Jefferson bought it and used it as his Camp David with George Washington Jefferson s Tomb Didn t mention being president Jefferson promoted surveying a plan for a 36 sections Township 1 section 1 square mile 640 acres A township that is 6 miles by 6 miles has 36 sections Sections 8 ll 26 and 29 are found next one in from outside comer Used for public use Ordinance of 1785 now used for future government needs Section 16 is in the middle used for school Louisiana Purchase of 1803 from France 15 million dollars Louisiana survey system is the French long lots system Sliver of land with access to water different from Township Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalist 7 rebel against the established orders of society Went to Harvard Author of Life in the Woods about his time in Walden Built a cabin 10 feet x 15 feet kept a journal 2 best gifts America gave the world 1 Idea of nature protection 2 All people are created equal Quote In wilderness is the preservation of the world Ansell Adams Zone system of photography Helped establish the first school of photography and the first museum collection of photography Museum of modern art in NYC Rev Baachman Co author with John James Audubon of The Quadrupods Audubon s sons did the paintings Beckman s Warhar painting of the birds Beckman s second wife did background plan Franklinia Altamaha Wild by Law video about the creators of the Wilderness Society Aldo Leopold forester academic Ethical person of idea of protection of wilderness Got Hela National Forest started in Mexico Set aside by secretary of agriculture Bob Marshall socialist counter Zionist author forester Went to Alaska to climb peaks All forests should be owned by all people 7 radical belief Howard Zeinizer lobbyist bureaucrat Big coat stuffed pockets with bills yers for wilderness Values of Wilderness Protection of natural areas and their scenic beauty Recreation encourages man s thinking and creativity Maintenance of habitat for wildlife and endangered species Scientific research Benchmark to evaluate if we are doing well US Stuff US forestry service located in Agriculture Dept National grasslands and National Forests Park Service located in Interior National Parks Battle elds monuments cemeteries DC green lands Bureau of land management located in Interior US fish and wildlife also located in Interior National Wildlife Refuges National Wilderness Act Took 20 years of lobbying All the lands were designated under the original national wilderness act National parks Refuges Forests Lands could not come of the Bureau of Land Management Today they can Grandfathered in the Hela Primitive Area already set aside by Sect of Ag lfsecretary of agriculture can pass primitive areas why did congress need to create the wilderness act Because too much power to the sect of agriculture he can create just as easily as he can destroy OTHER STUFF YOU NEED TO KNOW 2 years from the idea to set Yellowstone from idea to implementation Lewis and Clark looking for water route across country Thomas Moran painter of the Grand Canyon Atchafalia basin rising sediment deposits William Henry Jackson photographed the Mount of Holy Cross 1READNGS OWEN WISTER quotOld Yellowstone Daysquot 1936 quotThe Virginianquot FREDERICK LAW OLMSTEAD o Headed the commission overseeing the management of Yosimete Mariposa Grant YOSEMITE Father of the procession of Landscape Architecture Associated with Yosemite CONCORD HYMN 1836 associated with Battle of Lexington and Concorde April 19 1775 Celebrates Shot Heard Round the World Minute Men Rude Bridge Across the Flood ASSOCIATIONS WITH YOSEMITE John Muir Frederick Law Olmstead Abraham Lincoln Ralph Waldo Emerson 0 Harriet Monroe ASSOCIATIONS WITH YELLOWSTONE Judge Cornelius Hedges William Henry Jackson Thomas Moran Rudyard Kipling Owen Wister George Catlin Ferdidand V Hayden Washburn Expedition 2nd Lt Doane GIFFORD PINCHOT IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH YELLOWSTONE ASSOCIATIONS WITH THE GRAND CANYON Lee Ferry Major John Wesley Powell MARY ROBERTS RHINEHART quotRide the Rockies and Save your Soulquot Rode through the Rockies with Howard Eaton DAVID HARMON quotThe Mirror of Americaquot Said that John BURROUGHS and John MUIR were Nature Writers Good poetry in nature is DIFFICULT to find HENRY JAMES quotReflected Distinctionquot o Wrote about Philadelphia GEORGE CATLIN quotA Nation39s Parkquot Painter of American Indian Life First to envision the idea of a National Park wanted to protect native people PUBLISHED LETTER IN 1833 FOR PROTECTING THE NATIONS ALDO LEOPOLD quotThe Good Oakquot February Sand County Almanac THOMAS WOLFE quotThe Great Westquot CARL SANDBURG Used Free Verse John Muir called Emerson a SEQUOIA BURROUGHS wanted to go DOWN the canyon MINUTE MAN and PAUL REVERE are associated LEE FERRY is located on the COLORADO RIVER JOHN WESLEY POWELL recommended how much land could support a family on livestock POWELL SUGGESTED with water 80 acres Without water 4 sections or 2560 acres DVORAK wrote Symphony No 9 Paul Winters DID NOT write Symphony No 9 GIFFORD PINCHOT was a forester who worked on the Biltmore Estate amp Theodore Roosevelt 2DATES April 19 1775 Minute Man National Park 1864 Yosemite Made 1st SCENIC RESERVE Abraham Lincoln March 1 1872 Yellowstone Signed by GRANT o 2 years later 1869 Grand Canyon POWELL went down the canyon in boats 3LECTURE NOTES a SECTION is a subdivision of a geographic or physiographic province PHYSIOGRAPHIC SECTION Mississippi River Embayment o Alluvial PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCE Central Lowlands Coastal Plain 0 Interior Low Plateau PROVINCES COLORADO PLATEAU Grand Canyon Monument Valley Painted Desert PACIFIC BORDER Red Woods Port Lovos BASIN AND RANGE DRAINS INTERNALLY Mono Lake Salt Lake Death Vally BLUE RIDGE Harpers Ferry Biltmore Estate PIEDMONT Stone Mountain Charlottesville University of Virginia COASTAL PLAIN Cape Hattaras Atchafalaya NEW ENGLAND Minute Man Boston Vermont Everglades National Park Coastal plain province Goode39s Projection is an equalarea projection where both the shapes and sizes of landmasses are represented with a large amount of accuracy FALL LINE separates Piedmont Coastal Plain MOBILE AL NOT ON THE FALL LINE ADIRONDACK quotForever Wildquot Park Protected by the New York State Constitution Devil39s Tower National Monument is located in Northeastern Whyoming Fur Company St Louis newspaper to hunt beaver in the MISSOURI RIVER ROCKEY MOUNTAIN PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCES 4 sections Southern Rockies Wyoming Basin MIDDLE ROCKIES GRAND TETONS YELLOWSTONE shaded Northern Rockies Mono Lake is located near the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada the HOOVER DAMN was added as one of the SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD in 1994 SAN FRANCISCO Filoli Mansion and Garden Water Commissionar San Andreas Fault Nathaniel Pitt Langford39s Sept 20 1870 Journal entry on the proposal to make Yellowstone a National Park GRAND TETON MOUNTAINS Wyoming Yellowstone Sierra Nevada ANTIQUITIES ACT established National Monuments as historic relics Tim Palmer39s book promise of wilderness praises Abraham Lincoln RELIEF OR ELEVATION ON A MAP Hillocks quothillsquot Hochurs marks that look like hills quotlinesquot quothash marksquot Contour lines 2D lines shows elevation Color and shading LARGE SCALE Small area more detail 0 larger RF number SMALL SCALE Large area less detail Smaller RF number Mercator Projection 1569 inaccurate BR IS IN COASTAL PLAIN 4QUOTES quotI would ask no other monument to my memory nor other enrollment with the famous dead then to be known as the founder of such an institutionquot GEORGE CATLIN quotCities call l have heard them but there is no voice in all the world so insistent to me as the wordless call of the Rockies I shall go backquot RINEHEART quotIt is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotionquot ABRAHAM LINCOLN quotThe main duty with which the commissioner should be charged should be to give every advantage practical by that which is peculiarto this groundthis peculiarity exists only in thisquot FREDRICK LAW OLMSTED quotIt is quite worthwhile to go down into the canyon on mule back if only to fall in love with a mile and to learn what a surefooted careful and docile creature when he is on his good behavior a mule can bequot JOHN BURROUGHS Quotes by Annie Dillard deal with muskrats deal with hunting quotThat particular oak sandhill diameter of 30 inchesquot ALDO LEOPOLD
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