New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Miss Stanford Abshire


Miss Stanford Abshire
GPA 3.59

C. Fryling

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

C. Fryling
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Landscape Architecture

This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Stanford Abshire on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LA 1203 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Fryling in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/222980/la-1203-louisiana-state-university in Landscape Architecture at Louisiana State University.

Similar to LA 1203 at LSU

Popular in Landscape Architecture




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Native Americans Poverty Point Louisiana 1700 700 BC 8 Centuries after the Pyramids in Egypt and before the Mayan Pyramids Earthen heating stones for cooking 1962 National Historic Landmark Native People Red Cloud Chief Joseph Sequoiah Native Sites Serpent Mound State Memorial Ohio Mound City Group National Monument Ohio Grand Village of the Natchez Mississippi Mesa Verde National Park Colorado 0 Chief Seattle 1790 1866 Arrival of Columbus 1492 Settling the Americas over the Bering Strait 20000 year ago Red Cloud 18221909 In 1866 Red Cloud lead the most successful war against the United States ever fought by an Indian nation Lakota He fought the establishment of forts along the Bozeman Trail that crossed Lakota land in Wyoming Chief Joseph 18401904 All men were made brother The earth is the mother of all people and all people should have equal rights upon it You might as well expect the rivers to run backward as that any man who was born free should be contented when penned up and denied liberty to go where he pleases 7 Chief Joseph Sacagawea was born in a Shoshone tribe about 1790 in what is now Idaho As a child she was kidnapped by the Hidatsas tribe and sold into slavery to the Mandan Sioux No one is certain how Sacagawea ended up with the Canadian trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau but the two were wed and in 1805 they had a son named Jean Bapiste Charbonneau was hired as an interpreter and guide and he brought his wife to interpret when they reached her native area Historian Stephen Ambrose in his book Undaunted Courage about the Lewis and Clark expedition contends that the teenage wife was not a guide and was not consulted by either Lewis or Clark However they did ask her for advice for a water route when they reached her native hunting grounds She pointed them to a tributary of the Beaverhead River James Fenimore Cooper 1789 1851 Frontier stories The Leatherstocking Tales The rst author to draw attention to the fact that the American Indian culture was rapidly disappearing Mimbres Pottery motifs inspired Mary Colter s Super Chief china design Sequoya George Guess 1770 1843 The Coastal Redwoods Sequoia sempervirens and the Sierra Redwoods Sequoia giganteum get their botanical names from Sequoia a talented Cherokee Indian who developed the first alphabet used by his tribe The Cherokee alphabet enabled thousands of Cherokees to read and write primers and newspapers published in their own language Robert LindneuX Trail of Tears 1942 In 1838 and 1839 as part of Andrew Jackson39s Indian removal policy the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in presentday Oklahoma White Cloud Chiefofthe Tribe Iowa George Catlin 1844 Atakapa Indian Sculpture quotRoving Savage Tribe Who Settled Here St Martinville LA Prior to the French Partly Christianized and Civilized By Missionaries Atakapa a Choctaw name for Ishak a name they called themselves Chitimacha Baskets Finely woven doublewoven lidded baskets Poverty Point Louisiana Chief Seattle 1790 1866 Chief of the Suquamish and the Duwamish Indians Present at negotiations in the 1850s with Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the Territory Transcribed by Dr Henry A Smith A Message from Chief Seattle How can you buy the sky How can you own the rain and the wind My mother told me every part of this earth is sacred to our people Every pine needle Every sandy shore Every mist in the dark woods Every meadow and humming insect All are holy in the memory of our people My father said to me I know the sap that courses through the trees as I know the blood that ows in my veins We are part of the earth and it is part of us The perfumed owers are our sisters The bear the deer the great eagle these are our brothers The rocky crests the meadows the poniesiall belong to the same family The voice of my ancestors said to me The shining water that moves in the streams and rivers is not simply water but the blood of your grandfather s grandfather Each ghostly re ection in the clear waters of the lakes tells of memories in the life of our people The water s murmur is the voice of your greatgreatgrandmother The rivers are our brothers They quench our thirst They carry our canoes and feed our children You must give to the rivers the kindness you would give to any brother The voice of my grandfather said to me The air is precious It shares its spirit with all the life it supports The wind that give me my first breath also received my last sigh You must keep the land and air apart and sacred as a place where one can go to taste the wind that is sweetened by the meadow owers When the last Red Man and Woman have vanished with their wilderness and their memory is only the shadow of a cloud moving across the prairie will the shores and forest still be here Will there be any of the spirit of my people left My ancestors said to me This we know The earth does not belong to us We belong to the earth The voice of my grandmother said to me Teach your children what you have been taught The earth is our mother What befalls the earth befalls all the sons and daughters of the earth Hear my voice and the voice of my ancestors Chief Seattle said The destiny of your people is a mystery to us What will happen when the buffalo are all slaughtered The wild horse tamed What will happen when the secret comers of the forest are heavy with the scent of many men When the view of the ripe hills is blotted by talking wires Where will the thicket be Gone Where will the eagle be Gone And what will happen when we say goodbye to the swift pony and the hunt It will be the end of living and the beginning of survival This we know All things are connected like the blood that unites us We did not weave the web of life We are merely a strand in it Whatever we do to the web we do to ourselves We love this earth as a newborn loves its mother s heartbeat If we sell you our land care for it as we have cared for it Hold in your mind the memory of the land as it is when you receive it Preserve the land and the air and the rivers for your children s children and love it as we have loved it Thomas Jefferson 17431826 0U S Minister of France Secretary of State Washington Vice President Adams OPresident 1801 1809 Ordinance of 1784 5 Ordinance of 1787 Northwest Territory oTownship is 6 miles by 6 miles 36 Sections One Section 640 Acres Special Sections were 8 11 26 29 and 16 School Here was buried Thomas Jefferson Died on July 4 1826 50 anniversary of the Declaration of Independence Author of the Declaration of American Independence Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom And Father of the University of Virginia Thomas Jefferson An 1801 portrait in front of Virginia s Natural Bridge a symbol of Jefferson s fascination with the natural resources of North America Declaration of Independence 7 July 4 1776 In the second paragraph of the draft Jefferson wrote We hold these truths to be sacred and undeniable that all men are created equal and independent In a revision he changed the words sacred and undeniable to selfevident Monticello 7 Home of Thomas Jefferson near Charlottesville Virginia 7 Little Mountain A dumbwaiter built into the mantle of the fireplace carries wine and food from the basement of Monticello to the main oor Virginia s Natural Bridge In 1774 Thomas Jefferson bought Natural Bridge from King George III of England for a price of twenty shillings about 240 He visited the bridge often surveyed the area and even drew his own map In 1803 two years after becoming President of the United States Jefferson built a tworoom cabin on the grounds Northern White Cedar Eastern Arborvitae Thuja occidentalis One of the rst American trees to be introduced into Europe by members of the Jacques Cartier Canadian expedition In 1750 George Washington surveyed the natural bridge and carved his initials on a rock 23 feet up Thomas Jefferson oversaw the work of Major Pierre L Enfant on the design of Washington DC in 1791 Jefferson is responsible for the sitting of the District Jefferson s 1784 plan for the expansion of 14 new states to the United States Jefferson s plan included the prohibition of slavery in the territory First survey of national lands by Thomas Hutchins Ohio s virgin soil report to Congress was too rich to produce Wheat but it is well adapted for Indian Corn Tobacco Hemp Flax Oats and abounds with great quantities of Pea Vine Grass and nutritious Weeds of which Cattle are very fond Thomas Hutchins Land division by Township and Section The Grid Survey System Township is six miles square Township contains 36 Sections One Section equals 640 Acres Special Sections were 81126 29 To be used for some future public purpose Section 16 in the center was for public school Longlot land division used in parts of Louisiana and Canada Longlot land division along Bayou Lafourche Assumption Parish Louisiana Ohio was the only state to come into the Union 1803 during the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson 1801 7 1809 The Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803 cost 15 Million President Thomas Jefferson ordered Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and their Corps of Discovery to map the face of the country shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 The Captains were to make contact and peace with the Native people University of Virginia Historic Campus designed by Thomas Jefferson 7 Rotunda in 1821 Campus design included the use of Classic Architectural Orders of Doric Ionic and Corinthian Edgar Allan Poe 1809 1849 enrolled at the University of Virginia February 1826 for one term Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale On July 4 1826 fifty years exactly after the Declaration of Independence had been adopted Thomas Jefferson died Here was buried Thomas Jefferson Author of the Declaration of American Independence Author of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom Father of the University of Virginia The Jefferson monument in Washington DC on the tidal Basin The Japanese Cherry Trees along the Tidal Basin are a gift from Japan to America Given in 1912 the trees symbolize the friendship between the two countries The trees are Yoshino Cherries Prunus X yedoensis I m a great believer in luck and I find the harder I work the more I have of it Thomas Jefferson Meriwether Lewis 1774 1809 William Clark 1770 1838 Louisiana Purchase 7 1803 15Million Water Communication 2500 Lewis amp Clark Expedition 7 180406 Depa1t St Louis 7 May 14 1804 Winter Camp 7 Fort Mandan N Dakota 7 180405 Winter Camp 7 Fort Clatsop Oregon 7 180506 Return St Louis 7 September 23 1806 Sacajawea c 17841812 1806 Lewis appointed governor of Louisiana Territory 1807 7 Clark appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs Three decades 18131821 Governor of Missouri Territory Charles Wilson Peale paints portraits of Lewis and Clark Lewis and Clark got supplies for their trip at Harpers Ferry The Keelboat was built in Pittsburgh and was 55 feet long with an 8foot 4 inch beam and a 3foot draft It originally had two masts but one was broken and removed before the Corps started up the Missouri It had twentytwo oars poles and tow rope The expedition was rarely able to make more than ten miles a day with the Keelboat Thomas Jefferson had a peace medal made for the explorer to give to Indians on their trip Buffalo 7 Bison bison Pronghorn 7 Antilocapra Americana Blacktail Prairie Dog 7 Cynomys ludovicianus Black Bear Ursus americanus Grizzly Bear 7 Ursus arctos horribilis I would rather fight two Indians than one bear Meriwether Lewis Specimen of Lewis s Woodpecker 1806 7 Melannerpes lewis taken to Peale s Museum Clark s Nutcracker Nucz39fraga Columbiana California Condor 7 Gymnogyps califomianus Lewis s Mockorange Philadelphus lewisii The state ower of Idaho since 1931 but was recognized earlier by the state senate in 1890 and was the symbol of Idaho at the 1893 Chicago s World Fair Clarkis 7 Elkhoms 7 Clarkia pulchella Low Oregon Grape 7 Berberis nervosa Bear Grass 7 Xerophyllum tenax Fort Mandan completed by Christmas Eve 1804 Sacagawea was born in a Shoshone tribe about 1790 in what is now Idaho As a child she was kidnapped by the Hidatsas tribe and sold into slavery to the Mandan Sioux No one is certain how Sacagawea ended up with the Canadian trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau but the two were wed and in 1805 they had a son named Jean Bapiste Charbonneau was hired as an interpreter and guide and he brought his wife to interpret when they reached her native area Historian Stephen Ambrose in his book Undaunted Courage about the Lewis and Clark expedition contends that the teenage wife was not a guide and was not consulted by either Lewis or Clark However they did ask her for advice for a water route when they reached her native hunting grounds She pointed them to a tributary of the Beaverhead River Great Falls of the Missouri Great Fall of the Columbia River 1805 Eighteen notebook journals survived the Lewis and Clark Expedition Alexander Wilson s drawings from the Lewis and Clark collection Grizzly bears were new to science when Lewis described his first one on April 29 1805 This painting by John Clymer depicts the moment when a wounded grizzly chased two of the explorers back into their canoes Lewis and Clark spelled mosquito 20 different ways September 7 1804 The crew hunts for prairie dogs One is caught and later sent back to President Jefferson The men spent hours trying to catch a prairie dog Great joy in camp we are in view of the Ocean this great Paci c Ocean which we have been so long anxious to see and the roaring or noise made the waves braking on the rocky Shores 7 journal entry by William Clark November 7 1805 Columbia River Estuary Paci c Ocean 7 Cape Disappointment Washington Reconstructed Fort Clatsop near Astoria Oregon The Salt Makers by John Clymer Pompy s Tower East of Billings Montana George Caleb Bingham Boatmen on the Missouri 1846 Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Fur Traders Descending the Missouri by George Caleb Bingham During the time of the Lewis and Clark expedition there was a population of 70 million American Bison or buffalo that reached for Alaska to northern Mexico Today there are only 200000 bison now in the United States within National Parks and Wildlife Refuges In like fashion the natural habitat for the interior least tern in 1890 was 35273 acres along the Missouri River Today only 57 acres of sandbar nesting sites are along the Missouri River The bird population has been reduced to 4700 to 5000 birds Important Dates June 20 1803 Jefferson asked Lewis to lead the Water Communication expedition May 14 1804 A rainy day The Corps of Discovery starts up the Missouri River after making preparations at a camp across the Mississippi River where the Wood River meets the Mississippi November 20 1804 Fort Mandan completed for the winter April 7 1805 Corps of Discovery starts up the Missouri River and the Keelboat leaves for St Louis with prairie dog and other specimen for President Thomas Jefferson May 26 1805 Lewis first sees the Rocky Mountains June 13 1805 The expedition reaches the Great Falls of the Missouri August 12 1805 Crosses the Continental Divide October 16 1805 The expedition reaches the Columbia River MidNovember The expedition reaches the Paci c Ocean December 31 1805 Fort Clatsop completed March 23 1806 The Corps starts home July 3 1806 The expedition splits up Lewis to explore Maria a River and Clark the Yellowstone August 12 1806 The expedition is reunited August 17 1806 The Corps left Charbonneau Sacagawea and Pomp with the Mandans and chief Big White agreed to go along to Washington September 23 1806 The Corps of Discovery reaches St Louis William Clark becomes Governor of Indian Affairs Meriwether Lewis was appointed governor of Louisiana Territory in 1806 Thomas Jefferson Painted by Rembrandt Peale son of Charles Willson Peale The portrait was displayed at Peale s Museum on March 3 1805 on the eve of Jefferson s second inauguration The map of the Lewis and Clark s Track Across the Western Portion of North America was published in 1810 John amp William Bartram John Bartram 16991777 King s Botanist William Bartram 17391823 First nativebom American artistnaturalist PucPuggy Flower Hunter Altamaha River Georgia 1765 Franklim39a alatamaha The lost tree Travels through North anal South Carolina Georgia East anal West Florida 7 1791 The book Travels was the first international best seller from the New World Printed in 4 languages John Bartram Father of American Botany 16991777 King s Botanist 7 In 1765 George III made John Bartram the Royal Botanist a post he held till his death in 1777 Carolus Linnaeus called John Bartram the greatest natural botanist in the world Bartram s Botanical Garden America s oldest living botanical garden in Kingesessing PA on the Schuylkill River now in the heart of Philadelphia it is only 12 acres in size Standing picture of John Bartram is by Howard Pyle an 18th century illustrator The portrait of William Bartram by Charles Wilson Peale now hangs in the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia John Bartram cofounded with Benjamin Franklin the American Philosophical Society Franklin was a frequent visitor to the Garden and he offered William Bartram the job of illustrator for his paper William Bartram 7 First nativebom American artistnaturalist 7 17391823 Portrait by Charles Willson Peal in 1808 7 The ower is White Jasmine an Asian species in the portrait Bartram was a part of international plant trade At the age of 16 William Bartram painted a Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia The painting was sent by John Bartram to Peter Collinson who sent it to Dr John Fothergill 1712 1780 who become a financial backer of William Bartram William Bartram traveled the Southeast in 1773 1777 In 1773 William Bartram started his 4 year travel adventure in the Southeast His final destination was the Brown s Cliffs on the Mississippi River today known as the White Cliffs of Port Hudson Louisiana Altamaha River Georgia Franklinia Franklinia alatamaha discovered by John and William Bartram in 1765 along the Altamaha River The Lost Tree Franklinia was not found in the wild after the Bartrarns collected it and brought it back to their garden 11th International Botanic Congress 1969 Met in Seattle Washington Douglas fir Northeast Ocotillo Southwest Ladyslipper Northeast Franklinia 7 Southeast Most of William Bartram s paintings are in the British Museum of Natural History Sandhill Crane 7 Grus canadensis Bartram Mississippi Sandhill Cranes 7 Grus canadensis pulla American Lotus 7Nelumbo urea Tar Flower Fly Catcher 7Befarz39a racemosa Pitcherplant 7 Sarracem39a species Marsh Pink 7 Sabatz39a grandz39 ora Turkey Vulture 7 Cathartes aura Green Heron 7Butorides virescens Great Yellow Bream 7 Warmouth Chaenobryttus coronaries American Alligator Alligator mississz39ppiensis Walter Inglis Anderson 19031965 also painted the American Alligator Oakleaved Hydrangea 7 Hydrangea quercifolia Bartram William Bartram rides into the Oconee Mountain area of South Carolina in 1776 He holds the blossom of a Carolina rhododendron a species he just discovered The ame azalea in the foreground was first recorded by his father John and himself at an earlier date In 1784 the Continental Congress adjourned to visit Bartram s Garden Both Thomas Jefferson and George Washington got plants from Bartram s Garden for their own properties The oldest surviving Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba in North America is in Bartram s garden William Hamilton brought it to the garden in 1785 Native to China the Ginkgo has been cultivated in Asia for its edible nuts and medicinal properties for thousands of years PucPuggy Flower Hunter William Bartram meets a menacing Seminole in 1773 on a Georgia trail St Johns River Florida While on Florida s St Johns River in 1774 Bartram was attacked by alligators They struck their jaws together so close to my ears as almost to stun me 7 he wrote May 1774 The evening was temperately cool and calm The Alligators began to roar and appear in uncommon numbers along the shores and in the river I therefore furnished myself with a club for my defense went on board my boat and penetrating the first line of those which surrounded my harbor they gave way but being pursued by several very large ones I kept strictly on the watch and paddled with all my might towards the entrance of the lagoon hoping to be sheltered there from the multitude of my assailants but ere I had halfway reached the place I was attacked on all sides several endeavoring to overset the canoe My situation now became precarious to the last degree two very large ones attacked me closely at the same instant rushing up with their heads and part of their bodies above the water roaring terribly and belching oods of water over me They struck their jaws together so close to my ears as almost to stun me and I expected every moment to be dragged out of the boat and instantly devoured William Bartram 1774 Into The Wilderness Page 47 Travels through North and South Carolina East and West Florida published in 1791 was the first international best seller from the New World and it was published in four languages An illustration of Mico Chlucco King of the Seminoles appeared on the title page of Travels Bartram National Trail was authorized for study in the National Trails System Act USC Vol 16 Sec 12411251 Bartram Trail in the Tuskegee National Forest Alabama Browne s White Cliffs Port Hudson shown on Lord George Germain s map William L Clements Library University of Michigan Sir Charles Lyell 17971875 a British geologist read Bartram s description of the White Cliffs of Port Hudson and visited the site Darwin brought Lyell s accounts with him on the HMS Beagle 1832 J J Audubon 17851851 Born JeanJacques Rabin on his fathers plantation in Saint Domingue now Haiti in 1785 Lost Dauphin 1803 Mill Grove PA Outside of Philadelphia Lucy Bakewell Birds of America 18401844 435 Plates with William MacGillivray and Robert Harvell Jr Quadrupeds of North America 18421854 with John Bachman and sons Victor Giffard amp John Woodhouse Audubon Mark Catesby 16831749 The Natural History of Carolina Florida and the Bahama Islands 17311743 Two volumes Carolina Parakeet Extinct 7 Ivorybilled Woodpecker Campephllus principalis Alexander Wilson 1766 1813 American ornithology Vol 1 1808 Vol 8 7 1814 Alexander Wilson American Ornithology 1808 Vol 1 page 1 quotI dare say you will smile at my presumption when I tell you that I have seriously begun to make a collection of drawings of the birds to be found in Pennsylvania or that occasionally pass through it twentyeight as a beginning I send for your opinionquot Alexander Wilson in a letter to William Bartram naturalist July 1805 Portrait by Rembrandt Peal His ninevolume work American Ornithology published in 1808 1814 illustrated 268 species including descriptions of 26 new species Vol 3 Plate 2 Western Louisiana Tanager Clark s Crow Nutcracker Lewis Woodpecker John James Audubon 17851851 Named Jean Rabine at birth Captain Jean Audubon John James s father Birds ofAmerz39ca has 435 hand colored plates with 1065 lifesized gures of American Birds in characteristic poses and surroundings It came in four volumes and the cost was about 1000 The size is called an Elephant folio because each page was more than 3 feet long by 2 feet wide Philadelphia PA Mill Grove 1803 Elephant folio because each page was more than 3 feet long by 2 feet wide Mill Grove 1803 7 Blessed spot where hunting fishing and drawing occupied my every momen Audubon made the first American birdbanding experiments at Mill Grove PA Audubon married Lucy Bakewell the girl next door in 1808 Lucy Audubon in 1855 with granddaughters Lucy and Harriet the eldest daughters of John Woodhouse Audubon Bird paintings were made from freshly killed specimens that were wired in place and drawn at the actual size Louisville Kentucky 7 Fall on the Ohio River 7 Audubon met Alexander Wilson in Louisville and saw his paintings and learned that bird paintings could be sold 7 William Clark s family owned land one north side of the Ohio River 7 Jeffersonville Indiana Henderson Kentucky Wild Turkey 7 Great American Cock c 1825 West Feliciana Parish Louisiana 7 Note the cane in the background 3 or 4 In One Northern Goshawk 1810 1819 amp c1829 Cooper s Hawk 1809 Whooping Crane 7 Grus Americana Chuckwill swidow Northern Mockingbird with Rattlesnake Great Auk Extinct 7 North America s only ightless bird 1833 Mississippi Kite Swallowtailed Kit Bald Eagle Eastern Meadowlark Sandhill Crane Labrador Duck Extinct 1833 Wood Duck Summer Duck Snowy Egret Egretta thula Brown Pelican 7Pelecanus occidentalis Great Blue Heron Gray Jay Canada Jay Blackbilled Cuckoo 1822 Joseph Mason 18201822 Barred Owl c 1821 with Eastern Gray Squirrel Rev John Bachman 1790 1874 Rector fr St John s Lutheran Church in Charleston South Carolina Bachman s Warbler 7 Vermlvora bachmani 7 1835 7 Background 7 Maria Martin Bachman s secvond wife painted the background which is Franklinia F ranklim39a altamaha plant came from Philadelphia Bachman s Warbler Franklinia No American bird is more mystifying than this fragile warbler scarcely more than four inches long Few living omithologists have seen it Discovered by the Reverend John Bachman near Charleston South Carolina in 1835 it was described to the world by Audubon For ftythree years the little fugitive dropped from sigh before it again turned up this time in Louisiana but during the succeeding few years just before the end of the century hundreds were found It seemed to be common throughout the river swamps of the South living in tangled places where trees stood kneedeep in the stagnant pools Then before anyone noticed it again faded away Very few have been seen during the past forty of fty years 7 RT Peterson Passenger pigeon Extinct Carolina Parakeet Extinct Ivory bille v v 39r 39 7F r39 quot 39 391 quot I wish kind reader it was in my power to present to your mind s eye the favorite resort of the Ivorybilled Woodpecker Would that I could describe the extent of those deep morasses overshadowed by millions of gigantic dark cypresses spreading their sturdy mosscovered branches as if to admonish intruding man to pause and re ect on the many difficulties which he must encounter should he persist in venturing farther into their almost inaccessible recesses extending for miles before him where he should be interrupted by huge projecting branches here and there the massy trunk of a fallen and decaying tree and thousands of creeping and twining plants of numberless species Would that I could represent to you the dangerous nature of the ground its oozing spongy and miry disposition although covered with a beautiful but treacherous carpeting composed of the richest mosses ags and waterlilies no sooner receiving the pressure of the foot than it yields and endangers the very life of the adventurer whilst here and there as he approaches an opening that proves merely a lake of black muddy water his ear is assailed by the dismal croaking of innumerable frogs the hissing of serpents or the bellowing of alligators Would that I could give you an idea of the sultry pestiferous atmosphere that nearly suffocates the intruder during the meridian heat of our dog days Audubon State Commemorative Area Louisiana 7 Oakley Plantation 7 Great Blue Heron Oakley House built in 1799 were John James Audubon painted and tutored Miss Eliza Pirrie 1878 7 Woodcut 7 A Japanese Portrait showing Audubon finding two hundred of his Bird Drawings Destroyed by Rats stored in Henderson Kentucky Robert Havell 17931878 Born in Reading England Robert Havell earned a distinguished reputation for his engraving of all but the first 10 plates of John James Audubon s Birds of America He first visited Audubon in 1839 in New York City and traveled and sketched the countryside His travelweary wife established a house for the family in Ossining on the Hudson River and he later moved to Tarrytown living there from 1857 to his death in 1878 Golden Eagle iAquz39la chrysaetos Audubon s sons John Woodhouse Audubon and Victor Gifford Audubon John James Audubon amp Sons The Vivz39parous Quadrupeds ofNorth America 18459 American Beaver 7 Castor canadensis Collumbian Black Tailed Deer American Badger Guest at the White House with President Andrew Jackson Minnie s Land 156th St Manhattan 1842 Audubon s home sketch by William R Miller in 1852 Birdwatchers on Pennsylvania s Blue Mountain National Audubon Society Egret plumes in ladies hats Audubon John James John James Audubon b Apr 26 1785 d Jan 27 1851 was a FrenchAmerican omithologist noted for his bird drawings and paintings After being educated in France he came to quotMill Grovequot the Audubon estate outside Philadelphia where he first experimented with birdbanding and migration Eventually he devoted his life to painting birds and other animals Audubon earned a living painting portraits and for a while taught drawing in New Orleans He took his bird paintings to a publisher in Edinburgh Scotland and they were printed in Birds of America between 1827 and 1838 with the text Ornithological Biography appearing in five volumes between 1831 and 1839 William MacGillivray a Scottish naturalist collaborated with Audubon on the text and supplied most of the scientific data Audubon had completed more than 400 paintings by 1838 Because he was one of the first US naturalists the Audubon societies of today were named for him Bibliography Adams A B John James Audubon A Biography 1976 Audubon J J Letters 18261840 ed by H Coming 1930 repr 1969 Chancellor John Audubon 1978 Durant Mary and Harwood Michael On the Road with John James Audubon 1980 repr 1984 Ford Alice E John James Audubon 1965 repr 1988 Herrick F H Audubon the Naturalist 2 vols 1938 repr 1968 Henry David Thoreau 1817 1862 Transcendentalism individual as rebel against the established orders of society Walden Pond 18451847 Walden or Life in the Woods 1854 1858 HD Thoreau Made a plea for national preserves in which the bear and the panther and some even of the hunter race may still exist and not be civilized off the face of the earth not for idle sport or food but for inspiration and our own true recreation In wilderness is the preservation of the world Born in Concord Massachusetts on the 12th of July 1817 New England 7 Town Meetings Concord village in 1841 an engraving by J W Barber Left to right Courthouse Unitarian church MiddleseX Hotel Ralph Waldo Emerson Boston preacher who had left his church to become a writerlecturer had moved to Concord in 1834 Nature by Emerson 1858 HD Thoreau Made a plea for national preserves in which the bear and the panther and some even of the hunter race may still exist and not be civilized off the face of the earth not for idle sport or food but for inspiration and our own true recreation Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature in 1836 Nathaniel Hawthome s The Scarlet Letter in 1850 Herman Melville s Moby Dick in 1851 Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom 3 Cabin serially in 1851 Henry David Thoreau s Walden in 1854 Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass in 1855 North Bridge on the Concord River near Concord This picture is an 1869 photograph from a drawing by May Alcott Thoreau was a carpenter a gardener a pencil maker and a surveyor Also a scholar of ancient languages a poet a lecturer a naturalist He played the ute Words giving inspiration to Gandhi and Martin Luther King Thoreau graduated from Harvard College in 1837 Thoreau wrote a student paper that deplores poets who are prone to sing of skylarks and nightingales perched on hedges to the neglect of the homely robinredbrest and the straggling railfences of their own native land Ralph Waldo Emerson 18031882 A Boston preacher who left his church to become a writerlecturer He moved to Concord in 1834 and gave a lecture at Harvard on Nature in 1835 He became a mentor to Henry David Thoreau and supported him in many ways Do not go where the path may lead go instead where there is no path and leave a trail 7 Ralph Waldo Emerson Emerson s Phi Beta Kapa address The American Scholar called our intellectual Declaration of Independence H D Thoreau was a frequent if not constant border at Emerson s home in Concord 3 yrs after graduation offered his degree for 5 He sent 5 to the library equaled the total of all his income for the 4 preceding months Father manufactured leadpencils mother ran a boarding house in Concord The Art of living well He proceeded no profession Zoology or botany T39khoreau s Publications 7 A Short List A Week on the Concord and M errimackRz39ver quot1849 Walden39 Or Life in the Woods 1854 Resistance to Civil Govemmen 1849 Civil Disobedience 1866 Walking The Atlantic Monthly June 1862 quotKtaadn The Maine Woods 1864 Cape Cod 1865 Spring of 1845 Thoreau began building a cabin by Walden Pond on property owned by Emerson Moved in on July 4th Size 10 X 15 feet 2803 12 The cabin at Walden Pond this picture is an 1869 photo from a drawing by May Alcott I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately to front only the essential facts of life and see if I could not learn what it had to teach and not when I came to die discover that I had not lived Henry David Thoreau Walden 1854 Walden 0r Life in the Woods Theme Love of nature Cycle of the seasons is the framework The other great theme is the independence of the individual human being He spent two years two months two days at Walden On August 9 1854 Walden was published at 1 a copy Thoreau pencils luxury items sold for 75 a dozen Thoreau marveled at the perfect symmetry of a Dandelion A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers was rejected by four publishers Thoreau agreed to guarantee the printing costs 290 four years after publication only 219 ofthe 1000 copies had been sold I have now a library of nearly nine hundred volumes over seven hundred of which I wrote myself Is it not well that the author should behold the fruits of his labor My works are piled up on one side of my chamber half as high as my head Transcendentalism amp Civil Disobedience If the movement called transcendentalism stood for the individual as rebel against the established orders of society then Henry David Thoreau was its poster child Henry David Thoreau was a conductor on the Underground Railroad A gift to Thoreau from a thankful runaway slave It is a statuette from Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin While at Walden Thoreau was forced to spend a night in jail for failure to pay a poll tax This experience led to a lecture and article entitled Civil Disobedience He vowed not to support a government that waged imperialistic war against Mexico and permitted slavery Thoreau found a hero in John Brown and his Plea for Captain John Brown is among his best works Thoreau s words have given inspiration to Gandhi and the Rev Martin Luther King Harpers Ferry 7 October 16 1859 The Journal covers the vast ranges of Thoreau s thoughts offering a multitude of observations on life and colorful portraits on nature Published in 14 Volumes Asked by his aunt Henry have you made your peace with God I did not know that we had ever quarreled he said A waterfalls near Montreal visited by Thoreau in 1850 Thoreau traveled to Red Wing Minnesota along the Mississippi River where he hoped to nd a cure for tuberculosis an ailment that took his life shortly after his visit Thoreau died in May of 1862 at the age of fortyfour relatively unknown beyond Concord Emerson delivered the address at the funeral service and published it three months later in the Atlantic Monthly He was bred to no profession he never married he lived alone he never went to church he never voted he refused to pay a taX to the state he ate no esh he drank no wine he never knew the use of tobacco and though a naturalist he used neither trap nor gun It is never too late to give up our prejudices 7 Henry David Thoreau Economy Walden 1854 Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind 7 Ralph Waldo Emerson Do not go where the path may lead go instead where there is no path and leave a trail Ralph Waldo Emerson George Catlin 17 961872 A1tist Ethnologist 1832 Trip up the Missouri River from St Lewis Letters and Notes on the Manners Customs and Condition of the North American Indians 7 1841 What a beautiful and thrilling specimen for America to preserve and hold up to the view of her refined citizens and the world in future ages A nation s Park containing man and beast in all the wild and freshness of their nature s beauty Gateways to the West Harpers Ferry National Historical Park Jefferson National Expansion Memorial 7 St Louis Gateway Arch Arch rises from a forest of trees at the edge of the Mississippi River Design Competition 7 1947 Eero Saarinen Architect Dan Kiley Landscape Architect John Dinkeloo Engineer Market amp Chestnut Sts Old Courthouse where the Dred Scott case was tried in 1847 George Catlin 1796 1872 What a beautiful and thrilling specimen for America to preserve and hold up to the view of her re ned citizens and the world in future ages A nation s Park containing man and 3977 beast in all the wild and freshness of their nature s beauty Ee cha zoo kah ga wa kon Medicine Painter Charles Willson Peale Museum in Philidelphia In 1841 Catlin s book Letters and Notes on the Manners Customs and Condition of the North American Indians was published The stated goal of George Catlin was to rescue from oblivion the look and customs of the vanishing races of native man in America ChiefMah Ta Toh Pa ofthe Mandan Indians 1832 7 Four Bears was the second chief of the Mandan River Bluffs 1320 Miles above St Louis 1832 Mouth ofthe Platte River 900 Miles above St Louis 1832 the closest thing to a Northwest Passage Eagle Dance 184548 Scalp Dance Sioux 1832 Lewis amp Clark saw a similar dance 30 years earlier A Snow Landscape with Buffalo 1854 George Catlin Studio Painting George Catlin Buffalo Dance The Bull Dance M andan O kee pa Ceremony George Catlin c 1832 Buffalo Protection Bi11 vetoed by Ulysses S Grant in 1874 This bill was the first effort by the Congress of the United States to protect a species of wildlife By the spring of 1884 the vast herds of buffalo had nearly been driven to extinction Nature has nowhere presented more beautiful and lovely scenes than those of the vast prairies of the West and of man and beast no nobler specimens than those who inhabit them 7 the Indian and the buffalo 7 joint and original tenants of the soil and fugitives together from the approach of civilized man they have ed to the great plains of the West and there under an equal doom they have taken up their last abode where their race will expire and their bones will bleach together George Catlin This strip of country which extends from the province of Mexico to Lake Winnipeg in the North is almost one entire plain of grass which is and ever must be useless to cultivating man It is here and here chie y that the buffaloes dwell and with and hovering about them live and ourish the tribes of Indians whom God made for the enjoyment of that fair land and its luxuries George Catlin And what a splendid contemplation too when one imagines them as they might in future be seen by some great protecting policy of government preserved in their pristine beauty and wildness in a magnificent park where the world could see for ages to come the native Indian in his classic attire galloping his wild horse with bow and shield and lance amid the eeting herds of elks and buffaloes A nation s Park containing man and beast in all the wild freshness of their nature s beauty George Catlin 7 1832 Journal entry and later in a New York newspaper Indians hunting bison under wolf skins George Catlin Mandan Village 1832 Mandan s Okeepa ritual White Cloud Chief of the Tribe Iowa George Catlin 1844 Little Bear A Hunkpapa Brave 7 He Who Kills the Osages Chief of the Tribe 7 Little Wolf A Famous Warrior The Dog Chief of Bad Arrow Points Band 1832 Brick kilns 1900 Miles above St Louis George Catlin Prairie Blu Burning 1832 George Catlin Prairie Meadows Burning 1832 Medicine Man Performing His Mysteries over a Dying Man 1832 7 Catlin purchased this medicine man s dress and would wear it at his gallery shows 7 A Blackfeet man belonging to the Bear Society The Snowshoe Dance 7 Ojibwa Chippewa dancers 1835 George Catlin Iroquois Chee ah ka tchee 1836 Black Hawk 1832 Indian Removal Act 1930 Osceola led an intense guerrilla war from the swamps of Florida In 1837 soldiers seized him under a white ag of truce The following year shortly before his death Catlin made this portrait at Fort Moultrie South Carolina George Catlin Seminole leader Osceola 1838 Crystal Stone Wife of the Chief 7 Horse Chief Grand Pawnee Head Chief 7 No Fool A Great Fop George Catlin The Running Fox on a Fine Horse National Gallery of Art President Andrew Jackson39s Indian policy had removed the southern Indian Tribes from their native homes in the east Trail of Tears The Southern Democratic Party was anti Indian In 1838 Jefferson Davis shot down a Senate proposal to buy Catlin s paintings 1852 Joseph Harrison acquired the Catlin Indian Gallery in paying off the artist s debts Smithsonian Institution was established for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men in 1846 Catlin s Indian Gallery 450 portraits and 160 artifacts was given to the Smithsonian Institution in 1879 and displayed there from 1883 to 1890 as seen above A recreation of Catlin s Indian Gallery at the Renwick Smithsonian Hudson River School of Painting First American School of Painting 1825187080 Thomas Cole 18011848 The Course of Empire 1 The Savage Stage 7 1834 2 Arcadian or Pastoral State 7 1834 3 The Consummation of Empire 7 1836 4 Destruction 7 1836 5 Desolation 7 1836 Asher Brown Durand 1796 1881 Kindred Spirits 7 1849 Thomas Cole amp William Cullen Bryant Frederick Edwin Church 1826 1900 Albert Bierstadt 18301902 The Rocky Mountains American Sanitary Commission Thomas Moran 18371926 Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone 7 1871 Erie Canal 7 1825 Gov Dwight Clinton Water from Lake Erie into the Hudson R 3 Paintings 1825 John Trumbel History Painter William Dunlap Critic Painter and Asher Durand In the summer of 1825 Thomas Cole went up the Hudson River to paint That fall three of his paintings were in a gallery window and sold to John Trumbel History Painter William Dunlap Critic Painter and Asher Durand Painter Dunlap sold his painting the next day to the mayor of New York City for twice his cost and put the money all in his own pocket He latter wrote a glowing reView of Thomas Cole s work and so started the Hudson River School of Painting The artists of the Hudson River School of Painting had interest in realistic depictions of nature and a desire to celebrate distinctly American scenery Before the beginning of the Hudson River School in 1820 their was 1 Painting in 10 that was a landscape painting of the gallery walls By 1850 9 Painting out of 10 on gallery walls were Landscape Also much of the landscape painting done prior to the emergence of the Hudson River School was allegorical and therefore not necessarily intended to represent a real place and de nitely not the wild lands of America In 1835 Thomas Cole the founder of the Hudson River School wrote an Essay on American Scenery in which he elaborated on the fact that New World wilderness could serve as a source of nationalistic pride The artists of the Hudson River School played an important role in helping Americans see and appreciate naturewildemess In 1820 1 Painting in 10 was a landscape painting In 1850 9 Paintings out of 10 were landscape paintings Asher B Durand s painting at New Orleans Museum of Art Thomas Cole 18011848 Thomas Cole Self Portrait ca 1836 The NewYork Historical Society Thomas Cole Sunny Morning on the Hudson River Thomas Cole Landscape with Deaal Trees Catskill 1825 Thomas Cole The Clove Catskills c 1827 Thomas Cole The Falls of Kaaterskill 1826 Warner Collection of Gulf States Paper Corporation Thomas Cole View from Mount Holyoke Northampton Massachusetts after a Thunderstorm The Oxbow 1836 The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Course of Empire Thomas Cole The Course of Empire The Savage State 1834 The New York Historical Society Thomas Cole The Course of Empire The Pastoral or Arcadian State 1834 The New York Historical Society Thomas Cole The Course ofEmpire The Consummation ofEmpire 183536 The New York Historical Society Thomas Cole The Course of Empire Destruction 1836 The New York Historical Society Thomas Cole The Course of Empire Desolation 1836 The New York Historical Society James Fenimore Cooper 17891851 7 Frontier stories The Leatherstocking Tales The rs author to draw attention to the fact that the American Indian culture was rapidly disappearing Leatherstocking Tales and Last of the Mohecans by James Fenimore Cooper described the wilderness charter of New World landscape Thomas Cole Scene from The Last of the Mohicans Cora Kneeling at the Feet of Tamenund 1827 Thomas Cole Expulsion from the Garden of Eden 182728 Museum of Fine Arts Boston Thomas Cole 7 quotThe Voyage of Life Childhoodquot 183940 Thomas Cole 7 quotThe Voyage of Life Yout quot 1840 Thomas Cole 7 quotThe Voyage of Life Manhoodquot 1840 Thomas Cole 7 quotThe Voyage of Life Old Agequot 1840 Kindred Spririts 1849 1848 Death of Thomas Cole Cole amp Bryant Painted by Asher B Durand and showing the artist s two friends the painter Thomas Cole and the poet William Cullen Bryant on a ledge above Kaaterskill Cove in the Catskills of New York Wilderness untameed nature everywhere asserts her claim upon us and the recognition of this claim constitutes an essential part of our art Asher Durand Asher B Durand 17961886 Images like these of wilderness helped the young American republic fell optimistic and important in the World Asher B Durand Study from Nature Rocks and Trees C 1836 The New York Historical Society Asher B Durand New Orleans Museum of Art Asher Brown Durand 7 In The Woods 1855 Frederic Edwin Church 18261900 Olana is the name of the Persianstyle home Frederic Edwin Church 18261900 built on the summit of his property in 1870 along the Hudson River Frederick Edwin Church Coast Scene Mount Desert Sunrise off the Maine Coast 1863 Twilight in the Wilderness Frederick Church 1860 Niagara F all from the American Side 1867 Frederick Edwin Church Frederic Edwin Church Vale of St Thomas Jamaica 1867 Frederic Edwin Church Rapids of the Susquehanna before 1863 Frederick Church Sunset 1856 Frederic Edwin Church The Heart of the Andes 1859 The Metropolitan Museum of Art Frederic Edwin Church Detail The Heart of the Andes 1859 The Metropolitan Museum of Art Samuel Colman Storm King on the Hudson 1866 Albert Bierstadt 18301902 Albert Bierstadt The Domes of the Yosemite 9 8 X 15 1867 The St Johnsbury Athenaeum Vermont Albert Bierstadt The Domes of the Yosemite St Johnsbury Athenaeum The St Johnsbury Athenaeum and Public Library Vermont Albeit Bierstadt Surveyor s Wagon in the Rockies ca 1859 Albeit Bierstadt The Rocky Mountains 1863 Exhibited at the New York Metropolitan Fair April 1864 as a fund raiser for the American Sanitary Commission Albeit Bierstadt The Oregon Trail 1869 7 Bierstadt brilliantly captured the ideals of Manifest Destiny Albeit Bierstadt Giant Redwood Trees of California 1874 7 Oil on canvas 52 12 X 43 inches Albeit Bierstadt Redwood Trees c 1865 Albeit Bierstadt In the Mountains 1867 Albeit Bierstadt Sunrise Yosemite Valley nd Albeit Bierstadt Seal Rock c 1872 Albeit Bierstadt The Last of the Bu alo 1888 71 X119 Corcoran Gallery of Art In 1888 there was said to have been 541 buffalo in the United States Albeit Bierstadt The Buffalo Trail 186768 Albeit Bierstadt The Landing ofColumbus 1893 80 X 120 The City of Plainfield New Jersey Alvan Fisher American 17921863 Niagara Falls 1823 Thomas Moran 18371926 Thomas Moran and his daughters at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon circa 1910 From 1899 to 1920 Moran spent nearly every winter at the Grand Canyon Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Thomas Moran Thomas Moran Cliffs of the Green River 1874 The Grand Canyon of the Colorado Thomas Moran in 1892 for the Santa Fe Railroad Thomas Moran Old Faithful 1873 Thomas Moran GreatBlue Spring of the Lower Geyser Basin 1871 Worthington Whittredge The Old Hunting Grounds 1864 Thomas Hill Yosemite Valley El Capitan and Bridalveil Falls nd William Keith Headwaters of the San Joaquin 1878 John Muir 18381914 1864 Yosemite 7 First Scenic Reserve created by Federal Action 1000 Mile saunter through Kentucky Tennessee Georgia and Florida 1867 1868 San Francisco 7 150 miles to Yosemite 1892 7 Sierra Club established 7 Muir elected rst President Gifford Pinchot 1896 National Forestry Commission meeting Grand Canyon 1905 7 Recession of Yosemite Valley 1906 7 San Francisco Fire Rakera Act 7 Hetch Hetchy 7 Signed by Woodrow Wilson Dec 191913 When we try to pick out anything by itself we nd it hitched to everything else in the Universe 7 John Muir Dumbar Scotland a coastal town was the birthplace of John Muir where the Muir Family Home was at 130134 High Street in the Lorne Temperance Hotel John rescues his brother DaVie from an after bedtime roofclimbing contest In school in Scotland John began learning about natural history he was excited by John James Audubon s tales of American wildlife Hickory Hill near Portage Wisconsin was Muir s childhood home in the New World Here he was exposed to carbonic acid gas in an eighty foot well In 1864 John and DaVie Muir camped near Niagara Falls before going to Meaford Ontario Muir s Thousandmile Walk Savannah s Bonaventure Cemetery Muir took refuge in this weird and beautiful abode of the dead Chattahoochee River Georgia Muir was swept downstream wile fording the Chattahoochee River during his Thousand mile walk in 1867 Cedar Key Florida And from the eastern boundary of the vast golden ower bed rose the mighty Sierra miles in height and so gloriously colored and so radiant it seemed not clothed with light but wholly composed of it like the wall of some celestial city 7 John Muir Yosemite Falls has far the richest as well as the most powerful voice of all the falls of the valley its tones varying from sharp hiss and rustle of the wind in the glossy leaves of the liveoaks and the soft sifting hushing tones on the pines to the loudest rush and roar of storm winds and thunder among the crags of the summit peaks 7 John Muir John Muir amp Ralph Waldo Emerson Visiting Yosemite in 1871 at the age of 68 philosopherwriter Ralph Waldo Emerson listens to his young disciple John Muir as the two stand solemnly among towering sequoias in the Mariposa Grove After a moment of quiet reverence the frail man whose writings had long inspired Muir spoke with awe There were giants in those days Muir replied You are yourself a sequoia Stop and get acquainted with your big brethren But Emerson departed hurried away by friends concerned for his health To a short list of men he had known who had most in uenced him he added the name John Muir Muir up a tree in 18727A violent gale was roaring through the forest of the Sierra s and John Muir went up a lOOfoot Douglas fir to experience a windstorm Never before did I enjoy so noble an exhilaration of motion My eye roved over the piney hills and dales as over fields of waving grain and felt the light running in ripples and broad swelling undulations across the valleys from ridge to ridge as the shining foliage was stirred by corresponding waves of air In 1908 siX years before Muir s death Theodore Roosevelt established Muir Woods National Monument in honor of John Muir 1880 S Hall Young s dog Stickeen later given to Muir s daughter Helen In 1892 John Muir together with others such as Joseph Le Conte founded the Sierra Club It has become America s oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization Muir becomes its Sierra Clubs president and held this post until his death in 1914 1908 First White House Conference on Conservation John Burroughs amp John Muir on the Harriman Alaska expedition in 1899 Muir married Louie Wanda Strentzel in 1880 and their home was Martinez California S Hall Young s dog Stickeen was given to Muir s daughter Helen Robert Underwood Johnson Muir s editor and ally to preserve the wilderness Muir attended a Yosemite conference on National Parks in 1913 Cars were permitted on Yosemite roads in 1913 Under celtain precautionary restrictions these useful progressive blunt nosed mechanical beetles will hereafter be allowed to puff their way into all the parks and mingle their gas breath with the breath of the pines and waterfalls Theodore Roosevelt established Muir Wood National Monument in 1908 In God s wilderness lies the hope of the world 7 John Muir Rakera Act which granted Hetch Hetchy to San Francisco was signed by Woodrow Wilson on Dec 19 1913 The Muir lead campaign to save the Hetch Hetchy was started back in 1907 Hetch Hetchy Valley in a National Park is now a reservoir This means that no park is sacred and can be altered at any time from its mission of preservation Yosemite s Hetch Hetchy Valley dammed and ooded by the O Shaughnessy Dam John Muir and the Sierra Club fought for a decade to save the valley but lost the fight The dam provides water for a reservoir in San Francisco Muir died of pneumonia at the age of 76 John Muir Earthplanet Universe W H Jackson A Adams William Henry Jackson 18431942 1866 Union Paci c Railroad 187078 Hayden Geological Survey 1879 Jackson Photographic Co Ansel Adams 19021984 1932 Group f64 7 Zone System 1940 Helped found first museum collection of photography 7 Museum of Modern Art NYC 1937 Adams moved to Yosemite 1946 First academic department 7 California School of Fine Arts San Francisco William Henry Jackson 18431942 7 This photograph of Jackson was taken for a program celebrating his ninetyfourth birthday in 1937 Jackson was nineteen years old when this photo was taken and was about to volunteer for the Union army William H Jackson Approaching Chimney Rock Green River Butte Wyoming Photographic Dark Tent amp Traveling Dark Carriage At Glacier Point in Yosemite William Henry Jackson prepares to take a scenic photo Dr Ferdinand V Hayden 18291888 7 Hayden maintained a tenuous link with his professor s chair at Pennsylvania by wearing a frayed dress coat His horse is named Patsy Dr Ferdinand V Hayden 18291888 7 187078 7 Hayden Geological Survey Early Yellowstone Park Ranger 7 Harry Yount game hunter for the Survey and the first ranger of the Yellowstone National Park Thomas Moran Rock Creek at the foot of Snow Mass Mountain with Elk Mountains in the background Flaming Gorge on the Green River was the rst of the canyons navigated by Major John Wesley Powell in his trip down the Green and Colorado Rivers in 1869 Hypo Jackson s retired Army Mule WH Jackson Garden of the Gods This may be the rst photograph ever taken of the Garden of the Gods Colorado US Geological Survey WH Jackson Union Paci c Trestle at Echo Canyon Congress gave 6400 acres of public land later twice that much plus cash subsidy that varied with terrain dif culty for each mile of railroad track constructed Jackson Mount ofthe Holy Cross 1873 Painting of the Mount of the Holy Cross by Jackson William Henry Jackson Grand Court World Columbian Exposition in Chicago 1893 Ansel Adams 19021984 7 Zone System of Photography 7 In my mind s eye I visualize how a particular sight and feeling will appear on a print If it excites me there is a good chance it will make a good photograph Ansel Adams Mount McKinley and Wonder Lake Denali National Park Alaska 1947 Ansel Adams photographing in Yosemite Valley 1944 Ansel Adams Clearing Winter Storm 1944 Adams Monolith The Face of H alf Dome Yosemite National Park 1927 Adams Moon and H alf Dome Yosemite National Park 1960 0 Alfred Stieglitz 18641946 Photo Ansel Adams Alfred Stieglitz An American Place New York City Zeiss Contax 35mm camera circa 1939 1933 Sierra Club High Trip to the Evolution and Palisades regions of the Sierra Sand Dunes Death Valley 1948 7 Aspens Northern New Mexico 1958 Ansel Adams Moonrise Hernandez New Mexico c 1941 National Agencies Responsible for Green Land Protection 0 Park Service Interior Department 1 National Parks 2 Monuments 3 Recreation Areas 4 SeashoreLakeshore 5 Parkways 6 Battle eldsHistoric SitesN Capital Parks 0 U S Forest Service Dept of Agriculture 1 National Forests 2 National Grasslands U S Fish ampWildlife Service Interior Department 1 National Wildlife Refuges Other BLM COE TVA etc Park Service 7 National Park Service Act 7 1916 Department of the Interior National Parks Monuments Recreation Areas SeashoreLakeshore Parkwa s Battle eldsHistoric SitesN Capital Parks 9959 The National Park Service currently has under its administration 355 sites totaling 80 million acres in 49 states including 50 national parks 79 National Monuments 69 National Historic Sites and 29 National Historical Parks National Park Service National Parks Rocky Mountain National Park Colorado Great Smoky Mountains National Park North Carolina amp Tennessee Glacier National Park Montana Going to the Sun Road National Monuments Saguaro National Monument 7 now a National Park Chiricahua National Monument Arizona Petri ed Forest Painted Desert National Monument National Park Arizona Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Arizona National Recreation Areas Lake Mead National Recreation Area Arizona Golden Gate National Recreation Area California National SeashoreLakeshore Gulf Islands National Seashore Horn Island Mississippi Gulf Islands National Seashore Naval Live Oak Reservation President John Adams called the US Navy Wooden Walls and considered the Navy the first line of defense The first tree farm in the United States was developed near Pensacola Florida in 1828 for the purpose of using live oak timber for shipbuilding In 1929 the live oak timbers from this area was used for the restoration work of Old Ironsides Point Reyes National Seashore National Parkways Colonial Parkway Virginia Skyline Drive Shenandoah National Park Virginia Natchez Trace Parkway 7 Natchez Trace Indian trail from Natchez Ms To Nashville Tn National BattlefieldsHistoric SitesNCapital Parks National Trails amp Scenic Rivers Tumacacori National Monument Arizona Pigeon Point Lighthouse California Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery Mississippi National Capital Parks Appalachian Trail Buffalo National River Arkansas US Forest Service Depaltment of Agriculture Established in 1905 and controls 193 Million acres in National Forests amp National Grasslands Bristlecone Pine Area Inyo National Forest California Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area Ashley National Forest Utah Saline Bayou National Scenic River Kisatchie National Forest LA US Fish and Wildlife Service 7 Department of the Interior National Wildlife Refuge System First National Wildlife Refuge established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 Florida s Pelican Island 535 National Wildlife Refuges and some 3000 small waterfowl breeding and nesting areas Aransas National Wildlife Refuge Texas Whooping Crane Grus Americana Other BLM COE TVA etc Bureau of Land Management Corps of Engineers Tennessee Valley Authority Values of Wilderness 1 Protection of Natural Areas and their inherent scenic qualities 2 Area acts as a Benchmark which allows for the evaluation of man s development of other areas 3 Maintenance of habitat for endangered species and other forms of life that may be important to man s future 4 Recreation benefits that provide for the experience of solitude It may be that this experience for man will be of the highest importance since many feel that this encourages man s thinking and creativity 5 Scienti c research Wilderness 1964 Wilderness Act PL 88577 David Brower Former Sierra Club executive director Gila Wilderness Gila National Forest New Mexico Wilderness Definition The Act defines wilderness as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man where man himself is a visitor who does not remain 1 Protection of Natural Areas and their Inherent Scenic Qualities Aesthetic Inspiration Air Quality Biodiversity Ecological Complexity leads to stability International Agreement HistoricalArcheological Understanding Water Quantity amp Quality N Benchmark Evaluation of man39s use of the land American Dream of Home Ownership may not be the best habitat for man s survival 3 Habitat for Endangered species and other forms of life Importance of all living organisms not presently known Florida Panther Everglades Florida Sandhill Crane 7 Florida Coyote C am39s latrans Ketchum Idaho Bosque del Apache New Mexico Cougar cub Montana Cloudless Sulphur Butter y Red Rock Canyon Oklahoma 4 Recreation Bene ts Experience of solitude Encouragement of thinking and creativity Maroon Bells Snowmass Wilderness White River National Forest Colorado Caney Creek Wilderness Ouachita National Forest Arkansas 5 Scienti c Research Basic Control Scienti c Wilderness Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge Sipsey Wilderness B Branch Bankhead National Forest Alabama Joyce KilmerSlickrock Wilderness Pisgah National Forest North Carolina Capitol Reef Utah Sands National Monument New Mexico Chiricahua National Monument Arizona Monument Valley Arizona North Cascades Washington Maroon Bells Snowmass Wilderness White River National Forest Colorado Ponderosa Pine Conbaley Canyon Washington Shining Rock Wilderness Pisgah National Forest North Carolina Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge Oklahoma Great blue heron Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge Idaho Inyo National Forest California Caney Creek Wilderness Arkansas Bandelier National Monument New Mexico Wild by Law Aldo Leopold 1887 7 1948 Author of A Sand C ountyAlmanac published in 1949 a year after his death Aldo Leopold s shack Barboo Wisconsin Sand Country Central Lowlands Physiographic Province The Gila Wilderness was established by the Forest Service in 1924 Bob Marshall Helped found The Wilderness Society in 1935 How many wilderness areas do we need Marshall was asked He replied How many Brahms symphonies do we need Howard Zahniser Worked for The Wilderness Society Atchafalaya Basin Coastal Plain Mississippi EmbaymentMississippi River Alluvial Plain Flood of 1927 Mississippi River and Tributary Project NEPA Plan National Environmental Policy Ac PL 91190 Signed into law Jan 1 1970 Atchafalaya Trace Commission National Heritage Area Martin Reuss Designing the Bayous The Control of Water In theAtchafalaya Basin 1800 1995 Gov Printing Of ce


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.