ELEMENTS OF DAIRYING
ELEMENTS OF DAIRYING DARY 1048
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Date Created: 10/13/15
DAIRY SCIENCE 1048 PACKET 1 January 15 2009 Introduction to the Dairy Industry Historyl Current StatisticsI and Trends Domestication of dairy cattle and the use of milk for human food began somewhere in Northeast Africa or Asia 60006500 BC Why was domestication of animals important More dependable source of food than hunting Excellent means of converting nonhuman food to high quality human food Provided for transportation power and clothing Early History 3200 BC Euphrates Valley mosaics ofpeople milking cows behind the hind legs 3000 BC Egyptians milked cows from the side used milk butter and cheese 1550 to 750 BC Greek and Roman records indicate that milk and cheese were an important part of the diet Butter was initially used as an ointment and medicant but not as a food Butter used by some Europeans but not extensively until the 18th century Norway Major development is the dairy industry from the Christian ear to the 185 Os occurred in Europe US HISTORY First cattle came to West Indies Columbus s second voyage 1611 cow arrive at Jamestown colony 16 24 cows reach Plymouth colony US dairy industry began as a part of frontier farming cows produced milk meat and power Early farmers had either shelter or grain for cows in winter limited hay What did this mean Production went way down in winter so to keep milk for your family you needed to have a cow or two to support your family 1871 Chicago Time of the great Chicago fire caused because a family cow kicked over a lantern and caught the hay on fire causing a traumatic experience Dairy Industry Today Includes Dairy farmer who produces the milk Processor who provides a variety of dairy products Retailers who bring products to consumer Dairying the science and business that deals with the production processing and marketing of milk and milk products Dairy Industry think dairy cows milk ice cream yogurt cheese etc The Dairy Industry Milk universal food and the most nearly perfect Dairy cow quotBasic Unit No wonder she has been called the quotFoster Mother of the Human Race Horns are removed to protect people who work wit them and the cows from themselves because of pecking order Why does the Dairy Industry Exist Consumer demand for milk and milk products Opportunity for profit for those concerned with 0 Production 0 Processing 0 Distribution of milk and dairy products Developments that helped growth of dairy industry 1841 first regular rail shipment of milk 1856 Pasteur started experiments 1895 commercial pasteurizer introduced 1908 compulsory law for all milk except from TB tested cows 1861 Mechanical refrigeration became available 1884 milk bottle invented 1890 Tuberculin testing healthy cows are essential to profitable dairying 1895 first milking machine 1919 homogenized milk sold 1932 increasing Vitamin D in milk made practical 400 IUquart 1936 first AI stud started AI 9 artificial insemination Pasteurization main function is to kill pathogens in milk Legislative Acts and Land Grant System 1862 Land Grant Act 1st Morrill Act established a system ofland grant universities agricultural universities and allowed average people to be able to attend college 1887 Hatch Act established experiment stations primary role to experiment 1914 Smith Lever Act established the cooperative extension service purpose was to take knowledge from experiment stations and apply it out in the field LSU and A amp M College LA general Assembly established the LS Seminary of Learning and Military Science opened in Jan 1860 1869 moved to Baton Rouge 0 name changed to LSU in 1870 1874 legislature established LS Ag amp Mechanical College 1877 merged in Baton Rouge and name changed to LSU and AampM College 1886 US government gave Pentagon Barracks to LA as a campus for LSU and AampM College 1922 construction began at present site 1925 moved to current site LSU Agricultural Center 1972 LSU Board established the enter for Agricultural Science and Rural Development 1982 Name changed to LSU Ag Center Role in relation to land grant mission 0 LSU Ag Center research and extension 0 LSU and AampM College teaching January 22 2009 Notes anuar 29 2009 Thursday Tour Dairy Plant 9 10 am LOOK AT GRAPHS IN PACKETS Cow numbers in United States run about 9 million dairy cow Over the past 10 years we ve seen about a 39 decrees in the amount of herds Herd size increase number ofherds decrease The average cow in the United States produces a little over 20000 lbs of milk a year Amount of milk made has been on a steady increase of 18 over the last 10 years Factors that in uence trends Milk cow numbers supply and demand 0 Decrease when productioncow out paces demand 0 Increase when demand increases Increase in herd size 0 Labor saving technology Production per cow 0 Improved genetics nutrition herd health general overall herd management Genetics General Management Advanced New Technology all these things have contributed to increase milk productioncow Milk production is increasing Milk production is shifting west Midwest southwest How is this milk utilized 2005 Utilization ofUS Milk Supply Cheese 396 Fluid Milk 331 Butter 129 Frozen Products 81 10 lbs milk 1 lb cheese How much will cows produce World Record 70 612 pounds in 365 days by CityEdge Commotion Excell WOW US Average 20000 poundscow 2320 galyr or 37118 glassesyr o This will provide more than 12000 people with the recommended daily serving of milk LSU Dairy January 2008 DHIA test information o 69 cows in milk all Holstein 0 Test Day average 836 pounds per day I 97 gallons per day or 155 glasses of milk 0 Butterfat 40 0 Protein 31 26 pounds 0 Rolling Herd Average 24 875 pounds 2892 gallons 0 Top producing herd in LA Herds with less than 100 still make up 70 of dairy herds 2007 Louisiana Dairy Industry Parish 9 Herds 9 Adult cows Tangipahoa 9 83 9 9915 Washington 9 67 9 7710 St Helena 9 20 9 2700 De Soto 9 15 9 2842 91 of the herds 92 of the dairy cows and milk production US Milk production has increase at about 47 from 1950 to 2000 Production ofwaste on the dairy farm has decreased by 37 Milk Composition and Nutritional Value Foods of animal origin contribute significantly to the nutrients in the average US diet 2004 63 of the Protein 19 Dairy 23 of Energy 86 Dairy 99 ofVitamin 812 2 0 Dairy However they also contributed 95 of the cholesterol 14 Dairy 45 of saturated fat 21 Dairy 33 of total fat 10 Dairy Milk The physiological secretion of the normal healthy mammary gland of mammals for the nourishment of their young Grade A Fluid or Market Milk milk produced under the most rigid sanitary regulations can be used for uid or any type of dairy product Grade B Manufactured grade milk produced under regulations less strict than those for Grade A milk can NOT be sold as uid milk Milk Information Compositionmixed herd milk 0 87 water 8589 o 13 solids I 35 protein 3040 37 fat 30 60 I 49 lactose 48 50 I 07 minerals 6 8 Legal minimum for whole milk o 325 fat 0 825 SNF 0 1150 Total Solids SNF solids not fat Milk Protein Casein 82 of milk protein Whey proteins 18 Represents about 20 of the total calories in milk 19 of dietary protein supply High biological value contains all the essential amino acids in proportion to what the body needs Proteins are made up of amino acids Proteins have a lot of different functions Lactose Milk Sugar Glucose Galactose Lactose 30 of calories in milk 45 of the carbohydrates in US diet About 16 as sweet as table sugar Milk Fat Most variable component of milk depends on breed feed etc 11 of the total fat in the US diet 48 of total calories in whole milk 8 02 contains 8 grams fat amp 150 calories 0 8 g X 9calg 72 calories 0 72150 X 100 48 of calories from fat January 27 2009 Ash 9 mineral content in milk What does all this mean from a diet standpoint 2000calorie diet with not more than 30 of the calories from fat 2000 calories X 30 600 calories from fat 600 calories 9 caloriesgram 667 grams of fat 8 oz ofwhole milk contains 8 g of fat 8 oz of 1 low fat milk contains 25 g of fat Milk is a mixture oflipids fat that eXists as microscopic globules suspended in milk Milk Fat continued The fatsoluble vitamins are normal components of milk fat All Vitamins are either fat soluble based or water based Vitamins A D E and K Vitamin D added to all milk at 400 IUquart Vitamin A added to low fat milks at 2000 IUquart because when taking the fat out of the milk to make it low fat the vitamin A is also removed so they have to put it back in Significance ofvitamin d was for rickets a bone disease Minerals in Milk Calcium and Phosphorus are present in a good ration 121 71 of total Calcium in US diet 32 oftotal P in US diet Potassium K is the major mineral in milk Vitamins in Milk Milk contains many vitamins o Rovofavin B2 26 ofUS diet 0 Cobalamin B12 20 ofUS diet 0 Pyridoxine B6 8 ofUS diet Most uid milk is fortified with Vitamin D so that milk provides a well balanced source of fat soluble as well as water soluble Bvitamins vitamins Milk is a quotnutrient dense food provides a high level of essential nutrients compared to calories One serving 802 of 1 lowfat milk provides of DV 2000 calorie diet Calcium 30 Vitamin D 25 Phosphorus 20 Protein 16 Ribo avin B2 24 Fat 4 From a nutritional standpoint the most important constituents of milk are Protein Calcium Phosphorus Ribo avin B2 Vitamin D How does the cow fit in 7 20000 lb production at 35 fat yields 0 700 pounds ofprotein o 980 pounds oflactose o 700 pounds offat 0 140 pounds of minerals 0 2520 pounds more than 1 ton of highly digestible nutrients Meet the needs of an adult man 0 Protein 10 yrs 0 Calcium 30 yrs 0 Phosphorus 25 yrs 0 Energy 5 years 0 Ribo avin B2 17yrs Milk is a nutrient dense beverage Milk will sustain life longer than any other single food Not a perfect food but one of the most perfect available Problems related to Milk Lactose intolerance inability to digest lactose o Lactase is the enzyme that digests lactose I Amount of lactase decreases as you get older 0 People with African Asian Mediterranean and American Indian descent have most problem with lactose intolerance Many people who are lactose intolerance still can consume hard cheeses yogurt buttermilk lactose free milk Milk allergy most often related to a milk protein Blactoglobulin Heart disease Milk Composition of Different Species Milk of mammals is remarkably similar in that it contains a mixture of water protein fat lactose minerals and vitamins The milk secreted by a particular mammal is the best milk to meet the needs of the young of that species Large physiological range in degree of maturity of animals at birth 0 Guinea pig suckles only a short time and can take adult food almost from birth Ioey entirely helpless at birth and depends of mother for first few months oflife Some whale calves weigh 23 tons at birth and 7 months later at weaning weigh 23 tons Colostrum first milk secreted from the mammary gland of mammals immediately after parturition prior to birth the calf has no passive immunity 0 0 Bovine Colostrum 24 solids 2X normal milk 14 protein 35X normal milk most of this is due to immunoglobulins antibodies 67 fat 15X normal milk 11 Minerals 15X normal milk 27 Lactose 05X normal milk Should give 24 quarts 1 gallon of colostrum to calf during its first 24 hours Consumption Trends and Factors That In uence Demand for Milk and Milk Products Price demand for dairy products is inelastic o The demand for uid milk items is more inelastic than for manufactured items Gender males consume more milk and dairy products than females Age per capita consumption usually decreases with age Level of Income consumption of milk and milk products increases with level if income This also follows as countries become more af uent US about 10 of disposable income goes for food dairy represents about 10 of this value or 1 of disposable income Carbonate Beverages over time we have seen an increased consumption of carbonated beverages and decreased consumption of uid milk Distribution and Packaging 0 Most milk is sold in supermarkets in one gallon plastic jugs less than 2 home delivery Advertising o 1983 creation of the national dairy promotion and research board producer check off 0 1995 processor funded milk mustache advertising campaign February 3 2 009 S t Exam Tuesday Feb 10m Milk Quality and Processing 1 Highly perishable 2 Easily subject to adulteration Quality What does this imply Cleanliness and care in production and handling indicated by microbiological count Possession of desirable aroma and avor Freedom form adulteration any substance or nutrient added must be indicated on the label Possession of adequate amounts of nutritionally important nutrients Milk Quality Tests Temperature indirect measure of quality Raw milk must be cooled to 45 F or less within 2 hours of milking Bacterial Count spoilage and keeping quality is directly related to number of microorganisms present TWO TESTS DMC Direct Microscopic Test very quickly SPC Standard Plate Count Raw Milk 100000 cfuml or less at farm 300000 cfuml or less in tanker Ideal 10000 or less Pasteurized milk 20000 cfuml or less enforcement Causes ofa High Bacterial Count Cooling system failure or inadequate cooling Improper cleaning of milking equipment Poor cow prep prior to milking 10 Somatic Cell Count SCC body cells all normal milk will contain some of these cells sloughed milk secreting cells white blood cells leucocytes High cell count can indicate a herd health program Legal limit 750000 cellsml Raw milk should contain less than 300000 cellsml Causes of High Somatic Cell Count SCC Mastitis in ammation of the mammary gland Hot humid temperatures in summer months reduces milk product per cow and concentrates the cells Freezing Point Water freezes at 0 C Milk freezes at between 0530 amp 0550 C A freezing point no higher than 0530 C is required for Grade A milk Reasons for an elevated freezing point Added water intentional or nonintentional Dip or improper slope to milk lines allowing water to collect during washing Antibiotics Every tanker of milk is checked for antibiotics before it is unloaded Zero Tolerance ifa tanker tests positive the tanker is sealed and the health department is immediately notified Possible causes of antibiotic residue Failure to discard milk for recommended withdrawal time after treating for veterinary purposes Using animal feeds containing antibiotics Failure to maintain accurate records of animal treatment Milk from cow to consumer Production of raw milk on the farm quotQuality begins on the farm Cow converts feed nutrients to milk Harvesting of milk milking procedure Cooling storage and pickup Milks picked up every other day 11 Responsibilities of hauler Check milk for the temperature aroma and appearance Measure amount of milk in bulk tank Agitate the milk and obtain a sample Pump milk from farm bulk tank to milk tanker Pick up milk from other farms and deliver to dairy plant Tankers can hold about 6000 gallons of milk Receiving and Processing Milk is checked for quality before being unloaded Standardization blending different milks to get the proper fat amount Addition ofVitamin D Homogenization 0 Purpose to break up fat globules into smaller globules to prevent fat separation Creaming Pasteurization final step 0 Purpose to kill pathogens 0 Other effects ofpasteurization kills spoilage microorganisms inactivates enzymes 0 161 F for 15 seconds Cooling and Packaging Storage and Distribution Methods of Pasteurization LTLT Low Temperature Long Time 0 145 F 30 min HTST High Temperature Short Time 0 161 F for 14 seconds UHT Ultra High Temperature 0 280 F for 2 seconds Milk and Milk Products 9 Packet TITLED MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS FLUID MILKS Cheese A concentrated dairy product obtained by draining the whey after coagulation of casein The principle involved in almost all cheese depends on coagulation of casein Unripened coagulate casein with acid Ripened coagulate casein with enzymes and culture acids age Cheese classified on moisture content 12 Cheddar Cheese Milk is pasteurized and put in a cheese vat milk is not homogenized Heated about 30 minutes and culture added acidity is monitored Rennin added to coagulate the mass Curd is cut into cubes and cooked in whey Drained by trenching and curds are packed on sides of table Warm curds mat together cheddaring Milled and salter Packed in hoops and pressed for 12 24 hours Cured ripened February 5 2009 Ice Cream Contains a minimum of 10 fat Ingredients 0 Cream milk nonfat milk solids o Sweeteners sugar corn syrup 0 Stabilizers prevent ice crystals and give a product a smooth taste 0 Emulsifiers improve whipping quality The ice cream miX is aerated by the dasher during freezing o Overrun the amount ofincrease in volume resulting from the incorporation of air during freezing Finished product must not weight less than 45 pounds per gallon Cultured Products Yogurt miXture of milk and cream fermented by a culture oflactic acid producing bacteria Buttermilk cultured product Sour creams cultured products Approximate quantities of milk to make one pound of product Butter 21 lbs of whole milk Cheese 10 lbs of whole milk Ice cream 1 gal 12 lbs of whole milk TEST 1 MATERIAL EVERYTHING ABOVE 13 Feb Bre ruary 12 2009 eds of Dairy Cattle TERMINOLOGY Bre H01 14 Breed a group of animals related by decent possessing common characteristics traits and developed for a particular function Registered Purebred animals whose parentage dam amp sire or lineage can be traced through breed association registries Grade animal that possess the characteristics of a breed but their lineage can not be traced Scrub an animal of nondescript or mixed parentage and does not possess the characteristics of any breed Breed Associations 0 Formed in the late 19th century 0 Original function was to record ancestry and issue registration papers 0 Expanded function for promotional activities breed improvement and education eds of Dairy Cattle Holstein 952 main dairy cow Iersey 38 Brown Swiss 4 Guernsey 3 Ayrshire 2 Milking Shorthorn 1 stein Origin Netherlands Second oldest of the pure dairy breeds Color Black and White or red and white recessive trait with markings clearly defined Head Clean cut proportionate to body forehead broad and moderately dished Size 1500 lb Produce the highest value of milk with the lowest percent of fat and protein Bull can weigh up to 2200 Large capacious udders machinery needed to produce large amounts of milk Large size feed capacity Rugged strong constitution Ability to withstand cooler climate Docile disposition Excellent for veal beef and cull salvage value 0 Large size 0 Rapid and efficient growth 0 Desirable carcass characteristics Iersey Smallest of the dairy breeds Origin Isle ofjersey Color usually a shade of fawn with or without white markings Muzzle is black encircled by a light colored ring Tongue and switch can be black white or both Head clean cut proportionate to stature showing refinement face slightly double dished Size 900 lb Convert less carotene to Vitamin A fat milk of a slightly yellow color Produce more milk per pound ofbody weight than any breed Guernsey Origin Isle of Guernsey Color Shade of fawn with white markings clearly defined a clear buff muzzle is preferred over a smoky or black muzzle Head clean cut forehead broad and slightly dished Size 1150 lb Produces smallest amount of milk highest fat and protein content Convert less carotene to Vitamin A fat milk of a slightly yellow color Ayrshire Origin County Ayr Scotland Color Light to deep cherry red mahogany brown or a combination of any of these colors with white or white alone Head clean cut proportionate to body forehead broad and moderately dished Size 1200 lb Brown Swiss 15 Origin Switzerland Color Solid brown varying from very light to dark muzzle is black encircled by a mealy colored ring Head Clean cut proportionate to body forehead broad and slightly dished Size 1500 lb Oldest of the dairy breed Milking Shorthorn Origin England Color Either red red and white or roan Head Clean cut proportionate to body forehead broad and moderately dished Size 1400 lb Declared dairy breed in 1969 PDCA 1972 Last breed to be recognized as a true dairy breed PDCA Purebred Dairy Cattle Association Established in 1940s Deal with programs or problems which are common or of concern to all breed association PDCA Unified Scorecard Unified rules ofproduction testing Show ring standards Code of ethics Choosing a Breed Profit can depend more on the individual than on the breed Reason for choosing a breed 0 Personal preference 0 Predominant breed in the area 0 Market for product Grade vs Registered Can grades produce as much milk YES Can grades make as much genetic progress YES Do grades have as much opportunity for cattle sales Registered have greater advantage Registered business can cost more 0 Registration fees 0 Advertising 0 Type Classification Other dairy cows DeXter Danish Red Dutch Belted Lakenvelder 16 Devon Gir Dairy Bulls Considered most dangerous Website wwwansiokstateedubreedsanttle February 17 2009 Dairy Cattle Genetics and Breeding Website wwwholsteinfoundationorg Click on youth programs Click on workbooks Genetics and Breeding Choosing the parents of the neXt generation Natural survival of the fittest Artificial we make the decisions 0 Selection of sire father and dam mother 0 Cow culling remove animal from the herd I Voluntary removed because low production I Involuntary removed for anything else eX Sick younger animals not enough room for older cows History of Genetics First documented genetic improvement of cattle o 1760 1795 by Robert Blakewell in England Breed associations established in later part of 19th century 1920 s performance test 1930 s artificial insemination introduced 1940 s progeny testing of males testing of calves from certain males 1950 s use offrozen semen 1960 s more accurate progeny testing General Biology Review 17 Chromosomes rod shaped bodies located in the cell nucleus 30 pairs in dairy cattle Each chromosome is made of thousands of smaller units called Genes units of heredity transmitted to the next generation Cell Types Somatic Cells body cells reproduce by mitosis each parent cell becomes two offspring cells Sex cells sperm amp ova reproduce by meiosis reductive division RANDOM 0 Results in that each parent transmits only one ofits gene pairs to its offspring 0 Remember that the process of halving is random random half of generates present in sperm and egg generates variation Genotype an animals genetic makeup o 12 from the sire 12 from the dam o Fixed at conception o Determines an animals ability Phenotype expression ofa gene that can be measured what an animals is or does physical or production trait Example Holstein Coat Color red color is recessive 0 BB Bb bb red recessive o 3 genotypes and 2 phenotypes Phenotype genotype environment Environment opportunity t express the genotype or inherited ability Types ofInheritance or Traits Qualitative 0 Expression controlled by 1 gene pair 0 Discrete categories all or none 0 Expression not in uenced by environment Quantitative 0 Expression controlled by many gene pairs 0 Expression is continuous over a range 0 Greatly in uenced by environment 0 Included most economically important traits Sources ofinformation to determine the breeding value of an animals 0 The animal itself 0 The animals ancestors 18 o The animals progeny o Collateral relatives animals related through common parentage Where is the most genetic progress made in male or female selection WHY Male bc more information known and intensity of good males chosen and allowed to breed The sire and dam each contribute equally to the genetic makeup Key Factors in Genetic Improvement of Dairy Cattle Identification Performance Testing Genetic Evaluation Artificial Insemination ewzve ANIMAL ID a vital part of any management system 0 nonpermanent ear tags neck chains etc o permanent sketch photo tattoo ear freeze brand etc National Animal Identification System Goal trace the movement history of any animal within 48 hours ofa confirmed disease outbreak Trace the animal back to the original farm and the movement of all contact animals from that farm Why is this important or why do we need quick animal trace back 1 Protect the safety of our herds and ocks 2 Retain consumer confidence in our products Major Components of NAIS 1 Premise ID must be established before an animal can be traced 2 Animal ID must be permanent 3 Animal Tracking February 19 2009 Dairy Cattle Evaluation Best information ofa bull is his progeny offspring 19 What do we want to evaluate 1 Type conformation physical appearance Why a Aesthetic value pleasing to the eye b Associated with performance c Associated with longevity Type is a standard of excellence that combines physical characteristics that contribute to an animal usefulness 2 Productive Performance milk yield growth etc Why a Economic value b To see to what degree they posses a trait Type evaluation is subjectively measured 0 Need a trained evaluator o More variable less precise Production data is objectively measured 0 Can be easily measured 0 More precise or accurate 0 Can make many observations Dairy Cow Unified Score Card Established by the PDCA and includes 5 major breakdowns that total 100 points 1 Frame 15 2 Dairy Character 20 3 Body Capacity 10 4 Feet and Legs 15 5 Udder 40 Frame 15 The skeletal parts of the cow excluding feet and legs Rump vital to reproductive and mammary functions long and wide with pins slightly lower than hips Stature adequate height height at withers and hips should be proportional Front End wide chest with legs squarely placed Back indication of general strength and body Conformation top line straight and strong loin broad and nearly level Dairy Character 20 Physical evidence of milking ability a cow that excels in dairy character is one that appears to be operation at maximum efficiency 20 Ribs wide apart slanted toward rear Withers sharp with chine prominent Neck long lean blended well to shoulders Body Capacity 10 Body size can be measured in tersm oflength depth and breath Relationship should be apparent between body cpapcity and feed consumption Look at barrel depth and spring of ribs which should increase toward the rear Feet and Legs 15 Extremely important to the longevity and efficiency of a cow Feet steep foot angle deep heel strong pasterns Rear legs nearly perpendicular from hock to pastern Lactating cows carry most of their weight on their back legs Udder 40 Shape attachments and quality characteristics that indicate a long period of usefulness Depth oor of the udder should remain above the hocks o More accessible for milking 0 Less susceptive to injury Udder cleft indicated strong suspensory ligament Teats uniform shape and squarely placed How is this used to evaluate cows Type classification sponsored by breed associations an official classifier compares an animals conformation with the idea or quottrue type animal of the breed Purpose is to encourage breeding of animals that re both functional and good to look at Type Classification Final score is the most important 0 90100 E 85899 VG 80849 GP 75799 G 70749 F below 70 P Average cow 83 000000 21 Show Ring Iudge Iudging is based on the physical appearance and condition of the animals as they appear on show day Animals in class are arranged in order of excellence as to how well they met the breed ideal as set forth in the score card What is the value of type Commercial Dairyman 0 Milk sales longevity last for long time and production produce a lot of milk Purebred Breeders 0 Milk sales 0 Cattle sales Jersey has the greatest productive life of days on average that a cow will stay in a heard and still be able to produce a sufficient amount of milk so they don t get culled Productive Life All breeds 884 days 30 months Ierseys however have 1028 days 36 months February 26 2009 Performance production Testing The single most important reason for genetic improvement in dairy cattle is to improve performance Performance testing is a measure ofphenotype performance genotype environment everything but genetics Testing measures must be uniform o Nation wide 0 Regardless ofbreed 0 Registered or grade Dairy Herd Improvement DHI Records A dairy herd cannot be manage in an efficient business like manner without accurate records business amp animal DHI program is a performance testing program owned by producers and operated in cooperation with the SDA amp Cooperative Extension Service 22 Organization of DHI National DHI State Associations Local Associations Dairy Records Processing Centers DRPC Responsibilities National DHI establish uniform policies rules to govern the program 0 National Uniformity USDA education and research 0 Calculation of genetic indexes for improving economically important traits Cooperative Extension advisory and education 5 Major areas of DHI Information Production Feeding Reproduction Health Calf Identification Two Major Categories of Programs Supervised all test day production and cow information is collected and recorded by an employee of DHIA supervisor Unsupervised provides a similar information but the data is collected by the owner or employee of the farm Standard Supervised DHI Supervisor visits farm 1 time per month Weights and samples milk from each cow for a 24 hour period Obtains herd and cow information Information sent to DRPC Milk samples sent to lab for analysis offat protein and SCC lab sends this data to DRPC Data summarized on an individual cow bases and herd bases and returned to dairyman Value of DHI program 23 Provides the dairyman with factual information that he can use in the decision making process Cows in herd participating in a DHI program produce about 4500 pounds more milk per lactation than cows in herds that are not in the program Cost 125200cowmonth Return 20cwt milkX 45 cvvt 900 Standardizing Records and Genetic Tools We have been talking about evaluating a cows phenotype what she looks like and what she produces 7 will they transfer favorable characteristics to the offspring How do we identify the superior genes 0 Parents individual progeny o Other relatives 0 Compare to their respective herd mates Performance genotype environment Consider Milk Production Days in Milk 0 220001b305 days 721bday o 240001b365 days 657lbday Standard lactation 305 days Milk cows about 2 times a day some milk 3 times Times milked per day cows milk 3X will produce 1015 more milk adjuct to 2X 0 22000 X 83 18260305 days 598lbday 0 2X a day for 305 days standard lactation We know we have a performance record corrected for 0 Days milked 0 Times milkedday 0 Age of calving 0 Season of calving 2X 305 day ME base standardization record An estimate of the amount of milk a cow would have produced had she been a mature cow calving in an environmentally average month and milked 2X for 305 days ERPA Estimated Relative Producing Ability ERPA ave of cows ME records ave of herdmates ME recordsR nn1R 0 Q E o 1 5 o 2 67 o 3 75 24 o 4 80 Use ERPA s to decide which cows to cull it is a within herd comparison 0 ERPA 2150020000 X 5 7501b o ERPA 2150020000 X 75 11251b This is our best prediction ofa cows future performance relative to cows currently in the herd There will always be ERPA s o ERPA 1900020000 X 5 5001b 0 ERPA 1900020000 X 75 7501b Animal model 1989 a mathematical procedure for estimating the genetic potential of bulls and cows 0 Part of the animals genetic makeup that is transferred to the offspring o The model uses al the information available on the animal I Animal itself I Sire and dam I Progeny I Collateral relatives Predicted Transmitted Ability PTA Estimate of a bull or cow s transmitting ability 0 It represents the superiority in production that the bull or cow transmits to it s offspring PTA s are available for many production or type traits Using PTAs Rankindividuals on a genetic bases Estimate genetic differences between animals Sire selection top 20 80th percentile Selection of bull mothers top 2 Cows to ignore as dams for future replacements Reliability Estimates the accuracy of the genetic evaluation PTA based on the amount ofinformation in the evaluation 0 Range from 0 to 99 4599 o lt7 low 75 85 reliable o 7075 moderate gt85 solid If Bull A has a reliability f 75 and Bull B has a reliability of 9 which proof contains the most information B higher reliability March 3 2009 25 Dairy Breeding Program 5 Principles of Good Genetics 1 Animal Identification permanent 2 Performance Evaluation production type purebred 3 ID the superior genotypes PTAs 4 Make widespread use of superior genotype AI bulls from 80th percentile 5 Avoid genetic defects most are recessive avoid carrier bulls Progeny Test Object is to identify superior sires for economically important traits Begins when bulls are 1012 months old 0 Health test and select semen 0 510 units of semen distributed over 80100 herds goal is 6075 daughters in 4050 herds o Proofis available 35 years after semen is distributed Time frame 0 9 months for pregnancy 0 24 months until daughter calve o 6 months for milk record at least 0 39 months 3 years Proven sire a bull that has a certain number of daughters with production records Young Sires unproven Should dairyman use young unproven sires Why 0 Economical obtain future top bulls while they are still affordable 0 Give adequate genetic sampling to ensure steady genetic progress How do you maximize genetic progress by using young sires 0 Rank the young sires I PI pedigree indeX sires PTAX 5 maternal grandsires PTA X 25 0 Use each young sire sparingly spread the risk Herd Breeding Program We have the genetic tools 0 2 X 305 days ME 0 ERPAs phenotype o PTAs genotype Establishing a Herd Breeding Program 26 1 Identify your goals a Commercial dairy man milk b Purebred breeder milk breeding stock Evaluate the current herd status is there a problem 3 Determine which traits you can improve through genetics Evaluate the information available and select the bulls to use USDA sire proofs a Use bulls with high ranking PTAs b Emphasize production while maintaining or improving type c Screen for other traits to select for 5 Breed cows artificial insemination AI a 70 80 to bulls selected b 20 30 ofyoung sires c Use calving ease data difficult births when breeding heifers Practice good culling procedures a Cull milking age females based on ERPA b Cull nonmilking age females using a parent average or some other means to estimate a potential ranking i PA sire s PTAX 5 dam s PTAX 5 Equot F Fquot Finally be patient because progress is slow in establishing a breeding program Heritability The percentage of total variation among animals for a particular trait that is due to the genes they inherited o The proportion ofvariation in a trait that is due to genetic factors 0 The higher the heritability of a trait the greater the possibility to make genetic gain through selection Heritability is important because it indicated the probability for success in selecting for a given trait 0 Range from 0 10 0 to 100 0 Less than 15 low heritability and low possibility of success with selection 0 From 1535 moderate heritability and possibility of genetic gain with selection 0 Greater than 35 high heritability and possibility of genetic gain with selection Genetic Correlation The tendency for two traits to vary in the same or in an opposite direction Range from 10 to 10 04 to 10 progress strongly in the same direction 04 to 04 progress almost independently of each other 04 to 10 progress strongly in opposite directions 0000 27 Example a relationship exists between milk yield and fat genetic correlation between these two traits of035 As selection improves milk yield fat test goes down some In the long term some change in your selection policy would be required to maintain gat test at an acceptable level Systems of Mating Inbreeding the mating of two animals that are more closely related than the average of the population mating of close relative 0 Purpose is to concentrate good genes 0 Also has less desirable effects I Recessive genes express themselves more frequently I General health and vigor reduced increased calfmortality reduced growth rate I Production and reproduction are adversely affected Out breeding the mating of animals that are less related than the average of the population Animals are members of the same breed but not the same line of descent 0 Out breeding has the opposite effects from inbreeding I General health and vigor enhanced I Yield and reproductive performance increased I Generate increase in phenotypic performance Crossbreeding the mating of purebred animals from two different breeds 0 Purpose is usually to create a generation with maximum or improved performance 0 Crossbreeding has increased reproductive performance calf livability vigor and growth 0 Crosses between Holstein and other breeds have not produced animals that milk as much as Holsteins The New Genetics Embryo Transfer a tool in genetic progress that has increased selection intensity by producing more offspring from the most elite dams Donor cow is super ovulated inseminated embryos ushed and transferred to a recipient cow sergeant mother Transgenic Animals the process involves inserting DNA into onecelled embryos and the DNA becomes part of the embryo s chromosomes As these cells divide each cell of the body receives the added gene 0 A particular disease resistant gene could be added to a cow embryo 0 Animals are bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals currently done in bacteria Sexed semen sperm cells contain either the X or the Y chromosomes which determine the sex of the offspring 28 0 Separate and package the sperm cells containing either all X or all Y chromosomes 0 Predetermined the seX of the offspring at the time of breeding Cloning the process ofproducing the quottwinquot of an animal by transplanting the nucleus from a cell of the animal into an egg with the nucleus removed 0 All of the genetic material came from the donor of the nucleus therefore the young animals bears no resemblance to the donor of the animal 0 The young animal is genetically identical to the donor of the nucleus TEST 2 MATERIAL EVERYTHING ABOVE March 12 2009 Dairy Cattle Reproduction Endocrine System Endocrine glands are ductless glands that discharge their secretions into the circulatory system The secretions are called Hormones Hormones are chemical messengers that are transported in the blood to the target cells or organs that they in uence 0 Protein peptide hormones o Steroid hormones Hormones regulate many physiological process in the body 0 Reproduction 0 Lactation These functions depend on several hormones Many times the same hormones will effect both reproduction and lactation Uses ofHormones in Dairy Cattle Management Synchronization of estrus and ovulation Treatment of reproductive disorders Milk letdown ejection Enhancement of milk production Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary o Hormones involved in reproduction are called gonadotropins because they stimulate the gonads ovaries and testes FSH follicle stimulating hormone 29 LH luteinizing hormone Responsible for 0 Growth of follicle o Estrogen secretion 0 Ovulation o Progesterone secretion Posterior pituitary o Oxytocin I Uterine contractions I Milk ejection letdown Male Reproductive Physiology Function of the male 0 Produce viable male germ cells spermatozoa o Ejaculate sperm cells into the vagina of a cow or an artificial vagina in the case ofAI artificial insemination Testis produce spermatozoa and testosterone Testis move from inside body to the scrotum shortly before birth 0 Cryptorchidism failure of the tests to descent into the scrotum Perm are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testis and then move to the head of the epididymis Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells of the testis Testosterone is the male seX hormone 0 Maintain function of reproductive tract 0 Secondary seX characteristics 0 In uence seX drive Epididymis convoluted tubule neXt to testis head body and tail 0 Sperm mature and are ready for ejaculation by the time they reach the tail portion 8 weeks Vas deferens connects the tail of the epididymis to the pelvic urethra near the bladder Semen is a miXture of o Spermatozoa 2 0 o Seminal uid 80 I Medium for transport I Supplies nutrients for sperm Accessory glands produce seminal uid 0 Seminal vesicles 0 Prostate o Cowper s glands Development and function is under control of the pituitary gland o FSH spermatogenesis o LH testosterone production Puberty age at which the bull is capable ofproducing viable sperm cells and mating 30 o 9 to 12 months of age Female Reproductive Physiology Functions 0 Produce viable germ cell ova or egg 0 Deliver ova to site of fertilization 0 Provide optimum environment for fertilization and development of fetus Deliver a live healthy calf Deliver and afterbirth and allow reproductive tract to return to normal so the process can be repeated Ovaries secret hormones and produce ova o Follicle structure containing the ova it enlarges during the estrous cycle 0 Ovulation when the follicle ruptures releasing the ova Oviduct ovarian end is enlarged into a funnel shaped structure infundibulum released ova enters the infundibulum o Fertilization occurs in the upper half of the oviduct o 3 to 4 days the fertilized egg reaches the uterus uterine horn Uterus body and 2 horns site where the embryo develops o Implantation placental attachment occurs about 30 33 days after fertilization Cervix extends from uterus to vagina 0 Protection Calf is discharge through the cervix vagina and vulva Vagina site of natural mating Uterus site of artificial insemination 00 Changes in the Ovary Cyclic sexual behavior begins at puberty 10 months and continues until conception Hormones o FSH and LH anterior pituitary o Estrogen and progesterone ovary FSH stimulates the follicle containing the ova to development and mature o Maturing follicle secretes estrogen which causes animal to exhibit signs of estrus heat LH and FSH cause the follicle to rupture ovulation and to initiate development of the corpus luteum CL The CL secrets progesterone o Prepares uterus to receive fertilized ova o Necessary in maintaining pregnancy Points to Remember 31 Puberty approximate 10 months of age Length ofestrus cycle 21 days 2 days Length ofestrus heat 18 hours Time of ovulation 10 to 14 hours after standing heat Length of gestation 282 days Function of the Estrous Cycle 1 Allows the cow to accept the bull 2 Releases a mature ova for fertilization 3 Provides an environment for the fetus to develop Phases of the Estrous Cycle 1 Estrus heat period of time when female will accept mating 18 hours a Estrogen is the primary ovarian hormone produced by developing follicle and responsible for sexual behavior 2 Metestrus 2 to 3 days a Estrogen levels decline and remain low b CL is developing c Progesterone secretions increasing i Metestrus bleeding indicates cow was in heat 24 days earlier 3 Diestrus 12 to 15 days following metestrus a Characterized by presence of active CL b Domination of progesterone over reproductive system c Length of diestrus determines length of estrous cycle 4 Proestrus 2 to 3 days a CL regresses and progesterone declines b Follicle destine to ovulate begins to grow rapidly and estrogen levels begin to increase c Cycle repeats itself March 17 2009 Reproductive Management Artificial Insemination History 0 1937 AI first used in university herds in Minnesota and Missouri fresh semen o 1938 first AI organization formed in US Clinton N fresh semen 0 Early 195 0 s introduction of frozen semen for use in Al Advantages of AI 1 Herd Improvement tremendous genetic improvement possible 2 Increased use of superior sires 32 a Volume of ejaculate 68 ml b Concentration 1 billion spermml c Motility 80 d Therefore i 7 ml X 10 billion sperm X 80 56 billion motile sperm per ejaculate ii load about 10 million motile spermstraw 3 Cost cheaper than raising and maintaining a bull opportunity cost loss incurred by not adopting technology 4 Disease no sexual contact therefore no sexually transmitted diseases 5 Safety dairy bulls are dangerous Disadvantages ofAI 1 Catching cows in heat you are the bull 2 Experience and expertise in doing AI Signs of Estrus Willingly strands to be mounted Restless fence line walking uneasy Bawling nervous Clear discharge from vulva Possible decrease in production Mounting other cows when coming into or going out ofheat shynewzwe Heat detection is the 1 problem Check heat atleast 2X per day 0 Early morning and late evening 0 When cows haven nothing else to do 0 Good environment good footing Heat Detecting Aids Kmar Patch Chalk or paint stick on rump just before the tailhead Pedometers Electronic heat watch system Metestrus bleeding the cow was in heat and you missed her Important to have visible ID and good records When to Breed timing is important Life of egg is 6 10 hours 0 Ovulation occurs 10 14 hours after the end of standing heat Fertile life of sperm is 20 24 hours 0 Breed too early and sperm may die before ovulation occurs 33 0 Breed too late and egg dies before sperm are capacitated March 19 2009 Best time to breed is from the middle of standing heat until 6 hours after the end of heat AMPM Rule ifyou see a cow in standing heat for the first time you will breed her 12 hours later see her in heat in the morning you breed her that evening Start breeding heifers at 14 16 months of age so they calve for the first time at 24 months Breed back to calve every 125 13 months Reproductive Efficiency Ideally we strive for a 12 month calving interval 0 Rebreed at 60 90 days 83 days 0 282 day gestation 83 days 365 days 0 This allows for a 305 day lactation and a 50 60 day dry non lactating period Cost of Poor Reproductive Efficiency 1 Less milk production per day of life 2 Fewer calves born 3 Higher replacement cost due to increased culling for poor reproduction 4 Higher veterinaryhealth costs Successful reproductive management means detecting cows in heat breeding at the proper time and proper technique Goals of Reproductive Management ways to measure repro efficiency 1 Age at first calving a Practical 24 26 months b Problem gt 27 months Breed based on age and weight Holsteins 14 17 months and 750 900 lbs 2 Calving interval months from calving to calving a Practical 125 135 month b Problem gt 14 months 3 Days open days from calving to conception not pregnant a Practical 100 to 120 days b Problem gt 130 days 4 Services per conception times you must inseminate before she conceives a 2 to 3 34 b Problem gt 4 Causes of Infertility 1 Inbreeding causes lowered reproductive efficiency control by having good records 2 Multiple Births twinning occurs in 3 5 of births a Increases in dystocia difficult birth and metritis infection of in ammation of the lining of the uterus b Increase in retained placenta c Increase interval to first heat and decrease conception rate Freemartin heifer calfborn twin to a bull calf greater than 90 of the heifer calves will be sterile 3 Disease or infection a Metritis in ammation of the uterus b Brucellosis bangs disease i Localizes in the reproductive organs or udder causes abortion 3ml trimester ii Control through test and slaughter prevent with vaccination iii Causes undulant fever in man Leptospirosis diseases of all ages causes abortion 3ml trimester bacterium spread through urine not true venereal disease control by vaccination Trichomoniasis protozoan venereal disease decreases conception rate abortion in 1St trimester i Prevent through AI Campylobacteriosis infection of the vagina venereal disease i Decreased conception rate temporary infertility ii Prevent with AI 4 Retained Placenta gt 24 hours after calving a Incidence increases after twinning b Increases following dystocia c Increases following premature birth d Increases in high producing cows 5 Anestrus absence of estrus can be temporary or permanent high incidence in high producing cows 6 Early embryonic mortality losses less than 30 days following conception summer breeding and elevated body temperature 9 P 517 Estrus Synchronization Estrus heat synchronization involves manipulation of the estrous cycle of animals in a herd so they can be bred at approximately the same Why allows a producer to schedule labor for a concentrated time during breeding or to help reduce the labor the heat detection 35 Example using Prostaglandin lutalyse Prostaglandin dissolves the CL between 6 17 days of the cycle heat in 25 days 0 Does not affect animals coming into or going out of heat One injection with 5 days of breeding inject all females with PG on day 0 and check for estrus and breed 12 hours after standing heat 75 of females expected to display estrus during next 25 days One injection with 10 days of breeding check for estrus and breed all females in estrus during the first 5 days inject all females not bred at end of 5 days and breed based on standing heat can result in about 90 of females being inseminated during the 10 days Two injections 11 to 14 days apart breed cows in heat after the second injection March 24 2009 Biology of Lactation Lactation Biology Characteristic of all mammals Mammary glands begin development at puberty recurring estrus Glands grow and develop during pregnancy Begin secreting milk near or after parturition Therefore mammary gland development is an integral part of the reproductive process Two mammals that lay eggs are Echidna Australian Porcupine Ant Eater and the Platypus External Anatomy Cow 4 glands 4 teatsudder inguinal region Goats and Sheep 2 glands 2 teatsudder inguinal region Elephant 2 glands 2 teats pectoral region Horse 4 glands 2 teats inguinal region Cow udder cover with hair except for teats 0 Weight is 25 60 pounds exclusive of milk 0 Rear quarters are larger and produce about 60 of total milk 0 Supernumerary teats extra teats present in 25 or more of cows remove early in life for health and looks Internal Anatomy Supporting Structures 36 1 Skin protects underlying tissue 2 Median suspensory Ligament a Major supporting structure b Divides udder into right and left half c Slightly elastic structure 3 Lateral Suspensory Ligament a Comes down and around both sides of udder b Nonelastic Vascular circulatory System 0 Blood leaves the heart via the aorta and travels through a series of arteries to the udder o 1 arterial system 0 2 venous system returning blood to heart Circulatory system carries nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis 0 Ratio of approximately 5001 blood milk Functional Parts of the Udder Teat o Streak canal passage to exterior o Sphincter muscle involuntary keeps streak canal closed 0 Teat cistern 1 to 1 12 oz Mammary Gland o Gland cistern focal draining point joins teat at base of udder 0 Primary and Secondary ducts Secretory Tissue o Lobe is a cluster oflobules o Lobule is a cluster of Alveoli o Alveoli are the basic secretory units of the mammary gland Alveoli o Spherical structure with a hollow center lumen with secretory epithelial cells on inside 0 Outside surrounded by myoepithelial cells and capillary bed Secretory cells are the actual site of milk synthesis Mammary Growth Mammary growth is primarily regulated by the ovarian hormones o Estrogen duct development 0 Progesterone and Estrogen full lobular alveolar growth Alveoli are not formed until pregnancy is established Most visible growth occurs in last trimester Lactation Most of the secretory cells 90 are present at parturition Some increase in cell number up to peak of lactation 37 Cell numbers begin to decline after peak of lactation Substantially fewer cells present at end oflactation than at the beginning Dry Period 50 60 days 0 Allows mammary gland to rest and redevelop prior to the neXt generation Milk Secretion is a Combination of Synthesis Filtration and Secretion Synthesis some constituent of milk are synthesized in the mammary gland from blood precursors o Lactose 6 blood glucose 0 Casein 6 blood amino acid 0 Milk Fat 6 acetic acid and fatty acids Filtration some constituents of milk are incorporated directly from the blood 0 Minerals 0 Vitamins 0 Water Milk secretion continues until pressure builds up in the alveolus and shuts down milk secretion Lactation Curve Milk productive peaks at 48 weeks after parturition and then gradually declines Decline is exponential it is a constant percentage of the previous production 0 Persistency the degree to which milk production is maintained as lactation progresses 0 Normal 90 10 decrease per month For each addition 1 lb of milk at peak the cow will produce about 200 lb more milk aver the lactation Milking Management Milk Letdown Ejection Neuroendoncrine re ex o Nerve stimulation 9 9 Hypothalamus via sensory nerves 9 9 Posterior Pituitary 9 9 release of Oxytocin into circulation 9 contraction of myoepithelial cells Effects take place in 30 90 seconds Effect last 5 6 minutes Can be signaled by sight of calf sound of a milking machine touch of the udder s skin Adrenaline inhibits milk letdown 38 Mechanics of Milking Hand milking 0 Positive pressure from outside Calf 0 Some positive pressure 0 Negative pressure from sucking 0 Massage when swallow Milking Machine 0 Negative pressure from below 0 Massage action March 26 20009 Functions of Milking Machine 1 Open the streak canal through use of a partial vacuum 2 Massage the teat to prevent congestion of blood and lymph Major Components of Milking System 1 Vacuum pump supplies vacuum negative pressure 2 Milking unit or cluster a Claw b Teat cup shell and liner c Milk hoses and vacuum tubes 3 Pulsator functions to alternate vacuum and atmospheric pressure in the space between the teat cup shell and liner 4 Receptacle for the milk bulk tank Milking Procedure Single most important job on the farm 55 oflabor on dairy farm Goals of milking procedure 0 Minimize contamination of teats and milk 0 Effectively cause milk letdown 0 Remove all the milk as rapidly as possible with minimal irritation to teats and udder Milking Procedure 1 Provide stress free environment a Cows b Milkers c Equipment in good working condition 2 Wash and dry teats use as little water 39 ooowmsnre Check foremilk a Detect early stages of mastitis b Stimulus for letdown c Remove foremilk which may have high bacterial count Use an approved predip Dry teats thoroughly Attack milking unit 112 2 minutes after start of stimulation Adjust milking unit as udder milks out When milk ow stops shut ofvacuum and remove milking unit Dip teats with an approved teat dip Mastitis in ammation of the mammary gland Mastitis Complex Microorganisms 9 Environment 9 Cow 9 Microorganisms Mastitis An in ammation of the mammary gland cause by microorganisms usually bacteria that invade the udder Importance may be the single biggest disease problem in the dairy industry 0 Cost 180cowyear o Breakdown of cost I Milk discarded 12 I Drugs and Veterinary 7 I Reduced milk production 64 Types of Mastitis Clinical Mastitis visible signs of mastitis o Mild akes or clots in milk may have swelling of infected quarters 0 Severe secretion abnormal hot swollen quarters cow may have fever etc o Bacteria present upon culture of milk Subclinical Mastitis no visible signs 0 Milk appears normal 0 Mammary gland normal 0 Bacteria present upon culture of milk Chronic Mastitis persistent infection of the udder 0 Usually sub clinical with occasional are up of clinical mastitis Which represents the biggest problem 0 Subclinical because there are no visible signs even though you do have a bacteria present and it can transport to other cows Subclinical causes the greatest financial loss 15 to 40 subclinical cases of each clinical 40 Microorganisms causing mastitis Contagious bacteria spread from infected quarters or cows to uninfected quarters or cows 0 Spread occurs mainly during milking o Staphylococcus aureus 0 Streptococcus agalactiae Environmental bacteria ubiquitous to the environment found in bedding feces soil plant material etc o Escherichia Coli o Streptococcus uberis Control of Mastitis Contagious incidence reduces by good milking procedures Environmental o Predipping Post dipping Clean bedding Good nutrition Clean environment Management do not let cows lay down immediately after milking OOOOO Infectious Process Bacteria enter through the streak canal multiply in ducts move up into the secretory tissue This triggers the immune response chemotaXis attracts leucocytes WBC Blood ow slows WBCs stick to capillary walls move out into tissue space Migrate from tissue space to lumen of alveolus large number an not move into lumen until secretory cells die or slough off 0 Lost cells are not replaced Level of somatic cells in milk is an indirect measure of mastitis 0 SCC gt 200000ml Effect of mastitis on milk composition 0 Decrease in lactose increase in NaCl 0 Decrease in protein casein 0 Increase in pH 66 69 When are cows the most susceptible to new infections Risk ofnew infections is greatest during 0 The 1st week of the dry period 0 The last 2 weeks of the dry period 0 The 1st month of lactations Prevention is the best cure 0 Proper milking procedure and clean environment 0 Teat dipping can reduce new infection rate by 50 41 0 Dry cow treatment Treatment 0 Antibiotic infusion wet cow treatment 0 Good sanitation TEST 1 WEEK FROM TODAY TEST 3 MATERIAL EVERYTHING ABOVE April 14 2009 Tuesday 9 April 21 DAIRY FARM TOUR Digestive System and Nutrition Nutrition Nutrition is the study of the sum total of the processes involved in the ingestion and utilization of nutrients by the animal body for maintenance growth reproduction and production lactation Nutrient a specific element or compound derived from the ration and used to support physiological processes in the animal Importance of Nutrition Approximately 50 40 60 of total production costs are feed costs 0 Represents a major opportunity for profit Assuming equal genetic potential the feeding programs is that which is most closely related to profit Objectives ofa Dairy Feeding Program 1 Palatable will the animals eat the feed a Animals select one feed over another based on smell feel and taste 2 Digestible how much fo the feed will be absorbed as it passes through the digestive tract Nutritionally Balanced Will the feed provide an adequate level of nutrients a Maintenance existence b Growth 1st and 2M1 lactation c Reproduction last 2 months d Lactation 4 Conductive to good health rumen function and health 5 Economical 539quot Ruminant Digestive System 42 Mouth No upper incisors dental pad Molars top and bottom Prehensile tongue Functions 0 Ingestion o Chewing to reduce particle size 0 Saliva production Saliva cattle can produce from 34 to 54L day to as much as 90 to 190 Lday 44L 115 gal Type of ration has a big effect on amount of saliva produced 3 paired salivary glands Function 0 Lubrication o Buffer even out the pH Esophagus Extends from the mouth to the reticulum About 35 feet in length The Ruminant Stomach Rumen Largest compartment 0 80 of total volume 0 40 to 50 gallons Lined with Pappillae 0 Increase surface area 0 Absorption Nonglandular fermentation vat 0 Bacterial and protozoal digestion 0 Absorption of VFA s and ammonia Reticulum Located in front of the rumen Nonglandular fermentation vat 6 of total stomach volume Honeycomb Omasum 6 of total stomach volume Nonglandular Functions 43 0 Water absorption 0 Reduce particle size Many layers of muscular quotleavesquot which resemble the pages ofa book Abomasum True stomach 7 to 8 of stomach capacity 56 gallons Glandular o Secretes gastric juices I l I Proteolytic enzymes proteins to AA Microbial and quotbypass protein digestion start here Intestines Small intestine 0 140 feel long 2 inches in diameter 0 Digestion I Carbohydrates minor most already digested by now I Proteins peptides to AA I Fats 0 Absorption amino acids fats and minerals Large Intestine o 35 feet long 25 inches in diameter 0 Water absorption Summary Functions of the Digestive System Store food for a short time Prepare food for absorption digestion Absorb the useful products Reject the undigested portion Rumen Microorganisms Bacteria and Protozoa 10quot10 cellsml Function 0 Break down cellulose starch and glucose and produce VFA s Microbial protein synthesis Vitamin synthesis B Vitamins and Vitamin K NPN utilization NON PROTEIN OOO Rumen Bacteria and Protozoa Rumenation Regurgitation 44 Remastication Reensalvation Reswallowing Young Ruminant At birth basically a monogastric 0 quotFeed as such They must go through transition to a true ruminant Esophageal groove Hardware Disease Animal swallows metal objects that lodge in or may puncture the reticulum Symptoms 0 Loss of appetite o Digestive problems 0 Stand with front feet elevated Prevention 0 Magnets 0 Feed bunk management April 16 2009 Bloat Ruminal Tympany Excess accumulation of gas in rumen o Eructation belching Symptoms rumen wall protrudes in area between the ribs and hip bone Bloat Prevention 0 Gradual adaptation of diet 0 Feed dry hay before pasturing animals 0 Feed preventative materials to animals grazing legumes Treatment 0 Force feed mineral oil or antifoaming agents 0 Insert tube through mouth to allow gas to escape Displaced Abomasum DA The abomasums moves to an abnormal position in the body 0 LDA most common left displaced abomasum o RDA right displaced abomasum Symptoms 0 Reduced production 0 Reduced feed and water intake 0 Reduced fecal volume 45 o Discomfort pain Displaced Abomasum Prevention 0 Adequate fiber in dry cow rations o Gradual adjustment to higher grain rations during dry period Treatment 0 Walking moderate exercise 0 Rolling the cow from right to left side 0 Surgery to suture abomasums to body wall Casting a Cow Scientific cow tipping making a cow lie down Nutrition and Feed Evaluation Classes of Nutrients 1 Water nutrient required in the greatest quantity a Clean fresh and available ad libitum dairy cows consume 2040 gallons day b Water intake in uence by i Body size ii Milk production iii Dry matter intake iv Environment c Sources ofwater i Drinking ii In feed iii Metabolic 2 Protein major source of amino acids which are used for growth enzymes hormones etc a The most costly nutrient in the ration b Requirements vary with age body size and level of production can vary from 12 19 of ration dry matter 3 Carbohydrates major energy source needed for muscular activity basic metabolism maintaining body temperature etc a Plant tissue are high in carbohydrates b Starch in grains and seeds c Cellulose and hemicellulose in leaves and stem FatsLipids a concentrated source of energy a Fats contain 225 X more energy than the same amount of carbohydrate or protein b Diets of ruminants are relatively low in fat 4 6 as compared to diets of other farm animals F 46 c Fats are often added to diets to increase the energy density of the ration 5 Vitamins wide variety but required in trace amounts a Function of catalysts in various metabolic reactions b Water soluble vitamins can not be stored in body and must be supplied daily includes the Bvitamins and vitamin C c Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the body making variation in day to day intake less ofa problem Vitamin A D E and K 6 Minerals make up about 45 of the ration dry matter a Macrominerals expressed as a of ration dry matter or as gramsday Ca P Na CL K MG and S b Microminerals expressed as ppm or as milligrams or microgramsday includes Co Cu 1 Fe Mn Se and Zn Feeds for Dairy Cattle 1 Forages low in energy high in fiber a Backbone of the dairy ration i Palatable ii Economical iii Nutritious iv Conducive to good rumen health b Lactating cows 40 to 70 of ration DM c Dry cows and heifers 80 to 100 of ration DM 2 Concentrates high in energy low in fiber a Grains corn oats barley wheat etc b By products whole cottonseed cottonseed hulls citrus pulp brewers grains bakery waste soybean oil meal beet pulp etc April 23 2009 Pasture lt25 dry matter gt75 water Crops grasses and legumes Advantages 0 Labor efficient o Economical 0 Use marginal land Disadvantages 0 Quality varies Highest field losses defecate on it urinate trample EXpend energy to get to pastures don t want to make cows walk Difficult to balance rations OOO Silage 30 to 40 dry matter 60 to 70 water 47 Crops corn sorghum small grains grasses legumes Requirements for good silage o Soluble carbohydrates 0 Rapid filling 0 Oxygen limited environment Advantages 0 Maximum yield per acre 0 Uniform quality 0 Easily mechanized 0 Low field losses Disadvantages o Specialized equipment 0 Concentrated labor 85 to 90 dry matter 10 to 15 water Crops grasses legumes some small grains Advantages 0 Efficient land use 0 Uniform quality 0 Easily mechanized Disadvantages o Specialized equipment 0 Some field losses 0 Weather damage Evaluating Feeds Chemically laboratory procedure to estimate nutrient content Biologically estimate the useful nutrient content digestibility Economically least cost per unit of nutrient Physically characteristics we see smell or sense Estimating Nutrient Content 48 Dry Matter 0 All feeds contain water and dry matter DM 0 Nutrients are in the dry matter Feeding terms 0 quotas fed actual amounts fed 0 quotdry matter ration formulation Factors controlling dry matter intake DMI 0 Body size capacity to consume 0 Milk production demand for feed Crude Protein 0 Digest a feed ad measure the amount of Nnitrogen in the feed o N X 625 crude protein 0 7N X 625 4375 crude protein Plant protein contain approximately 16 Nitrogen 10016 65 o Represents the less digestible or indigestible components cellulose hemicellulose and lignin o Inversely related to energy content 0 Measured in various ways Plant Cell can be divided into 2 parts 0 Cell contents soluble components digestible 0 Cell Walls fiber less digestible Neutral detergent fiber NDF 0 Measures the cell wall 0 Indicated the bulkiness ofa feed 0 Related to intake quotfillquot Acid detergent fiber ADF 0 Measures cellulose and lignin 0 Least digestible components 0 Used to estimate digestibility energy content Early harvested forage 0 Thin cell wall I Low NDF high intake I Low ADF high energy Late harvested forage 0 Thick cell wall I High NDF low intake I High ADF low energy April 28 2009 Fat Ether Extract 0 Average diets 4 or less of DM 0 Maximum fat is about 78 of DM 0 Energy dens 0 Contains fat soluble vitamins Minerals Ash 0 Macro minerals as of DM 0 Micro minerals as ppm Total Mixed Ration TMR A thoroughly blended mixture of all ration ingredients forages grains minerals etc formulated to a specific nutrient concentration and fed free choice Every bite the cow consumes in completely balanced This reduces the ability of the cow to selectively eat only the feeds she likes 49 General Feeding Guidelines 50 1 Allow ad libitum access to fresh clean water F a Cows require 20 40 gallonsday b Varies according to milk production moisture content of ration weather etc c 41 ration ofwater consumed milk produced Maximize Forage Intake a Insures that the ration is economical b Forages should make up 4070 of the total DMI c Forage quality is important i Increased nutrient content ii Increased intake Maintain Ration Fiber a NDF of 2534 related to intake b ADF of 2126 related to digestibility Maintain adequate Total Crude Protein a 12 to 19 of DMI Varies with stage oflactation Must meet nutrient requirements without exceeding intake capacity of the cow a Intake range of 28 35 ofbody weight i 1500 cowX 035 525 ofDMI
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