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by: Lindsey Bruen


Lindsey Bruen
GPA 3.72

C. Williams

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C. Williams
Class Notes
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Bruen on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DARY 3010 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Williams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/222984/dary-3010-louisiana-state-university in DAIRY SCIENCE at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 11 Feed Manufacturing and Processing FEED PROCESSING Feed cost is normally the single largest expense associated with any animal production operation Sheep operations that depend primarily on grazing will expend 55 of total production costs for feed A value of 75 to 80 is typical for poultry producers It is imperative to supply a nutrientadequate diet in a form encouraging consumption amp minimizing wastage FEED PROCESSING Feeds may be processed to alter physical form or particle size prevent spoilage isolate specific parts of a seed or plant improve palatability or inactivate toxins or antinutritional factors Ex raw whole soybeans tripson inhibitors so we roast them Feed may be processed primarily to improve the capability of machinery to handle it For example chopping or grinding of baled hay Preparatory methods become more important as levels of production and feeding increase and maximum efficiency is desired FEED PROCESSING Feed processing increases nutrient uptake by increasing digestibility or digesta passage rate Heavily fed animals become selective amp more likely to sort out less palatable ingredients or to refuse andor waste feed if rations are not to their liking With ruminants digestibility generally decreases as the level of feeding increases Primarily because feed does not remain in the GI tract long enough for maximum digestion to occur Appropriate processing methods may be used to partially counteract the normal decline in digestibility GRAINPROCESSING METHODS Grainprocessing methods may be conveniently divided into dm and wet or cold and hot methods Heat is an essential part of some of the methods but is not utilized at all in others Added moisture is essential in some methods but may be detrimental in others Figure 112 Cereal grains processed in different ways Feed Manufacturing Definition Process of converting raw materials feedstuffs into balanced diets then sold to livestock producers and owners of other animals dogs cats rabbits etc Manufactured feeds Produced in feed mills Equipment for processing feeds Grinding extruding Mixing ingredients Pelleted or sold as meal feeds crumbly powdery grainy Manufactured Feeds Swine and poultry usually Dairy cattle Manufactured concentrates to go with forages Ex 16 dairy pellet Beef cattle and sheep Primarily grazing little manufactured feed Calves and lambs supplementary commercial feed Feedlot cattle not major consumers Usually fed diets mixed at feedlot Specialty Feeds Significant in industry Horse rabbit llama ratite emus ostriches pet foods Calf milk replacers Pelleted calf grower example Feeds for hobby animals Feed Mills Computer controlled Company nutritionist formulates diets NRC requirements Feed composition Current prices of ingredients Least cost formulas Based on price Not necessarily best May meet requirements but other factors may reduce performance Palatability texture digestibility etc Knowledge of experienced nutritionist important Feed Mill Diet formulation quantity desired other instructions Ingredients weighed feed mixed pelleted if desired discharged into bulk trucks or bags Automation limits human error Feed Manufacturing Subject to many regulations Protection of customer and consumer FeedlabeHng Requires various information Ingredients guaranteed analysis Items on page W m HERD MAKER 2020 NT 400200 MEDICATED DAIRY HERD 839 BEEF CALF MILK REPLACER To aid in the treatment of bacterial enteritis scours in cales WITHDRAW FROM CALVES 30 DAYS BEFORE SLAUGHTER AC39l1VE DRUG lNGREDlB 39S 39 Oxytetracyollne ZOOgrarns perton Neomycin Base 400 grams per ion from Neomyoin Sulfate GUARANTEEDANALYSIS Crude Protein not less than 200 Calcium Ca not lewlhan 075 Calcium Ca not more than 125 Phosphorus P not less than 070 VitaminA not less than 20011 lUIlt Vitamin not lm than 5011 LU lib Vitamin E not less than 100 lUllb INGREDIENTS Dried Whey Dried Whey Protein Concentrate Dried Whey Product Dried Skimmed Milk Dried Milk Protein Animal Fat preserved with Ethoxyquin Lecithin Poiysorbate 80 DiCaloiurn Phosphate Calcium Carbonate Vitamin AAoetato Vitamin 03 Supplement Vitamin ESupplement Thiamine Mononitrate Pyridaxino Hydrochloride Folio Acid Vitamin B12 Supplement Choline Chloride Calcium Silicate Manganese Sulfate Zinc Sulfate Ferrous Sulfate Copper Sulfate Cobalt Sulfate Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide and Selenium Yeast 1466030106 MW Use the plastic um provided to musme the mitt replaoer pwder der according to the schedule liard MIX replaoer pw below b adding poudertowater as indicated and mix morougiily MILK REPLAGER WATER POWQER lilo12039 Fl mama uni Cull Rlsomrnandnd l2 oz ml cup 2 quarts rm 10 oz Inc on cup 2 quarts Large 3 a Recommended 15 lb ll all l gallon Standard 125 lb 20 02 l gallon WW Small Brads Feed 15 2 quarts twice daily Lama Bum Feed 23 quarts or till 2 quart hottleh rim and feed Mica daily In extremely cold weather it may be bene cial to reed another feedi or salt law in the middle or the day Add 1 cup ol milk replawr powder to l gun at 110120 F water mix and teed to 1 call at mi day WW Feed newborn dives 3 Quit of high quality warm 12m Mimiquot l ir mi rapeal taror qua 39gr warm mlomzn withln 1 hour or himandmp ll Mintervierripplebdleasnm aslhw will consume Consult with your veterinarian on a dry cow and caleva oe39ilna m program including but not limited to d M Ma and corona vlms clostridium In salmonella er a mixing commons stir with wire whip while adding powder to no 20quot F water hot as or your n imperative to avoid product pepam m Fem milk replacer at 901 F Begin leading mik replica on day 2 and provide fresh dean water along with a high quality paldhble cell matter on a lreedroioe basis Observe calves doeoty during the milk replaoer feeding period Avoid underfeedlng whim may tin ion or averwnsrmplton which may increase incidence d 39 Continue to feed milk replauar until the all is our sun a minimun d1 12 pounds ofcdi shrier per day w 39d1 usually counsel 46 weeks ofage or A or F wmume Awlthdravat period has net bun established tor thin product in proruminating calvui Do not mo in calves to be grounded for veal This had was made in I had manufacturing lauility that doe not handl or on products containing animal Wm prehi ed in W quot 0 Registered Trademark at Land O39Laksilfinc quotv Manufactured By Land O Lakes Animal Milk Products Co EVlEW MN 5512mm 50 LB 2268 kg Net Weight Feed Mills vs On Farm Manufacture of Feeds Increasing quantities in US manufactured on farm Increasing size of livestock operations Large feedlots dairies confinement swine operations broiler and egg complexes On site feed preparation likely to increase Grain prod on farm decrease transportation costs Cost savings through bulk commodity purchase directly rather than through commercial feed mills However feed quality more variable with farm mixed feeds Economy for efficient use Feed Processing Grinding Chopping Pelleting Heat Process Why process feedstuffs Increase efficiency of handling engineering standpoint Increase efficiency of utilization Palatability Digestibility Surface area Alter molecular structure Alter density of feed or diet Increase bulk of high concentrate diet Reduce bulk of high roughage diet Increase feed efficiency Some techniques 5 to 15 incr in FE Some increase rate of gain as much as 5 to 10 Many cases increased FE FG but not rate of gain Need 1 T in FE for each 1 spent on processing per ton looking at today s feed prices Feed Processing Mixing equipment various types Ingredients into homoqenous batch of material Efficiency of mixing Order of adding ingredients Major part first charge mixer with 2535 of corn Small quantities vitamins minerals add as premix After corn them remaining corn Vertical mixers ingredient lt25 of batch Horizontal mixers level of 1 acceptable Example Bovatec in calf starter Liquids delayed till after critical ingredients Types of batch mixers Vertical Horizontal Auger wagon mixers Pelleting Accomplished by agglomerating ground feed material by compacting and forcing it through die openings Pelletdie As extruded material leaves the die knives cut it into pellets Predetermined length Some combination of heat moisture and pressure are usually but not always needed in process Pellets can be made in different diameters lengths or hardness MOST COMMONLY USED Advantages of Pelleted Feeds Increases bulk density Reduces storage volume and transportation space needed May increase feed intake more weight per volume Prevents sorting Animal preference over mash form Reduced dustiness increases acceptability May improve utilization of diets containing bulky low density ingredients ex wheat milling by products May improve bioavailability of nutrients Ex phytate phoshorus increased by steam pelleting Negative Aspects of Pelleting Large amount of electrical energy Increases cost of feed about 10 or 3 to 5 on Possible destruction of heat labile nutrients Ex Vitamin A Pelleting Concerns Good Pellet Qualitv Crumbles fines dust customers complain Pellet Binders Maintain pellet quality keep them from crumbling Bentonite ball clay lnqredient selection Functional Properties characteristics that control how feed will react during pelleting Starches and Proteins properties important ln pellet production reaction to moist heat Pelleting Preconditioned with Steam Releases natural adhesive properties Facilitates pelleting Softens particles More readily bind under pressure Heat and moisture cause strach gelatinization Helps bind particles together Improves starch digestion Fine qrindinq improves pellet qualitv Increases surface area Allows better moisture and heat penetration during conditioning Functional Properties Wheat and wheat processing by products Endosperm proteins good for pelleting Wheat gluten Gooey consistency when moist Helps bind feed Pelleting improves animal use of wheat by products Triticale rye barley Endosperm proteins also react in similar way React with water to Increase viscosity Corn sorghum millet rice oats Endosperm proteins don t improve viscosity Endosperm proteins starch and soluble fiber Independent and additive properties to improve pellet quality Functional Properties Fat High levels coat feed particles reduce pellet quality More than 5 causes crumbling Molasses Increases pelletability Works better in equipment if warm Heat sensitive inqredients Caramelize and harden in feed mill Sucrose lactose whey dried milk powder 140 degrees Hard glassy plug and clog feed equipment To Pellet or Not to Pellet If animal will eat either form Not economically advantageous Other benefits less dust easier handling Animals that do not readily consume mash feeds Pelleting is necessary Rabbits Other Processing Most feedstuffs subject to some method Whole grains or seeds rarely fed Exceptions caged birds Common processes Grindinq in hammermill Drv or steam rollinq Improved feed efficiency in feedlot cattle Flaking Coarse betterthan fine Improved ADG in feedlot cattle Steam Rolling and Steam Flaking Grains Steam rolling has been used since the 1940s partly to kill weed seeds Steam passes up through a chamber that holds the grain above the roller mill Grains are subjected to 3 5 minutes of steam prior to rolling Softening the seed but not modifying Stamh granwes Figure 116Ahighcapacity roller mill used in a large cattle feeder Steam Rolling and Steam Flaking Grains Results indicate improved animal performance as compared with dry rolling amp steam allows production of larger flakes and fewer fines Resulting in an improved physical texture An advantage when feeding very high levels of grains Steamflaking used since the 1960s subjects grains to highmoisture steam for 15 30 minutes Rolled with corrugated rolls producing a flat flake Shown to improve feeding value by 12 to 15 The thinner the grain is flaked the lighter the bushel weiqht amp faster the rate of in vitro starch diqestion Increases the surface area Grinding Grain Increased fineness of grind results in Tncreased FE Increase passage Increase gastric ulcers Decrease palatability Increase dustiness Increase cost Types of feed grinders Hammer mill Burr mill Roller mill Grinding Grain Poultry and swine medium to fine if too fine can cause gastric ulcers Beef dairv horses sheep None or coarse Why Grind Breakdown grain structure to aid digestion Esp species that don t chew feed finely Horses or cattle fed whole grain Significant portions pass through gut Ex Horses losing weight May need to Fix the TEETH Sheep chew more finely most grains and seeds digested In general coarse grinding of plant energy and protein sources better than fine grinding More digestive disturbances with finely ground Respiratory problems with dust Swine stomach ulcers from finely ground grains Larger particles promote normal gut motility Processed corn influences calf performance By Dairy Herd staff Tuesday February 01 2005 What type of processed corn is best to include in calf starter The answer is not clearcut according to research reported in the October 2004 Journal of Daily Science Researchers at Penn State University arrived at this finding after comparing the effect of four different calf starters on starter intake bodyweight gain structural growth and rumen development Calfstarter treatments contained either 33 percent whole com 33 percent dryrolled com 33 percent roasted rolled corn or 33 percent steamflaked corn Calves fed starter containing whole corn or dryrolled corn ate more calf starter per day during the sixweek treatment period than calves fed the other two treatments However the increased intake did little to enhance bodyweight gain structural growth or rumen development Conversely calves fed steamflaked corn ate the least amount of calf starter among the four treatment groups However they had the best rumen development The effect of roastedrolled corn on bodyweight gain feed efficiency and rumen development was similar to that observed in the other treatments However unlike the other processedcorn treatments calves fed the roasted rolled corn experienced increased structural growth The results show that all four types of processed corn impact calf performance to one degree or another However more work needs to be done before experts can agree on what type of processed corn is best to feed calves October 2004 Journal of Dairy Science Popped and Micronized Grains Popped Corn Use of dry heat Causes moisture in grain to expand Ruptures the endosperm Popping increases starch digestibility in rumen Micronized Grains Produced similar to popping Heat provided as infrared energy in huge microwave ovens Extruded Grains Most plant proteins contain heatlabile toxic factors Must be destroyed by heat treatment Usually done at site of production SBM CSM heated at oil extraction plant Feed mills or on farm oilseeds processed by extrusion Extruders machines in which oilseed is forced through a tapered die Frictional pressure causes sufficient heating to inactivate many toxins Extruded soybeans common high energy ingredient Maillard Reaction Heat treated proteins May reduce protein and amino acid bioavailability Loss of available lysine Maillard or browning reaction Reaction between free amino group of side chain of lysine with a reducing sugar Forms brown undiqestible polymers Can be used on purpose under controlled conditions to reduce rumen degradability of proteins make bypass protein or RUP Expander processing Relatively new Similar to extrusion Hiqh temperature short time cookinq of feed before pelletinq Increases digestibility of CHO Hydrolyzes starch lnactivates heat labile toxins lnactivates lipases that cause fat oxidation and rancidity Kills most pathoqenic and spoilaqe microbes Expanderpelleting increases pellet quality ROUGHAGE PROCESSING Baled Roughage Baling is still one of the most common methods of handling roughage particularly where it is apt to be sold or transported some distance Baling has a considerable advantage over loose hay stacked in the field or in other lessdense forms Large bales are becoming m V r 7 v more common Figure 1 l9 Unloading large bales ofhay Roughages Processed various ways Hay Chopping or grinding Improves utilization Reduces wastage Chopped more palatable than long hay Ground hay Loss of small particles undigested in rumen May cancel benefits Cubes and Wafers Hay compressed through machine to compact it Expensive Little advantage over traditional forage handling Pelleted


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