HIST ID & DECOR I
HIST ID & DECOR I ID 3741
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Jensen Grant on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ID 3741 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Campbell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see /class/222985/id-3741-louisiana-state-university in Interior Design at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Exam Two Notes 91709 I Archaic period 0 000 O 0 600480 BCE lSt monumental surviving architecture Flourishing of vase painting and sculpture Emergence of fully recognizable Doric order built by Dorians who had migrated into the Greek mainland from the northeast some 500 years earlier bringing iron tools Best surviving examples in Greek colonies in southern Italy I bc the Greeks established colonies in southern Italy I the temples they built have survived o The ones in the mainland have not bc of wars I Best examples in Pasteum and Sicily I Sailors from Athens would come through the Italy boot and Sicily up to Paestum Temple of hera I Ca 550 BCE I Paestum Italy I One of the earliest expressions of the Doric order I The steps of the foundation are taller than a person standing in the picture I 3536 inches high I Doric order I columns that do not have bases column rests directly on the platform I the capital has 2 pieces 1 rounded capital 2 square abacus above capital I above it rests 2 horizontal layers 1 architrave 2 freeze above architrave unique in that its made up of alternating triglyths 3 vertical Iifts which are separated by blank square called metopes o Triglypths are thought to represent an end of the beam 0 Metope thought to represent the opening I Wider at the base opposite of Minoan o Curvature of column shift is called entetis I Columns mimic the human body carry heavy weight from the bottom I They do this bc of the weight of the lintel All of the column orders are fluted Triegth centered over the column CeIIa Rooms I Left Small pic I Anta extended wall in ceIIa I Columns in atis columns that stand next to the anta I Prostyle columns stand in front of ceIIa walls I Amphi prostyle columns at both ends notjust in front I Larger picture Columns in both interior cellas columns in front of extended waII columns at both ends columns that go around the entire temple I Peristyle columns around the entire temple aka colonnade I Periteral temple one perister I Dipteral double peristyle 92209 notes from allie Archaic Period C 600480 BCE 6th Cent Flourishing of vase painting and sculpture o Doric order which is built under the Dorians that came form the Greek mainland from the northeast They became known as sculptors because they brought with them iron tools 0 Best surviving examples in Greek colonies in southern Italy 0 Lower left ofthe ltalian boot Paestum and Sicily is where we nd these examples of the earliest Greek buildin Sailors come from Athens to Paestum o Paestum Italy I Temple of Hera ca 550 BCE 6 11 Cent 00 O Steps ofthe base are taller than a person Scale is very large The Doric order is characterized by columns that have no bases 0 The column rests directly on the top of the lSt platform 0 The top ofthe column I made of2 pieces The First piece looks similar to the pillow with a square abacus Fluted column Above it rests 2 horizontal layers one that is called the Architrave and above that is called the Frieze The Doric frieze is made up of alternating triglyphs Separated by Metopes blank squares Triglyphes are thought to represent the end of the beam and the metope would represent the opening History of columns changes based on proportions Columns are very fat and they are wider at base than they are at the neck Shaft curves opposite of Minoan columns Curvature of column shaft is called the entesis Entesis is deliberate For aesthetic reasons The columns mimic the human body under compression form carrying heavy weight the stone resting on top of column Triglyph should rest over the center of every column with one in the space in between Corners are not at the center they force them to join at corner which marks the lonic Doric is earliest order strong masculine Bulbous capital is getting smaller More re ned VWde abacus sitting on top ofthe rounded form ofthe capital underneath Capital is large in comparison to the neck of the shaft Taper from narrower neck to larger base entesis This architecture takes on the feel or something organic POST amp LINTEL construction Flute is curved at the top but has no base Temple Floor plan development rom prearchaic to the Parthenon OO o I Looks like a Megaron domestic house plan with porch with 2 columns then a single family room I Called Temple in Antas I Columns are up against the extended wall Columns that stand between the extension of the wall anta is called columns in antas 0 Middle I Columns stand in front of the porch I Temple standing on stepped base I en the columns stand in front ofthe cella extended walls it39s called prostyle temple Stand in front of the anta walls of the cella 0 Right I Columns at both ends amphiprosytle temple I Sa s amphitheater 2 theaters facing each other 0 More elaboration columns moving from between walls to in front of walls and then adding back porch so even more elaborate 0 Lower Left I Cella on the interior with columns in the interior I Columns are in front ofthe wall ofthe cella 2 room cella I The interior is an amphiprostyle section with another row of columns that goes around the entire t in I Double cella columns inside cella columns arcos porch on either end and then columns around the entire thing I Columns that go around the entire temple are called a Peristyle Aka colonnade I Temple with a perister is a Periteral Temple 0 Lower Right I Dipteral Temple a temple with a double peristyle I Huge cella that has columns within the ce a I Openair cella with another temple inside the cella I Temple within a temple Proster temp e o cropolis 3 Part of Elevations I Base 2 parts 0 Lower steps called the stereobate Top step called the stylobate I Columns amp capital All have column shafts that are uted and all have a capital of some kind but each have a different kind Each one has an abacus Doric Order 9Has no base lonic Order9Base Corinthian Order9Base Capitals o Doric I Bulbous larger part called the echinus I Square abacus that rest on top I Architrave which is a blank horizontal band then afrieze that has tyrogliphs I Only the Doric has the trygliphs and metapes I Sculpture can only t in the metapes I Never any sculpture on the architrave I There can be sculpture in the pediment I Doric column is more massive coming all the way down to the I Fat short column 0 All orders have pediments and enclosing the pediments they all have a cornice which is aframe around the pediments o All orders have a double band of some kind at the bottom ofthe entablature O m I Triple band at the pediment I Capital is scrolllike called volute or ramps horn shape I Slender o Corinthian also has the triple band I Leafy capital I Most elegant feminine order I Almost never used by the Greeks I More slender visually looks taller than the others 0 lonic and Corinthian both have a blank band 0 In both lonic and Corinthian sculpture can go in the blank space 0 Proportions also change lonic and Corinthian columns sit on stacks 0 Both l and C shafts are slender than Doric Doric is shorter and fatter Scale width of each ute is the width of a man39s body in a Peristyle o Entablature everything on top Classical Era see slide for info Athens Ca 450 BCE Site of lSt temple to Athena 7 story tall statue of Athena made of ivory and gold Front doors would open to the cellawhere the statue would stand and the sun would directly illuminate the sculpture into the building on this day of celebration Ordinary people would not go into the temples Ground plan the Parthenon directly across from that is the Erectheum then the main gat way called the propylaea then the tiny temple dedicated to Athena Small temple at entrance way is now gone Partheno o n Dedicated to Athena According to mythology Athena and posideon were I con ict pver who would hae the prime site on the mountain and they had to strike water from a rock and Athena won lktinos and Kallikrates architects Periteral plan with perister and colonnade surrounding it standing on the stylobate 2chambered cella O In the larger cella there is a row of columns that surrounds the central part ofthe cells The rectangle reps the base for the statue Behind that is another chamber w4 columns in the middle At either end ofthe doubleroomed cella there are columns that go across each end Prostyle temple surrounded by a peristyle At each end there is a double row of columns lSt row is part of the peristyle and the 2quotd row is part ofthe temple itself Doric Order peristyle with trygliphs and metapes that surround the entire temple Behind the Doric peristyle there is Ionic order because surrounding the entire cella is a continuous sculptural frieze No sculpture ever in the Doric order So to have those sculptures we have to have the lonic order The example of Doric order in Greek architecture is not absolutely Doric it has Doric and lonic It39s an lonic temple with a Doric peristyle 0 Largest amount of Classical sculpture was on the Parthenon behind the entablature of the peristyle Stereobate is huge compared to peo le Man is the measure of all standards Stereobate is curves so that it39s invisible to the naked eye this means that the columns must be curved as well The whole entablature must curve as well 0 Absolute horizontals tend to curve up and absolute verticals look like they39re leaning out So columns ofthe Parthenon lean slightly towards the center to avoid it looking like they39re leaning 0 Old Photo at bottom shows curvature of stereobate 0 Continuous narrative sculpture that runs around the interior upper wall lonic Freize Columns underneath is Doric Horsemen can be seen in the pictures Elgin Marbles see slide for info Duveen Gallery 0 Overlapping legs carved in the frieze Anatomy of horses is very knowledgeable 0 Good representation of both humans and animals I Reconstruction of the statue of Athena within Parthenon is based on hundreds of votive statues of Athena Fills the entire height ofthe cella that people would only see on the day of the celebration every 4 years I Propylaea Entranceway Ca 437 BCE 0 Entry to the Acropolis 0 Temple facade is constructed as a gateway no building there just a facade There is a street that runs through where all horses and people could pass through 0 Ushaped complex 0 Structure on Left is as far as we know the l5t building that is reserved for the display of art lSt art gallery designed to display sculptures on the acro 39s Next slide is what39s left today Plan shows the road through it Pinacotheca is and old word for art gallery Doric columns with alternating trygliphs and metapes 2 center columns are spaced much wider for processors manipulation of temple facade Idea I Erechtheion On site of contest between Athena and Poisideon 0 2 levels to accommodate the site 0 Several porches l at end of cella then a big porch that overlooks the city and a smaller one that faces the Parthenon 0 lonic order which columns that stands on bases Engaged columns not freestanding support columns Aesthetic use of order to attach column to wall Articulate a surface that39s visually interesting but is not a structure 0 The columns shaft is a gure Female gures that function as columns called Caryatid 0 These gures are standing in aweightshift position controposto Which shows that they understood balance 0 Weight bearing leg is on the outside on the corners but the other leg is the weight bearing on the gures in the center 92409 caitlin s notes These 2 things are part ofa set that began last class Erechtheion ca 421407 BC supposed site of the contest between Athena and Poseidon 2 levels to accommodate site directly across from the Parthanon odd shape has to do with fitting into the terrain femae figures in quotposture at ease that serve as columns quotPorch of the Maidens ionic order Temple of Athena Nike ca 425 BC Kallikrates Architect most elegant of this set amphiprostyle ionic capitals corners don t work well From the front the scroll is visible and from the side you only see the end of the scroll this problem solved with the Corinthian order 4th century Greece 323 BC death of Alexander the Great ntroduction to the Corinthian order Corinthian Capital Monument of Lycicrates Athens c 334 BC cea peristyle engaged columns no interior built for choir director winning competition quottrophyquot one of the only surviving examples of the Greek use of the Corinthian architecture Theater Epidauros 350 2 d c B hafof an amphitheater used for theatrical productions today perfect acoustics don t need any sound enhancement stairs between tiers and entrance ramps so effective that the format is still used today Stoa of Attalos agora marketplace stoa long rectangular building doric ground level ionic 2quotd level designed to read from the ground up the height of a column is directly related to the diameter of its base so if a column ran the entire height of the building the base would be too large That s why there are multiple levels Model of the Tomb of Mausolus of Halicarnassus Bodrum Turkey 352 BC considered one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world when it was in existence chariot with 4 horses on top over life size huge base word mausoleum comes from this tomb Hellenistic Era 323 146 BC from death of Alexander to Roman conquest in 146 BC Nike of Samothrace Samothrace is one of the islands off of Greece with temple to honor the gods Louvre Museum Paris c 190 BC dramatic interaction between figure and wind originally depicted on front ofa marble ship therefore quotwetquot from the ocean so that her figure can be seen through draped cloth House Plans from Olynthus Oikos at the heart of the home concept still used today in homes courtyard being the porch and the tendency to have heat near the kitchen Greek Furniture quotNothing in Excessquot evidence in Greek vases and sculpture not much furniture has survived Furniture was elegant but not fancy embellishment with a lot of surface decoration Klismos wood side chair Curved back and curved legs Usualy undecorated Form will be seen later in chairs of the Directoire Empire Regency ect Grave Stele of Hegeso example c 410 400 BC S 9 tall Kline beds Klinereclining Greek vase Sth c BC ancestor of chaise lougues and platform beds Trapeze table 3 legs tshaped Funerary Chest from royal tomb Thessaloniki Greece 330 BC boxes for storage Etruscan Heritage during most of the 6th c Etruscan kings ruled Rome Etruscans came to Italy possibly from Asia Minor built first sewer system for Rome quotcloaca maxima walled the city and built first buildings in the Forum New Range of Building Material marble Tuscany Carrara Query Travertine terra cotta brick Pozzolana volcanic sand to mix with lime and water for making concrete Ashlar masonry stone cut precisely for its position in the structure Porta Augusta 2 d c BC Perugia Italy Apartments built into the city walls modern day Arch quotthe true arch vs the corbelled arch above horizontal bands with big circles between them alternating with squares Trigliffs and metapieves Above another arch flanked with Corinthian E columns Buses go through arch with about 18 clearance on either side present day Diagram about how the arch is made voussioir square wedges keystone top middle wedge the more weight applied on the arch the stronger the arch is frame used to hold other pieces until the keystone is placed during which the quotspring into tensionquot takes place 92909 I Etruscans o Etruscan Tumulus Tombs Area of Tuscany is volcanic I Tufa stone soft stone to cut and carve once its expose to air it becomes very hard texture like concrete its actually a porous volcanic stone I Tomb painting 6th cent BCE I Hunting and fishing themes 0 Fisherman in a boat 0 Person with slingshot shooting the birds I very animated images I tomb of the reliefs 3rd cent BCE I all the surfaces are covered with relief images pots pans etc I all the architectural details are cut out of the same stone as the reliefs 0 similar to the rock cut tombs in Egypt quotreserved piers I reserved piers columns are attached to the ceiling and floor bc its carved out of the same material 0 Etruscan temple9prostyle temple I Proster is an architectural term defining free standing columns that are widely spaced apart in a row The term is often used as an ad39ective when referring to the portico ofa classical building which projects from the main structure First used in Etruscan and Greek temples the Romans later on incorporated this motif in their temples I This architectural style probably originated in the eastern Greek isles in the 8th century BC however there are also many examples in archaic temples in southern Italy I No room for perastyle I Single center stairway providing axis to the front I Terracotta roof I Beams that support the roof have a terracotta motif on the ends I The columns resemble Knossos because of the colors I Tuscan Columns have bases unlike the Doric I Columns are heavier at bottom then the top I Sculptural line along the roof line 0 Tuscan chairs I Curve back around a barrel base I Used for placing of the urns of the deceased I quotenthroningquot of the ashes I Funerary furniture used in the tombs n Timeline 8th4th cent BCE9 Etruscans flourished 776 BCE9 lSt Olympic games 753 BCE9 founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus 500 BCE9 Romans overthrow Etruscans establishing Roman Republic 44 BCE9 Julius Caesar assassinated ending Republic Julius Caesar succeeded by Octavian Augustus who restored order Established the Pax Romana 200 years of peace New era is the Roman Empire which lasted until 6th cent Five Roman Orders I Greek Doric has been added for comparison even though it was not used by the Romans I Corinthian is what they used most I Their Doric has a baseunlike greek Doric Architecture I Romans want to enclose vast amount of spaces which means new materials concrete I They explore new vaulting systems Pantheon 125128 BCE I Temple to the gods9 Pan all theon place of the gods I Temple facade glued to a vast round structure with a dome resting on top I Greeks wouldn t understand this because there is no connection between the 2 structures 0 0000000 0 O I Dome is 142 diameter 142 high 18ft wide walls that are about 16ft high where it cuts to the dome structure I Entire structure is vast concrete I Made and mixed on site I Cheaper than cut stone which has to be transported I Extremely strong I Can be used on vast open spaces I Disadvantage9 extremely heavy I Coffer the ceiling of the dome9 cut out squares within squares for detail and loses a lot of the weight I Emphasis on the curvature of the dome by decreasing the size of the squares as you go to the top I Entire ceiling was originally covered with golden reliefs I At the floor level are niches 9 images of the roman gods were placed here now its based on Catholicism I No windows on the drum and no opening on the dome besides the oculus o Oculus 30 ft diameter I Translates to eye I Its the opening on the top of the dome I Only source of light in the dome The light shown inside rotates around the dome due to the rotation of the earth I We have no idea how the dome was structuredhow can you cast concrete in a dome structure before it dries I Only practical solution is forming dirt as the dome and pouring the concrete on the dirt 0 Temple of Fortuna Virilis Rome 2 d cent BCE I Alonga river in rome I What came from the etruscans I Steps up to the front I Cella wall to the platform I Created a perastyle effect by adding columns to where the Etruscans had a solid wall I ionic columns 0 later along roman architecture the more you will see the Corinthian columns 0 Baths of Caracalia I 211217 BCE I Roman baths I Has operas in the summer time I Baths in roman served a sociological purpose I More like today s elaborate spas I You spend all day there Runningjogging pool relaxing libraries I Very cheap to attend so almost anybody can afford to go9 public baths I ts public entertainment like the colosseum I Made primarily of concrete I Faced with elegant marble paneling I Tradition of sequence of hot water to cold water I Groin vaults two barrel vaults intersect at center9 seen in the center of the baths I Represented in a floor plan as a dotted X o Romans built roads that function like our highways I Long direct routes that could be moved quickly I Some are still intact today I Roads were 12ft thick I Italy south of france I Roman bridges are still used in spain southern france Italy 100609 I Barrel Vault o Started with the arch from the Etruscans o Consequence of the true arch 0 Extended the barrel too far can make the arch fall9 result groin vault was created I Roman arch9 halfa circle 0 Diameter of the arch is determined by the width of the arch o The groin vault is created by a square9 both diameters have to equal one another in order for the arches to intersect at their centers I Colosseum Rome 0 00000000 Flavian amphitheater double theater Completed 80 BCE Seating capacity ca 50000 Roman colosseum is at the end of the forum Built of cast concrete and face with cut marble and limestone 4 stories tal which is marked by four rows of arcades roman order Covered stadium poles held up canvas Became a quarry for people who were building villas around rome colosseum s marble was taken lSt 3 levels there are continuous arcades lSt row engaged Doric columns with Doric capitals and an entablature resting on top 2quotd row ionic column 3rd row Corinthian column 4th row flat paster engaged column with a flat surface instead of being rounded Masculine to feminine These columns become an aesthetic device instead of structural because the concrete holds the building 0 lSt event was a ship battle the colosseum was flooded with ships in it I 3 types of domestic living 0 1 Apartment complex nsula ostia I 2quotd cent CE I Apartment complex I Built for low income people I Average apartment was 12 rooms I Represents a lifestyle of comfort I Buildings have survived in Pompeii and at the water edge of rome port at ostia I Shop level at bottom House of pansa Pompeii I Part ofan apartment complex with the house of pansa as the main house I Citric orchards on the outside I mpuvium shallow pool that catches rain water reflecting pool in open space 0 Located in the atrium area open to the top I Continuous coonnade of columns surrounding a garden or another pool peristyle I A porch with columns towards the back near the garden I Privatefamily areas are more towards the back I Teblinium sculpted heads of the previous generations of the families held here 0 2 Free standing townhome o 3 Country villa House of the vetii Pompeii I 2 cent CE I Peristyle with impluvium I Interior walls are elaborately painted I Architectural stye painting images ofarchitecture I Bed with head rest and foot rest cushion on top 0 nayed patterns on the legs 0 Higher up than beds today I Floor is also decorated o 4 Imperial palace Hadria n s via Tivoli east of rome I 11738 CE I Island villa Outdoor room for lunch that was only reached by using a gondola it was surrounded by water I Romans adopted motifs from greek past but never felt that needed to copy they were quotinspiredquot by the Greeks 0 Greek stye fret mosaic floor Pompeii I Romans were inspired by this by created a spiral pattern acanthus on marble pilaste lSt cent CE I Greeks thought in rectangular form I Romans used arches and leafy botanical forms I Roman furniture 0 rooms sparsely furnished inays of ivory bone silver and gold beds made of wood or metal often with animal feet bronze tripods served as tables polished bronze plates used as mirrors braziers 3 legged tripod fire area used for warming rooms bronze oil lamps used for light 0 library cabinets used for rolled manuscripts I roman bed vs greek bed 0 roman known as a lectus I contained a foot and head rest 0 greek known as a kline I only a head rest I roman bronze stool with a cushion 0 four legged box with a curved seat I roman typical seating folding chair known as a sea 0 today quotdirectorsquot chairs 0 crossed legs 0 elaborate ceremonial sea known as a sea curuis I Stool on an Xshaped base with multiple parallel legs in 2 interlocking sets I Symbol of the authority of a magistrate I Judges civil authorities emperor I Became the model for the seat of bishops the cathedra ceremonial chair I Romans liked and used the greek trapeza table but also introduced pedestal tables with a round or square top I Lighting for domestic interiors were oil lamps hung from the ceiling or a floor pedestal 0 Bronze shallow bowls used for floating wicks o Ones hung from the ceiling had intricate glass quotlacequot details very fragile I Villa romana del casae 0 Today known as the Piazza armerina sicily 4th cent roman villa Largest surviving collection of roman mosaics Almost all mosaics here are foor mosaics Over 48000 sq ft of mosaics Excavations begun in 1929 through early 1930s I Later work in 50s and 70s but much sti unexplored 000000 00000 108 09 Roman Antiquity to Early Christian Era I Early Christian Art 0 Pox Romania9 peace 0 Embedded in the holy land in the near east 0 Embedded in roman culture within the lSt century apostles peter and paul came to rome to be missionaries and were martyred in rome in the lSt cent I Elements of the transition 0 At the time of the birth of christianity rome sees it as a cult it s one of the many of the mystery cults Cult meaning there are ceremoniesrituals that are only open to the members of the cult 0 Christianity is not publicly recognized 0 We have to wait approx 300 years for Christians to publicly practice their faith in rome I No churches in the early stages bc it was illegal I First churches appear in the 4t century I Emperor Constantine 337 CE 0 1 early Christian emperor only baptized Christian on his death bed I It was probably a political movement I His mother was a devout Christian Hellena 0 Taxes paid to emperor by lands that were conquered were used for building churches OO 00 0 Picture in slide show Image of power and authority not a portrait stood for his presence I Figure was probably about 3 stories tall 30 ft I Eyes were 2 ft in diameter I Head is about8to9ft tall I Insertion ofauthoritypower I Constantine had a broken nose from battle which is shown in all the images of him it shows him as a warrior In small towns there were monuments of the emperor 313 CE Edict of Milan was issued by Constantine I It s the official neutrality toward christianity 334 towards the end of his life Christianity will be established as the state religion 324 christianity is the official practice of rome House churches places were the quotmembersquot would gather I 22 have been identified in modern times they have been excavated I Some have been found underneath churches today No burials were allowed within the cities health issue I Everybody was buried outside city walls Roman authorities monitored the building and maintenance of the cementaries I Hence why Christians would have secret ceremonies in the catacombs I Catacomb plan catacomb of domitilla O O Layers begin to criss cross each other 400 sq miles of tombs outside of rome s wall that have yet to be excavated I Catacomb plan catacomb of calixtus 200 CE 0 000 0000 Corridors ong horizontal shelves were bodies were placed Catacomb gallery with quotloculiquot carved out shelves for burials Corridors are very narrow Long corridor that they would carved out a horizontal rectangular opening where the body would be laid and then a stone would seal the enclosure When this was full an adjacent corridor was built and then after it was filled out horizontal corridors would be made once it was filled then they would go beneath and start allover again Oldest tombs are the ones closest to the top Sth7th cent the catacombs were vandalized by barbarians 410 people of rome decided to bring the early martyrs to bring them into the city at churches Chapel of the sacraments 3rd century I Paintingsimages that survived on the walls near the shelves I Extremely small images Crypt of the popes 3rd century another chapel I 7 popes were buried here I More grandeur I Columns carved out I Practice is still the same I Catacomb of Commodilla late 4th cent 0 O 0 000 0 Lots of new testament images More images from the old testament than NT Not a single imagery of the crucifixion of Christ I Odd because these are martyrs people who have suffered for their faith like Christ was They did not a literal concept of the story of the crucifixion What was most important to the Christian community was their faith and hope in the constancy of Christ This imagery has to do with what God is Moses striking the rock located on the left of the image shown in the sideshow I Catacomb of Priscilla O O 0 Rome 2quotd century Female orant quotorantquot comes from quotoraquot to ask for petitions roman word I Position is standing with hands raised I Now understood as a form of prayer I Catacomb of peter and marcellinus 0 Rome 4th cent O O O O 0 Good shepherd orants story ofjonah Ceiling painting that is made up of a center medallion with halfcircles surrounding it Center image is most common Christ s good shepherd I Based on greek god Apollo who is fearless I Appropriate to represent Christ as an Apollo because 0 Apollo sun god 0 Apollo chariot crosses from east morning to west night 0 Apollo seen as god of lightlife o Attributes of Christ quotthe light of the world I Each portrait you see is depicted differently I What is important is quotwho is Christ not quotwhat he looks like I Pan cI ed hoved hafman halfgoatn not positive on this information I God is not referred to this because he is not evil I Orpheus great greek musician I His music was able to tame the wild beast I Christ as Orpheus the good shepherd Story ofjonah surrounding the center image I Type of death and resurrection of Christ I Jonah falls overboad stays in belly of whale for 3 days he is spit out onto land I It is a prefiguration of the story of the resurrection of Christ Layout is derived from what was being painted in roman houses I Composition is almost identical to what we will see in the interior of houses I Other examples of this layout I Catacomb of callixtus 0 Rome mid 3rd cent 0 Daniel in the lion s den 0 Crypt of lucina I 3rd style roman painting painting in a square surrounding by another square I quotornate style I Coemeterium Maius Rome 4th cent I Plan ofOld St Peter s O O O O O O O O Built to commemorate the site of the apostle peter In cemetery over tomb of peter Transept marks the tomb thus making a quotCross form church Where peter was martyred is where st peter s is located From time of death of peter 64 until end of 2quotd cent there was identification of his tomb I It was simply passed down by word of mouth of the Christians who wanted to visit it Typical roman basilica I Rectangular shape with an apse at top I Basilicas were large buildings that were built effectively No pews were built during this time therefore accommodating a larger amount of people The quotcanopyquot domelike structure marks Peter s tomb I Transept cross bar Christian innovation that was introduced to mark the tomb funerary plan I Funerary tradition was kept up until 1963 by Vatican II Council in which not all churches were built for funerary purposes of martyrs Roman laws graves of the dead could not be disturbed I All Christian burials had to be moved had to ask permission of the families Typical Structure of altar Altar end faced east of the building east of the source of the light of life I Entrance at the west facade I St peters was opposite 101309 Midterm is on slides 8today Old St Peter s funerary build outside of original city walls transept invented as an architectural element to mark the tomb St Peter s separates apse from nave na rthex entry porch all of these are characteristics of pagan temples adapts secular basilica early Christians built their own buildings rather than just reuse pagan temples because they were quottaintedquot entry now on longitudinal axis built in cemetery over tomb of Peter transept marks the tomb thus making a quotcross form churchnot for the purpose of being a Christian symbol Roman Forum Basilica Ulpia reconstruction imperial basilica large public building side entry apse semicircular for seating of the judges or the emperor big central open place longitudinal processional axis Interior of Old St Peter s painting by Domenico Tasseli c 1611 ad flat wooden ceiling gabled roof interior walls covered in paintings Old St Peter s with welcoming courtyard and fountain to refresh pilgrams fountain described in 5th and 6t century texts large bronze pincone under canopy with peacocks the pinecone is now in the Vatican courtyard 4 stories tall no particular sybolism very hospitable to visitors and strangers aka the fountain a hospitable gesture still are fountains on every street in Rome Byzantine art symbolic representation is a characteristic comes from Constantinople 333 ad Constantine moved capital to Constantinople it was called something else but he renamed it Greek artists and traditions Ravenna became the outpost for emperor S Apollinare Nuovo dedicated to early bishop of Ravenna who died in the 4th century Ravenna Italy c 490 ad very plain simple made of brick interior is overly decorated just the walls though apse and ceiling were later additions also the bell tower was a later addition no bell towers before the 12th century mosaics on the walls made of glass reflect light area around Venice glass making precession of saints towards alter men on one side and women on the other narratives above windows first surviving monumental wall narratives There were some in St Peter s but they didn t survive background is gold and this was accomplished by backing those pieces of glass with gold leaf cross in circle represents Christ man with sheep represents the local bishop Test 3 Material 5 Apollinare in Classe Ravenna Italy 6th c CE Central plan structures tend to have 2 connections Both are imperial One is as funerary structuretomb Other as an imperial chapel or church private Imperial tombs are always central planned which is a symbolic connection Central planned churches are characteristic of eastern Christianity coming out of Constantinople instead of Rome begins in the 4th century when Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople 00000 Santa Costanza in Roma 350 CE Constantine s daughter is named Costanzia this is her mausoleum Very plain exterior 0 Brick 0 Doesn t even seem memorable o No decoration 0 Because it is a tomb it is in a cemetery Around 5th century it became a church Similar to Baptistery of the Orthodox in Ravenna circa 458 CE 0 Same type of building used as a tom 0 Christians consider baptism a dying to Christ to live with Christ Interior both baptistery and Costanza o Walkway goes all the way around the building created by pairs of double columnsvery elegant o Sarcophagus is now in the Vatican not in the building 0 Funerary swagrelated to test 1 o Porphyry ony reserved for royal families because it was rare 0 Walkway surrounding center has a barrel vault and some mosaics 0 Weddings are very popular since it is such beautiful buildings 0 Mosaics in Costanza Left is a vine scroll of grapevines with vignettes An ox cart pulling a wagon of gapes People drinking wine About wine making meaning 2 things I Fall labor or luxury scene I Pressing grapes to make Eucharistic wine I Ambiguous which is characteristic of at of imagery at this time Hagia Sophia Constantinople Referto slide for info Church dedicated to holy wisdom o Hagiaholy o Sophiawisdom Destroyed in 6th century during Nike riots 4 mignonettes surrounding it and are examples of muslim architecture From exterior it looks like a heap of masonry Big dome and 2 half domes High point to low point 2 secure walls and 2 walls of windows making It weak and not strong enough to support weight and that is why it collapses and now it stabilized by buttresses Original color was brick red Hybridcombo if central set on top of a longitudinal basilica plan Interior 0 Not a single solid wall Arches columns windows galleries half domes Open light filled Contrast to what you would ve imaging looking at exterior Exterior looks grounded and bounded and inside is open and airy Golden mosaics are atop the columns which have the richest and saturated colors and textures of marbles Imported marble from everywhere Golden mosaics represent heavens Cosmic symbol i the 3rd stage dome supported on pendentibes Triangular spaces between four arches Carry weight to piers 1St stagecorbelled dome o 2 d pantheon cast concrete dome Kufic Islamic calligraphy 0 Lists all names of god 0 Classic example of perfect calligraphy Bronze medallions that are 30 feet in diameter mOOOOOOOO This 000 10309 Byzantine Domed Churches San Marco Venice 1 H St Mark s Begun in 1063 5 domed building with 5 entry facade Interior 0 Commonality with Hagia Sophia is symbolic reference of the heavens above and earth below 0 Difference is the multiplications of the domes 0 Difference in spatial area represents 2 different world views Early one from 6th century is simply represented of cosmic idea Contrast Hagia with st mark s when looking up in St Mark s you see the bottoms of multiple domes and bottoms of multiple of arches and it is a myriad of geometric surfaces and it is so complex It is a medieval aesthetic with lots of surface glitz and many figures A delight in the abstract 0 None of the French churches have decoration like St Mark s None are decorated in mosaic since it is an Italian glass and very expensive Front Perigueux France C 1120 Clearly an imitation of st Marks Covered domes with gabled roves because of leaking problems and then restored later Interior 0 very elegant and sleek 0 completely bare no capitals and cornices or colonettes 0 same complex interior as St Mark s as far as columns and arches and domes Shift in imperial patronage to popular so there is less concentrated control over what happens Rise in towns and cities and emerging in the merchant class and can be contributed to the second of the major developments called the pilgrimage phenomenon Grave found in a field north of spain that held the remaisn of the apostle james the place was Santiago de Compostela St Sernin Toulouse France One of the largest of pilgrimage churches Large nave and 2 roof lines which are two side aisles which flankthe nave and a large transept with an apse and 2 roof lines with a series of little chapels Tower was added in 16th century too big for the Romanesque period Big narthex Fits in with basilican type church dating back to st peters Made of brick typical of roman structures and round roman arches with alternating color stone Arches are flanked by columns either engaged or pilasterroman order Medieval architecture quoting roman forms Simple faced with pilasters dividing surface into vertical areas Very unassuming brickfacade Masonry barrel vault Dual plan Top is St Sernin plan is different because it has to meet the new needs because of all the pilgrims coming into churches Lines crossing from one side of nave to other indicate barrel vault And double sided aisles flanking nave Continuous ambulatory a walkway providing a traffic pattern going all the way around the structure and it ordered the traffic of the pilgrims who came to see relics o Pilgrimage choirspace between the transept and the apse 11122009 Book of Durrow he books include books from the bible at the beginning of each book would be a full page images that represents the person St John page typically the eagle is the symbol of John on this page the symbol is a Lion red and yellow make the pattern of the fur Artist has to figure out how to represent the human figure so the figure has 2 feet going one way but no arms and hands because that is too hard to draw Carpet pages Look like an oriental carpet and fill up the whole page Large scale designs 1St is an animal interlace pattern with a linear interlace around the edges Primary colors red and yellow very cheerful 2 d one is animal and interlace embedded through it centered with a medallion Tiny cross in the center lets you know it came from a christen manuscript Compare to Sutton Hoo in England same kind of design and shield idea Artist is taking what is familiar and incorporating it into a new design Also compare to La Tene Celt in the spiral design Lindisfame Gospels Off northeastern coast of England Monastery destroyed by Viking invaders at least 3 times Now it is just ruins Cross carpet page at beginning of Gospels of St Matthew Manuscript is upper left view Animal interlace designed in rectangular segments with a double mirror imagecalled a cartouche Elaborate combo of linear and animal interlace HorrorVacui means horror of a vacuumdread of an open space Dense until you get to the border Other pages 0 Also horrow vacui o Checkerboard pages with an elaborate cross and rich interlace Text pages at beginning of the gospel of matthew 0 First word is Liber book of the generations of Christ 0 Closer you get the more astonishing 0 Free hand drawing Book of Kells Done at same monastery as book of Durrow in oda Shown in Trinity College in Dublin now and periodically turn the page 4 evangelist Intro page 0 Matthew oxen for luke lion for mark and eagle for john 0 Text pages 0 Keep margin straight even if words don t go to end so they fill with designs and patterns 0 Figures of cats chasing mice and so on Chi Rho page Xand P shape for Christ Carpet page and fill entire space Beginning of text of the nativity for the gospel of matthew Christi autem generatio Detail shows spiral motifs that are common back to durrow O O O O O o Elaborate designs and no empty space Manuscripts represent transitions from barbarian origins to Christian customs Carolingian Art Franks date back to 5th century founded the Merovingian Dynasty Palace Chapel of Charlemagne Central plan design Inspired by palace chapel in Ravenna Goes back to Constantine church of holy wisdom Imperial design the splendors early Christian emperors Large atrium in the front like Constantine s basilica in Rome old st Peter s Goes across to the triclinium meaning a building with 3 apses o Strictly roman structuresroman basilica 0 Typically used for banqueting halls o Elaborate dining room 0 Styled like a roman dining room 0 Apses hold curved tables Flanking the chapel is the palace 0 Very unassuming 0 Interior 0 000000000 0 O O Coro St john Imperial Ebbo Gospels Wing on either side Today they attached a gothic cathedral to Charlemagne s chapel Rich Red and white marble 3 story elevation on the left with round roman arches Gallery and false 3rd story Large arches on ground level 2nd floor large arch encompasses two stories 2nd level opened into apartments for the emperor with the thrown in the gallery level Mosaic done at top and mosaics are 19th century mosaics and replaced after a fire in 1821 San vitali in Ravenna impacted this building Imported bronze casters form Italy to make railing on 2 d floor And lions heads Compare to San Vitale 2 story are on bottom level opposite of above Charlemagne was not attempting to reproduce san vitale but quotes the church of san vitale Both have alter and square apse Circular floorplan Aisle is different Chalemgane alternates squares and triangle so there is alternating geometry nation Gospels Purple vellum Demetrius St Matthews Purple vellum as well commission Letter was drawn first then gum Arabic Poet scholarfrom ancient times writing the gospel Matthew wrting gospel in a frenzied manner Hair blowing in the wind Text page shows incrpit and there is a line that shows where a letter was left out bc it wouldn t fit on the line It says here begisn the gospel according to matthew Missed Tuesday nov17th 111909 New artistic professions especially goldsmiths Ste Foi Conques c1120 Plan 0 O O O 0 Continuous angulatory all the way around church and radiating chapels added to display relic collected In order to have radiating chapels you extend the apse called a choir Exterior Use of masonry vault round roman barrel vaults Nave wall and vault Used to have wooden roofs but changed due to fire Reliquary of Ste Foi 0 Young girl martyred at 12raped and killed in the 4th century not far from Conques People of Conques wanted a relic to draw people in but didn t have anything so they knew about her village and used her relic Conques sent a monkto her village and spent 10 years there 5 a model monk and was well liked by the community then one night in the monastery he grabbed the relics and ran and they are still in Conques One relics got to Conques they didn t know how to display them This particular head was available and used on the relic which is a male head It is in no way intended to be a portrait of the young girl but to be a rich treasure Covered in gold and jeweled which were donated overthe centuries by wealthy people 3 ft tail on an alter in on of the radiating chapels surrounded by candle light 0 00000 St Sernin Toulouse France 10601150 Ariel view and reading the plan 0 Continuous angulatory cures traffic problem with pilgrims Apse with radiating chapels St Foi is half the size of St Sernin Plan on the bottom is a direct copy of Sernin Sernin has double aisles Barrel vault and masonry Quotation of Roman architecture and vocabulary and these churches are the basis for Romanesque architecture OOOOOO Santiago de Compostela Baroque facade Original drawing shows a direct legacy of St Sernin in Toulouse Difference between the 2 Sernin has double aisles and Santiago has single Puerta de la Gloria o In the narthex 0 Here we see St James the apostle seated n a trumeau and above him is Christ flanked by apostles o St James is welcoming visitors to cathedral 0 Column is richly carved and the tree of Jessie in the old testament and represent genealogy of Christ 0 Tree of life is at James s feet 0 Originally polychrome painted High alter 0 Way up top is sculpture of James and presides over interior of church one story above floor level 0 Behind alter and up steps you can touch the sculpture 0 Cape is crusted with jewels o In the back you can touch and only example of modern times touching the 12th century Tapestry storyline in slides 1 t SavinsureGartempe 10601115 Wide central nave and side aisle n either side Different since there is only a one story elevation Huge arches going from 1St floor to vault no gallery Masonry barrel vault covered with paintings Wanted to use it as an extensive painting campaign Called a hall church since the ceilings are the same height Aerial view shows no windows up top and no differentiation from gable to edge of roof A particular color palette 0 Earth tones with a little green 0 Old testament scenes 0 Animated 0 Story of Noah and arch with a Viking boat o Relatives at to looking out windows 0 Other detail is the story of Kane and Abel Lincoln Cathedral England 11851280 Zigzag and diamond pattern around doonNay Each column has a different pattern Delight in geometry and patterning Patterning is also seen in doors which are wooden Round bosses on the door to create a texture Elaborate carved lace pattern up top the doors Purbeck a site in Wales where there ate dark marble quarries so there is a dark contrast in the stone in Lincoln Close ups on patterning and rosettes Face on right is the green man aka the wild man the woodman the man who lives in the forest and represent the forces of nature Chip carving rondels English chest 13th centur Chipping inward Scribe Eadwine Canterbury Psalter 1150 Legs turned into cylinders Furniture as mini architecture Note arches and windows French Gothic Swept over Europe Every time it crossed a border it became something else because it was toooo French Sculpture of St Denis Notre dame cathedral in Paris 1144 Martyred Story is after he was decapitated he picked his head up and walked home The monastery was important because of the relationship to the French monarchy 12th century Suger decided monastery was too small and was beautiful enough to rep the French kings He decide to enlarge church and refurbish it and fitted it to French kings 11242009 Durham England Cathedral begun 1087 vaulting in 1093 Big towers are a sign of an English building because no one else does towers like that 0 There are no caps on towers 0 Square and flat on top Carving on columns is an English trait o Greeks fluted columns to emphasize verticality and English carve to emphasis roundness and diameter Arches and nave arcade molding have elaborate patterns resembling riff raff Fat geometric patterns and is part of nomadic Germanic abstract pattern tradition Vaulting is powerful and linear ribs on surface of vault O O O o Ribs are a ribbed groin vaulting the X patterns on ceiling Plan 0 Series of rectangular bays 0 Bigger circles are the piers and mark the boundaries of one bay 0 2 X s within one rectangular bay is double Xvaulting Roman groin vault is built when 2 barrel vaults intersect True arch represents a half circle which is determined by width o If it isn t the same height as the other than they won t meet 2 cross vaults in one bay is an example of ribbed groin vaulting Church of SaintEtienne Caen France Begun in 1064 Built by William the Conquest Towers in Williams time and gothic caps added later Williams wife Matilda built church at the same time dedicated to holy trinity Churches were gestures of thanksgiving due to family problems 0 Both were first cousins which was illegal in times and got a legal marriage from Rome so built churches in thanks Interior 0 Same barrel vault but not a double Xvault 0 Within rectangular bay there was one groin vault and just to be sure they put another rrib in the middle so it is called a 6 segment vault Sculpture of St Denis from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris 1144 Following in the footsteps of predecessors with the initial architecture Referto slide for info of the church Suger s Work Plans of St Denis and St Sernin Choir and apse completed before he died Grey liens were original church that was too small Series of chapels are integrated into the church Ribbed groin vaulting very elaborate Curtain of Glass wall transforms building with transparent spaces filling light from floor to ceiling Glass became a new special experience New mysticism was to make visible what is invisible presence of God St Denis Chior Ambulatory is surrounded by a curtain of glass looking like continuous light interrupted by piers Gothic is materializing everything and the glass looks purple being made of primarily red and blue to create royal purple the color of the king Ribbed groin vaults A lot of the glass was destroyed during the war but this window has survived and it is a tree of jesse This window became a conventional celebration Notre Dame Paris Similarities New feature is the circular window and the doorways as well as sculptural band of figures that represents kings and queens that date back to old testament and includes temporary medieval kings Also rep the lineage of the French kings Flying buttresses around nave and apse it comes up like a finger and touches the wall where it is most vulnerable and provides an external skeleton The gallery has a Trifuriom means 3 opening above the arches Reversal of architecture romans wouldn t understand but Sexpartite vault o 6 part vault and ribs are skinnier then the others 0 Very slender
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