INTRO INTERIOR DESGN
INTRO INTERIOR DESGN ID 1051
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Universal Design 9202012 33100 PM The disabled need not be handicapped if buildings are designed properly 56 of the population can be handicapped in some form at once pregnancy childhood aging arthritis mental heart etc respiratory auditory orthopedic visual temp disabilities broken limbs etc Life Activities as defined by the ADA caring for oneself performing manual tasks walking seeing hearing speaking breathing learning working Ramps are part of making design universal a Code requires a 1 inch per 1 foot rise for ADA compliant ramps a Standard step rise height is 7 inches tread depth is 11 inches Characteristics of a universally designed door signage 1416 m off the ground glazing on the window to see if someone is on the other side of the door extra pull handle 91 m off the ground kick plate 34 m wide Hallways 15 m wide enough for two wheel chairs to pass in a hallway standard Bathrooms End of row Parallel approach Middle of row Parallel approach Alternate Stall DiagonalFrontal approach Universal Design is the design of product buildings and spaces to be useable by all people to the greatest extent possible Principles Principle One Eguitable Use The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities GUIDELINES Provide the same means of use for all users identical whenever possible and equivalent when not Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users Provisions for privacy security and safety should be equal Make the design appealing to all users n n n Principle Two Flexibility The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities GUIDELINES n Provide choice in methods of use a Accommodate right or left handed access and use a Facilitate the user s accuracy and precision n Provide adaptability to the user s pace Principle Three simple and intuitive Use of the design is easy to understand regardless of the user s experience knowledge language skills or current concentration level GUIDELINES n Eliminate unnecessary complexity n Be consistent with user expectations and intuitions n Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills a Arrange information consistent with its importance n Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion Principle Four Perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user regardless of ambient conditions or the user s sensory abilities GUIDELINES n Use different modes pictorial verbal tactile for redundant presentation of essential information a Maximize legibility of essential information a Differentiate elements in ways that can be described ie make it easy to give instructions or directions a Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations Principle Five Tolerance for Error The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences and unintended actions GUIDELINES n Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors most used elements are accessible hazardous elements eliminated isolated or shielded n Provide warnings of hazards and errors a Provide fail safe features a Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance Principle Six Low Physical Effort The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue GUIDELINES n Allow user to maintain a neutral body position a Use reasonable operating forces a Minimize repetitive actions a Minimize sustained physical effort Principle Seven Size and space of approach and use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach reach manipulation and regardless of user s body size posture or mobility GUIDELINES n Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user a Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user a Accommodate variations in hand and grip size n Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance Materials 9202012 33100 PM Basic Types of Materials Natural n Available materials a Wood stone Wood Softwoods n Evergreens o Pine 0 Fir o Cedar Hardwoods n Nuts and Fruits 0 Oak 0 Cherry o Poplar Wood Sawing Flat saw rift saw quarter saw Wood Joints mortise and tenon dado rabbet dovetail finger miter Stone H Granite o Igneous Rocks n Limestone o Includes Sand Stones and Slate o Sedimentary Rocks n Marble o Includes Travertine Metamorphic Rocks Processed B Materials made through the mixture of natural materials a Concrete Poured Concrete Concrete Block U Plaster Wall Board and Stucco n Baked Clays Brick Tile n Metals Steel Iron Aluminum Brass Bronze Copper Synthetic B Materials made by chemically transforming natural materials a Plastic Vinyls Hybrid B Materials made from a combination of natural processed andor synthetic materials a Glass Textiles Laminated or Safety Tempered Wire Glass Thermal Glass Suspended ParticleDevice SPD Glass Mirrored Decorative n Upholstery n Carpet a Wall Coverings Carget Fibers n Nylon n Olefin Polyester n Wool Wall Covering n Vinyl n Fabric Textile a Paper Sustainable Design Sustainability providing for the needs of the present without detracting from the ability to fulfill the needs of the future Important Ideas north light is considered the purestbest use of native plants artificial grass cuts down on the use of water film applied to housing after is just as effective of a building envelope use of ceiling fans blackwater is contaminated water greywater is water that has been used ie washing dishesclothes but can be recycled and used again for such tasks Cradle to Cradle Is a concept as well as the title of a Manifesto written by McDonough in 2002 focused on lifecycle development In the cradle to cradle model all materials used in industrial or commercial processes such as metals fibers dyes etc are seen to fall into one of two categories technical or biological Technical nutrients are strictly limited to nontoxic nonharmful synthetic materials that have no negative effects on the natural environment These nutrients can be used in continuous cycles as the same product without losing their integrity or quality for example in this manner these materials can be used over and over again instead of being downcycled into lesser products ultimately becoming waste Biological nutrients are organic materials that once used can be thrown onto the ground on the garden in a river or any natural environment and decomposes into the soil providing food for small life forms without affecting the natural environment this is dependent on the ecology of the region for example organic material from one country or landmass may be harmful to the ecology of another country or landmass Global ConcernsEnvironmental Issues Greenhouse effect 9202012 33100 PM o Ozone depletion o Acid rain o Air water and soil quality o Energy sources o Resource conservation o Waste Greenhouse gas effectglobal warming 1 carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are produced 2 these gases plus water vapor absorb the sun s heat 3 accumulated gases act as a blanket trapping the heat radiated by the sun 4 natural energy balance is upset and the earth s temperature is rising 5 possible effects polar ice caps melt rise in ocean levels land loss Issues in the Built Environment o indoor air quality o energy efficient and conservation o resource conservation Historic Presveration 9202012 33100 PM preserve to maintain intact in an unchanged form when we think of historic preservation we are referring to the act of protecting a property or site to save its historic preservation we are referring to the act of protecting a property or site to save its historic character the fact that historic architecture continues to be used is why we have preservation live in something and maintain it is the best way to preserve something Longwood House o unfinished o building tools to finish it still in the house o erected during the civil war o can see the structure Hadrian s Villa o once Christianity took over buildings like this were purposefully torn down o in Rome o part of what was torn up was taken to build other buildings o part of it is in Westminster Abbey Great Wall of China o can be seen from space Bank of China Tower o will be worthy of preservation one day c not old reconstruction to recreate what was once there but is now gone UNESCO Barcelona Pavilion o Mies van der Rohe who is famous for less is more o the first building to fully exploit the ability of modern structural technology of steel and concrete to make walls optional elements they have no role in holding up the roofs so that the interior space can be freely planned without divisions into rooms and with as much openness as may be desirable persevered and restored o simple crisp clean unadorned but with luxurious materials Villa Girasole Engineer Angelo Invernizzi Architect EttoreFagiuoli House Revolves Near Verona Italy Machine home between architecture and engineering This socalled sunflower house is conceived as a twentiethcentury machine 1935 restoration to restore a room to a certain period of time rehabilitation most common method in the field of Historic Preservation study chapters 8 9 12 4 7 after pg 1999202012 33100 PM 9202012 33100 PM Unit 2 Color A basic Overview of Theoretical Principles you cannot have color without light coor is a language Basic principles an concepts to be covered additive and subtractive color color systems Munsell Natural Color System RGB and CYK Pantone color harmonies color psychologies color effects color and light are often the first things we think of when we remember of envision space and place for many they are the most powerful elements in space defining meaning time and sense of space color affects visual properties of objects and has a psychological and behavioral impact it impacts what we believe and how we feel about out environment the color black looks heavier than white airplanes are usually painted white we have a perception that darker colors are heavier in actual weight color and light are virtually g Additive and Subtractive Color two ways that color is created Additive color we see color because of light white is the combination of all colored light Subtractive color refers to pigment color not light combination of all pigment color produces black in design application the differences in color production depends on media Additive Color pure white light is broken down into a color spectrum the sun is a source of pure white light colors go from red to violet ROY G BIV example combining red and blue colors of light make magenta the combination of all colored light creates white results of combining colors of light is quite different from combining colors of pigments Subtractive Color the pigment colors of subtractive color form the color wheel with which we are all familiar in subtractive color the color perceived is the color that is not absorbed it is reflected black surface absorbs all light white surface absorbs no light Basic Color Relationships all color systems are theoretical and abstract ways of understanding color and communicating color to others they are not all perceived the same way Historic Milestones in Color Theory Sir Isaac Newton 1642 1726 studies color invents the initial actual attribution of this is debated amongst science historians color wheel and defines the spectrum in the ROY G BIV ordering that we all have learned in elementary school Wolfgang Van Goethe 1749 1832 in 1810 Goethe writes Theories of Color in this work he theorizes that color is perceive and is systematic Michel Eugene Chevreul 1786 1889 in 1839 he write The LAw of Simultaneous Color Contrast interested in yarn dies he defines many color relationships as we understand them today Albert Henry Munsell 1853 1932 along with Freidrich Wilhelm Ostwald1863 1932 defines the Munsell Color system which proposed a theoretical color space that has become the foundation of most color theory education to date The BauuHaus 1919 1933 a German modernist school of design Designers such as Wassily Kandinsky Johannes tten Faber Birren and Josef Albers did studies in color as fundamental elements of design composition Their work is often the foundation for basic color design courses Color Space an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as series of numbers typically as three or four variable or color components mathematically mapping variables against a certain reference results in an abstract color space every color has a definable quotfootprintquot or reference within the color space Color Systems Munsell Hue the specific color basic name and position on the spectrum Value the lightness or darkness of a color Chroma the intensity of the hue or its saturation more pigment will create a stronger color Gamut all of the color that can be described within a color system The Munsell System is perhaps the most common color system used today Establish in the late 19th century it has become a standard in design education simply because it is a standard does not mean that on should accept it as the only color system nor the true color system it is still a theory inside the Munsell color system every possible color can be described by three attributes of hue chroma and value imagine creating color with paint a pure hue is the pigmented pure paint to change value you add white or black paint to change chroma you add water lighter is referred to as a tint darker is referred to as a shade theMunsell system is best and typically represented as a spherical three dimensional object with latitudes of value longitudes of hue and depths of chroma or saturation this sphere describes the gamut every hue can be represented as a two dimensional scale notice how certain hues are visibly more or less intense at different points on these charts yellow mixed with black makes a green color so it is difficult to make yellow darker without changing the hue primary colors red yellow and blue all other colors are derived from these three color secondary colors orange green and purple when the primary colors are combined with each other tertiary colors red orange yellow orangebue green blue violet and red violet produced when primary and secondary colors are mixed Natural Color System Natural Color Sensations specifically defined versions of red yellow green blue black and white these are all called precepts these are colors that are not easily described as a function of another color Darkness the amount of black as a percentage of the total value Saturation the intensity of the hue or its chromaticity Hue the degree of difference a color has from adjacent natural color sensation black is listed as a natural color sensation but it also creates darkness the natural color system is based upon human color perception it establishes four chromatic colors derived from the observed six natural color precepts these four chromatic colors are arranged as quadrants on a circle and all other hues are described by their angle difference from there the circles quadrants are divided into 1 segments and each u like the Munsell system the Natural Color System can be envisioned as a sphere in NCS it is referred to as color space The NCS was established in the 1960 s by Ewald Hering a Swedish scientist also like the Munsell system the NCS shows intensity and value difference for every hue in the NCS case the graph is called quotcolor trianglequot what sets the system apart is the systematic notation system that allows for a logical and numerical description of a color This notation system allows for the designation of 2640 specific colors this system is a logical alternative to less intuitive systems used for the production of color such as RGB and CYMK based on additive and subtractive color RGB a color mixing system an notation based on color mixing of the primary colors of light or additive color red green and blue what you see on your screen in the computer industry RGB has become the de facto standard for both desktop applications and wed based systems RGB is an additive color space that is its three primary colors red green and blue combine additively to produce any desired colors Each ofthe component colors is represented by a number from O to 255 this representation lends itself to easy manipulation by computer systems in a hex notation It also means that 255x255x255 or 16777216 different colors may be represented in the RGB color space CMYK a color mixing system and notation that is based on the color mixing of the primary colors of pigment or subtractive color cyan magenta yellow and black this is what you see when you print which will be different from what you see on your screen CMYK by contrast is a subtractive color space It is the complement of the RGB color space cyan magenta and yellow are the compliments of red green and blue CMYK is called subtractive because its primary colors are subtracted from white light to produce the resulting color cyan absorbs red magenta absorbs green and yellow absorbs blue The fourth color black was added to the CYMK color space because in printing it gives a purer form of black than the other three colors these two color systemsRBG and CYMK are most commonly used on modern computer systems Screens using RBG and color printers using CYMK Because ofthe differences in the way color is perceivedadditive versus subtractive reproducing similar color between the two is difficult Designers resort to emulating one system or another depending on the media and using sophisticated conversion programs Pantone Proprietary system The Pantone system is a proprietary in that Pantone is a corporation that owns their method for producing specific colors first system to allow us to create pigmented metallic colors Base Pigments unlike the other color systems we have reviewed which may have 3 4 primary colors Pantone colors are created from 13 specific base pigments 15 if you include black and white Pantone has a limited number of colors of approximately 1114 colors and although they have emulation colors for RGB monitors these color are difficult to create without the 13 base pigments because of the specificity of these colors many corporations and government agencies define their trademark images by Pantone color number Also because there is no defined mathematical model an abstract color space does not exist in the same way as other color systems reviewed here Pantone also has the ability to create custom colors and special finishes such as metallics Color Harmonies Putting Color Together Adobe Kuler virtual Munsell Color Wheel monochromatic deals with various intensities and values of one color analogous variety of colors that are adjacent to each other closer to the center you will find less saturated colorspae colors Color Harmonies color harmonies are understood relationships between colors the physical scientific definitions of color harmonies is more elusive than one would expect they are based on the observation of human perception more than mathematical explanation that being said color harmonies are typically described as relationships of color around the color wheel the vocabulary used for these colors has been dominated by the Munsell systems but it is important to remember that any color systems color wheel can be used men and women see color differently men react stronger to yellow based colors and women react stronger to blue based colors yellow and blue plaid shirt makes pants look more green than brown if the shirt was more blue the pants would appear more orange monochromatic one color but any value of that color adjacentanalogous and two colors next to each other on the color wheel yellow and orange create serene and coomfortable designs often found in nature and are harmonious and pleasing to the eye complementary colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel offer the highest and best contrast purplegold triad any three colors that are equidistant on the color wheel makes a triangle tend to be vibrant even if you use pale or unsaturated versions of your hues teacher says this is the scheme that you usually see in nature sky is more ofa pale lavender than a blue ground is green trees are brown a shade of orange this creates a perfect triad purple green and orange split complementary take a single color and rather than using the complement you pick the color on either side has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary color scheme but has less tension variation of the complementary color scheme double split complementary 2 sets of complementary colors offers plenty of possibilities for variation Harmonic Color Schemes when color schemes have identifiable color harmonies they are considered harmonic many designers attempt to create harmonic compositions others may choose to force concepts of tension or excitement it is important for a designer to understand the role of value and saturation in color harmonies Tints and Shades Color Psychologies Color in a Cultural Context colors have associative meanings both symbolic and spiritual how color meaning is interpreted is typically based on ones personal and cultural background some color psychological reactions are considered biological but that is a point that is continually up for debate color can be used to influence an audience Red longest wavelength produces a sensation of heat can be ass powerful as red or as gentle as pink Physical Attributes quickens heart rate attention grabbing stop lights and stop signs stimulates appetites this is why it is used in restaurants McDonalds TGI Fridays Ruby Tuesdays Emotional Attributes causes great emotional impact associated with passion love and rage this is because time slows down most popular color in the crayon box but children in red rooms become combative Associative Attributes heat color of fire fiery tempers Symbolic Attributes associated with royalty luxury red carpet Orange items in orange are perceived as more affordable considered a declassifier Physical Attributes a bright and light color easily seensafety color stimulates the appetite stimulates activity Emotional Attributes cheerful expansive extroverted comfort and security Associative Attributes earth color iron clay bronze gold sanskrit word for fire autumn strongly oriented towards food fruits spices grains Symbolic Attributes historically assigned to clerks to represent their inferior positions brides in france wear orange blossoms which represents fruitfulness Yellow second declassifier Physical Attributes bond between life giving sun and earthly wealth highest reflectivity of all colorsidea safety color color visually advances Emotional Attributes cheerful antidepressant lacks popularity not flattering to most complexions indicates happy warmth popular choice for learning environments Associative Attributes spring flowers signals presence of iron and vitamins A and C citrus associated with death of green and aging of white and cowardliness Symbolic Attributes enlightenment heart and spirit intellect and radiance of heaven warning stinging and poisonous creatures illness quarantine flag kitchen is the room that is most likely to be painted yellow but it is also the room where the most domestic violence occurs the eye perceives yellow quicker than any other color yellow cars involved in less accidents than any other color Green Physical Attributes restful color for the eyes signal for disease color of arsenic highly visible but also used in camouflage Emotional Attributes stable and secure between sunny yellow and peaceful blue color ofjealousy Associative Attributes money non human characteristics stability and health ofthe earth Symbolic Attributes Blue poison youth and inexperience gardening color of plane venuslove and fertility Physical Attributes lowers blood pressure calming Emotional Attributes cool and soothing can elicit negative responses associated with morbidity Associative Attributes sea and sky associated with heaven associated with the romance of duck peasant clothingwork clothes blue collar workers Symbolic Attributes a rare earth pigment precious and reserved for artists for the virgin marys garments and associated with baby girls in France for this reason represents something that we can trust and have faith in police uniforms blue chip stock blue blood socially high born power color don t wear blue to first interview blue ribbon prize of honor security and knowledge people that drive blue cars are typically safer drivers Purple Physical Attributes shortest wavelength it resolves to ultraviolet largely invisible to humans most sophisticated color most difficult for the eye to discriminate the darkest value when compared to a gray scale Emotional Attributes psychologically associated with internationalization an sublimation indicates depth of feeling preference for lavender in the lutcher color test indicates immaturity Associative Attributes with the unconventional and provocative spirituality as a light color depression as a dark color synonyms with sensuality in literature not abundant in nature but associated with blooming flowers Symbolic Attributes royalty religious symbolism mourning color Queen Victoria color has meaning that may not translate across cultural borders Mardi Gras colors Color Effects color change as they are perceived in different situations two identical colors from a single spatial position in a color system will appear differently depending on their context Simultaneous Contrasts warm colors advance cool colors recede warm colors include red orange and yellow cool colors include green blue and violet it is important to remember that the warm cool relationship is a comparative one and there is debate on exactly where to draw the line on the color wheel between warm and cool Bezold Effect colors appear differently based on the color to which it is adjacent this effect is named after is discoverer Wilhelm Von Bezhold Optical Mixing different colors are spaced so closely that the eye perceives them a different color a combination ofthe two the painting method known as pointillism is an example of an artist manipulating this effect Metamerism very important the change in color due to changes in the light in which it is viewed either ambient or general This is called illuminate metameric failure hence a color may be the same in one situation but different in another these two colors are referred to as metameric parts in some circumstances they have the same apparent color even if their specific spectral makeup location in color space is different Vision and Lighting quotvision is dependent on lightquot lightingcritical to understanding exteriorinterior spaces adequate amounts are required to see extent of spaces in order to feel safe and to perform activities lighting one ofthe most important aspects of successful interior environment good lighting supports convenience comfort and favorable emotional reaction good lighting is lighting that isn t noticeable softer lighting will cause you to eat 175 calories less during a meal better lighting makes you consider the food that you re eating to be of better quality and to taste better color and light create mood and add emotional content when you are reading Daylight what the human eye was designed to see in u it still offers the best light because it is the purest whitest light electric light tries to compare to daylight daylight and electric light can be used to effectively reinforce the concept of a space offering definition of architectural features and emphasis Good lighting can achieve the following effects set a desired mood or atmosphere direct or concentrate our attention control shading or shadow emphasize or modify spacialperception the goals of lighting are to promote good visibility and to generate qualities of atmosphere the aesthetic and emotional impressions that convey a mood appropriate to the space in question Illuminating Engineering Society IES see light levels page 336 u for example footcandle level needed for stairways or watching tv 10FC footcandle level for drafting 50 100FC footcandle level for surgery 2000FC A footcandle refers to the amount of light that a single candle will deliver on 1 square foot surface 1 foot away the light reflected back is referred to as footlamberts use candles when talking about artificial light because they have been around since the beginning of time Th proportion of incident light reflected from a surface expressed in percentages is called reflectance angle of incidence angle of reflection look in book for picture 3 types of lighting uses in response to needs ambient lighting general lighting is needed for overall illumination ofa space the level of illumination may be fairly low depending on the purpose ofthe space and the activities this has nothing to do with the quality of light task lighting light that is provided for specific types of work or activities such as reading sewing cooing or surgery the level oftask lighting will depend upon the age and ability of the user as well as the level of detail usually controlled locally whereas ambient lighting is often controlled by a switch that operates several sources at once accent lighting special lighting used to focus attention on a particular area or to create emphasis for artwork merchandise on a building etc in some cases you can use task lighting and accent lighting to create ambient lighting Electric Light Sources quality of light color of light lamps or bulbs types and typical applications economic aspects of each u 3 basic types incandescent fluorescent high intensity dischargeHD the total light output from the electric source is expressed in lumens lumen a unit of light flow generated by the light of one standard candle The LAMP is the source of light LAMP is the technical name given to what we generally call the quotbulbquot you want to look for 130 volt LAMPS this is because power is not continuous it comes in surges Lumens is what you are looking for to see if the LAMP will produce enough light for what you are trying to do Incandescent Most common type seen in residential applications invented by Thomas Edison they are the oldest and most familiar of sources they are referred to as A type lamps these lights fail because most of the electricity going into the LAMP produces more heat than light over 90 heat and less than 5 light Quality near the light source shadows good for describing 3 D emphasizes texture creates color and sparkle Color beneficial to our skin Economics uses greatest amount of energy for the amount of light it produces requires more air conditioning because it produces so much heat short lamp life re lamping adds to cost factor takes the equivalent of 714 pounds of coal to power a 100 watt incandescent lamp for 24 hours LED lighting is up and coming only 85 pounds of coal to power an 12 watt LED light which puts out the same amount of light as a 100 watt incandescent lamp standards exist with A lamps so we can expect the same quality all the time Fluorescent most common seen in commercial spaces developed in the 1930s about 13 less to use than incandescent highly economical problem is that fluorescent are like a strobe light your eye sees constant light but your brain is seeing what looks like old films because the light is being pulsed at you huge problem if fluorescent lights break because they contain mercury Quality mainly shadowless and diffused flat light space may feel monotonous when use alone Color available in daylight and full spectrum sources most commonly produces cool light Economics greater light output for energy used longer lamp life 10000 to 20000 hours HID associated with most outdoor applications combines some of the advantages of incandescent and fluorescent light Quality point or near point source casts shadows and creates highlights Color high pressure sodiumyelowish color poor color rendition mercury vaporbuish green color poor color rendition metal halidecoo white light that is very desirable in a range of situations Economics first cost is high for lamps and fixtures high light output for energy used slightly better than fluorescent high wattage and large beam spread make it possible to use fewer fixtures long lamp life great for high ceilings and hard to reach applications lasts about 12000 to 24000 hours Fiber Optics I Quality produces cold light ideal for areas needing to remain cool Color depends on color source of light Economics many points of light from a single light source safe for wet areas no electricity at terminal pitting read about neon cold cathode laser and other non conventional light sources LED LEP and OLED lighting light emitting polyesters light emitting diodes organic light emitting diodes instead of having a pinpoint of light they give you an illuminated panel LED lighting over fluorescent lighting increases efficiency in a workstudy place by 15 Laser used for cutting intricate patterns in wood reading barcodes surgery exterior lighting Cold Cathode answer to neon in neon all the colors that we use are made by different gasses in tubes to produce different color similar in terms of effect but different because we have light moving through whatever color tube that we want to use does not require as much energy as neon used for advertising Biological Needs of light physical security the need for visual information is provided or supported by lighting orientation important at all times especially when moving biological clocktime orientation continuous need especially in unfamiliar situations awareness of diurnal cycle sleepwake cycle important for us to control this cycle with lighting only over the past century did we start spending 90 of our time indoors contact with naturesunlight daylight used to illuminate rooms define personal territory teacher slipped this I connectivity shared ambient and natural light personal work areas defined by local lighting controllable by the user ambient and task lighting subjective impressions visual clarity higher illumination on horizontal surfacesplanes brighter in center of room wall brightness impression of spaciousness impression of relaxation used in waiting areas no fluorescent light sources used ambient light created by illuminating artwork specific pinpoints of light that shine down where people sit so they can read or check messages impression of privacy illuminating the tabletops and eliminating over lighting the pathways to get to the tables instead of having a lit up room it creates a nice relaxing ambient type of light impression on tautness or tenseness glare keeps person from seeing beyond the edge ofthe light creates anxiety Compositional Lighting Techniques downlighting light is in the ceiling and is coming down to illuminate specific areas used to create sense of spaciousness wall washing low level of light is created logo is illuminated by lights directed at it light bouncing offthe walls highlighting teacher skipped this grazing light not the same as wall washing when the light source is close enough to the wall that you can see the visual texture most often used in residential design uplighting light placed at the bottom facing up most often used in landscape architecture backlighting translucent stone panels of onyx in picture from slides effective way to create a wall and visual privacy structural lighting teacher skipped this sparkle our eyes love sparkle using light to attract attention used on buildings and in automobiles decorative lighting is not considered to be a compositional lighting technique compositional lighting techniques in theater allow for a variety of lighting uses accent or special lighting techniques are used here to emphasize by wall washing the object see picture in slides glare is bad sparkle it give the sensation that you are seeing more light but really it is just more obviously seen u the best lighting will be found in jewelry stores the diamond ring you will buy will never look as good as it did when you saw it in the store decorative fixtures are not lighting techniques ADA sets standards for universal design Grabbars used in showers or handicapped restrooms to help facilitate activities for those with disabilities or aging Aging in place the ability to live in one39s own home and community safely independently and comfortably regardless of age income or ability level Ron Mace creator of the term universal design was an articulate architect and determined advocate who influenced international thinking about design Nonrenewable resources is a natural resource which cannot be reproduced grown generated or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate once depleted there is no more available for future needs Linear approach traditional design approach the conventional model of the building life cycle Cradletograve products are created used and discarded Cyclical approach is the same as cradle to cradle products are reused either recycled if a technical nutrient or compostedconsumed as a biological nutrient Active solar technologies are employed to convert solar energy into another more useful form of energy This would normally be a conversion to heat or electrical energy Passive solar windows walls and floors are made to collect store and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer Payback the money you save in the long run with sustainable design Tradeoff a perceived trade off for less desirable materials and luxury for green design Adaptive use refers to the process of reusing an old site or building for a purpose other than which it was built or designed for Cultural resource historic buildings that are important to a culture or specific time period Demolition by neglect llDemolition by Neglect is the term used to describe a situation in which a property owner intentionally allows a historic property to suffer severe deterioration potentially beyond the point of repair Design guidelines A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use that maximizes the retention of distinctive materials features spaces and spatial relationships Where a treatment and use have not been identified a property will be protected and if necessary stabilized until additional work may be undertaken Stabilization the aet eppreeessef applying measuresdesigned te Interior De3gn interior design deals with the personal environment the one that is within architecture that forms the link between architecture and man particularly but not limited to furniture interior design is the formal study of man39s interaction with the proximateimmediate environment interior design is not always about the look of a space but about the manipulation of space for function and purpose Two Primary Classifications Of Design Residential Contract both involve space planning analyzing needs codes and regulations communication drawing verbal collaboration anything that is an art based discipline will use the same elements and principles of design elements and principles DO NOT CHANGE Elements Line line can be considered in two ways The linear marks made with a pen or brush or the edge created when two shapes meet Direction all line have direction horizontalsuggests calmness stability and tranquility verticalgives a feeling of balance formality and alertness obliqueanything that is not horizontal or verticalsuggests movement and action Size the relationship of the area occupied by one shape to that ofanother size is relative in terms of size we are continually relating one thing to another Texture the surface quality ofa shaperough smooth soft hard glossy etc texture can be physicaltactile or visual o a photograph may have multiple different implied texturesthis is visual texture texture has a sense on contrast Color also known as hue Munzell Chartmost often used in our culture color chart primaryred yellow and blue secondaryorange green and violetpurple tertiaryred orange yellow orange yellow green blue green blue violetpurple and red violetoften referred to as magenta all the colors are equidistant on the color wheel Value the lightness or darkness of a color also known as tone typically shown on a ten point chart starts at whiteno color and goes to black Principles Balance balance in design is similar to balance in physics a large shape close to a center can be balanced by a small shape close to an edge a large light toned shape will be balanced by a small dark toned shape the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be this idea has been scientifically proven Gradation gradation of size and direction produce linear perspective gradation of color from warm to cool and tone from dark to light produce aerial perspective gradation can add interest and movement to a shape gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move along a shape in paintings objects closer to you are sharper and the ones further away are fuzzy we want to create gradation gradation can help create depth Repetition repetition with variation is interesting without variation repetition can become monotonous quotunity with varietyquot when we vary sensations it remains Contrast contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements opposite colors on a color wheel redgreen purpleyellow blueorange contrast in tone or value contrast in direction horizontalvertical the major contrast in painting should be located at the center of interest too much contrast scattered throughout a painting can destroy unity and make a work difficult to look at Unless a feeling of chaos and confusion are what you are seeking it is a good idea to carefully consider where to place your areas of maximum contrast Harmony the visually satisfying effect of combining similar related elements adjacent colors on a color wheel similar shapes Dominance gives a picture or painting interest counteracting confusion or monotony dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis Unity unity is relating the design elements to the idea of being expressed in a painting reinforces the principle of unity a painting with an active aggressive subject would work better with a dominant oblique direction course rough texture angular lines whereas a quiet passive subject would benefit from horizontal lines soft texture and less tonal contrast important for communication avoid making a vertical visual link it is awkward placement and size relationships are vitally important for a comfortable visual link to be made Understanding The Elements and Principles of Design organization of space responds to functional reguirements can you see unity can you see harmony can you see dominance design concept is the central idea of creating a total cohesive expression expression is integral to the meaning ofthe space the visual appearance is not mere application and guesswork using the same elements and principles can create different effects or expressions The elements of design are individual parts that communicate emotional and intellectual meaning Defining Spaces Ordering Systems the ordering ofarrangement of space can connect adjacent spaces method of organization supporting desired relationship between the spaces 4 Types linear radial axial grid Spatial Illusions spaciousness may be applied in several ways eye moves beyond the immediate space built in furnishings continuous exposed flooring and leggy furniture use oflight colors simplicity small scale elements 2D false perspective painting whiteout blackout Space can be visually contracted dark or warm colors large scale furniture ofvarying heights high degree of contrast and patterns striped flooring against the path of travel illusion of wider and softer break up expansive areas with spatial definitions in floors walls ceilings Moving from tight to open spaces can be exhilarating experiential ceiling height changes floor or surface level changes color and materials furniturearrangement Ordering systems can be used to connect adjacent spaces the method oforganization supports desire relationships between spaces Linear arrangementcommon link such as some dorm layouts or a motel Radial arrangement the coad building is arranged around the center Axial arrangementthe quadrangle or some classroom buildings such as Allen or Prescott Hall Grid arrangementon a large scale city blocks such as in the French Quarter or downtown Baton Rouge ln interior spaces large open plan areas of ces or stores might be laid out in a grid arrangement simplest easiest way to subject people to authority a square table is usually confrontational a circle table is usually conversational Spatial Illusions expanding the boundaries builtin furnishings simplicity scale and proportion 2D false perspective known as trompe l39oeil scale height contrast and pattern striped flooring break up expansive areas form and shape naturalorganic forms geometric forms implied strength and stability when you add a circular object to a room full of horizontal and vertical lines your attention tends to be drawn to it quotunity with varietyquot quotform follows functionquot warm colors advance cool colors recede Line the extension ofa point in theory line has only one dimension but in practice lines can be thick or thin diagonal or oblique lines are active and imply movement curvedhuman graceful curves remind us ofthe way our bodies are shaped curves are inviting and comforting angular informality horizontal lines make things informal sloped ceiling and oblique walls curved lines there is generally a hierarchy of line in interior space from dominant to subtle to give variety and completeness Texture visual textures are illusionary ornamentembellishment we add these thingsjust because we like them Pattern a repeated motifrecurring element of form line shape etc Proxemicsthis section WILL be on test BehaviorHuman Needs Objectives To consider human factors s a component of design To introduce areas of concern for the design of interior space Vocabulary human factorsdeals with the needs of individual people issues that directly influence the comfort and convenience of those who will be the occupants and users of the space being designed environmentalarchitectural psychologydirects design attention to the specific ways in which design affects human life and makes the union of aesthetics and practical service a design goal proxemicsthe systematic study ofthe psychological impact of space and interpersonal physical distances personalterritorial distances anthropometricsdata that deals with bodily dimensions to establish clearances heights of tables counters and shelves and similar useful guidelines ergonomicsdata concerned with body mechanics an sensory performance guides the designer on such issues as seating comfort and ease of seeing and hearing and lighting and acoustics as well Social and Behavioral Aspects of Design affected by personal environments architecture human factors proxemics anthropometrics ergonomics while design cannot create behavior it can to some extent modify it falling building picture not enough human elements taken into consideration when it was built mazes in stainNays hallways that lead to dead ends Human Factors check text for various discussions about human factors definition on 0 Environmental or Architectural Psychology people places and behavior in relation to places the design content organization and meaning of the built environment text pg 193 open office planning systems Proxemics anthropological conscious and unconscious structuring of space study of psychological impact of space and interpersonal physical distances goes from intimate to public in how we relate to each other culture and where you re from has a great deal to do with how people interact with each other this affects how things are designed around the world anywhere North or South of the equator people have a tendency to have a personal space that is further away from each other closer to the equator people come closer and closer together Italy Spain table 71 KNOW THE FOUR MAIN ZONES FOR EXAM lntimate from 6 inchesto 15 feet away family etc touching and feeling is normal Personal Close Personal 15 to 25 feet away not in constant contact but touching isn39t uncomfortable Far Personal 26 to 4 feet away Social Close Social 4 to 7 feet away people that you work with Far Social 7 to 12 feet away Public Close Public 12 to 25 feet away Far Public 25 feet and over being in a shopping mall Anthropometrics anthroman metricmeasurements it is the measurements of the size and proportions ofthe human body as well as parameters such as reach and visual range capabilities kitchen countertops are 36quot high because of the average height in our country correct height for a kitchen workspace is 7quot below your elbow when it is at a 90 degree angle houses in Europe will come with no kitchen or adjustable cabinetry 1 selling thing in houses is the kitchen 2 selling thing in houses are bathrooms these are the first things we remodel we vary in shape size age and function some people require aid some people are super athletic role of the designer is to make sure that things can be changed to fit everyone the most adaptable thing in every design is the people that use it ovens placed furthest away from most activity in the kitchen when things come out they are hot they are used least often most common mistake in kitchen designs putting a microwave over a stove top Ergonomics starting to play a greater and greater role in economics and in how we make life convenient for the greatest number of people knives being made to fit the way peoples hands are shaped scissors that are both left and right handed Behavioral Influences on Design proxemics anthropometrics and ergonomics in one design picture in slides System Furniture furniture adjusts to us instead of us adjusting to it everything in there is mobile adjustable etc monitors placed on a track to adjust to whoever is using it chart for peripheral vision portability in the workplace rolling furniture useful for people that don39t have an of ce desks that can be pulled apart to make one big desk or multiple small desks portability in our lives one person at the end of the desk with the rest on the sides helps to maintain hierarchy the color yellow creates anxiety usually only 2 people sit on a sofa one on each end arm rests on chairs in an airport prevents you from lying down on the chairs and taking up space design can create rules about what is formal and what is informal also about what activity should take place in that area ID 1051 exam 3 Universal Design Objectives 1 To develop an appreciation for areas of responsibility that impact design 2 To introduce the concept of universal design Vocabulary ADA the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires that all commercial and public facilities be barrierfree providing access to people with disabilities 0 Evidence ofthe impact ofADA has become widely visible in more accessibility for those with disabilities such as 0 Life activities as defined by the ADA 0 000000 0 O Caring for oneself Performing manual tasks Walking Hearing Speaking Breathing Learning Working ADA requires ramps to have an incline at 1 inchfoot rise Standard step rise height is 7 inches Tread depth is 11 inches Allows for a comfortable walk 11 in o lf4 steps of stairs were 6 inches high it would equal out to 24 inches or 2 feet tall Wheelchair Disadvantaged people handicapped people 56 of population suffers from some kind of disability 0 Commercial building has a door with a light glass door 0 Signs has information in red 0 Height no higher than 56 inches so that handicap people can reach it 0 Door wide enough 3642 inches residentially 28 inches Extra pull handle for wheelchair users to open and close door 0 Also has an automatic open button Kick plate so wheelchair people don39t kick into door 0 60 inches 5 feet for width of hallway for people in wheelchair o Allows two wheelchairs to pass and one to turn around 0 Door cannot be in the corner people in wheelchair cannot get out or in Universal Design design of product buildings and spaces to be useable by all people to the greatest extent possible 0 Principles o Equitable Use ID 1051 exam 3 The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities I Guidelines 0 Provide same means of use for all users identical whenever possible and equivalent when not 0 Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users 0 Provisions for privacy security and safety should be equal available to all users 0 Make the design appealing to all users 0 Flexibility in U se The design accommodates a wide range of individuals preferences and abilities I O O O 0 Guidelines Provide choice in methods of use Accommodate rightleft handed access and use Facilitate the user39s accuracy and precision Provide adaptability to the user39s pace 0 Simple and lntuitive Use ofthe design is easy to understand regardless ofthe user39s experience knowledge language skills or current concentration level I Guidelines 0 Eliminate unnecessary complexity 0 Be consistent with user expectations and intuition o Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills 0 Arrange information consistent with its importance 0 Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion 0 Perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user regardless of ambient conditions or the user39s sensory abilities I Guidelines 0 Use different modes pictorial verbal tactilefor redundant presentation of essential information 0 Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings Maximize legibility of essential information o Differentiate elements in ways that can be described easy to give instructions or directions 0 Provide compatibility with a variety oftechniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations 0 Tolerance for Error ID 1051 exam 3 I The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions I Guidelines 0 Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors most used elements most accessible hazardous elements eliminated isolated or shielded 0 Provide warnings of hazards and errors 0 Provide fail safe features 0 Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require caution 0 Low Physical Effort I The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum offatigue I Guidelines 0 Allow user to maintain a neutral body position 0 Use reasonable operating forces 0 Minimize repetitive actions 0 Minimize sustained physical effort 0 Size and Space for Approach and Use I Appropriate size and space is provided for approach reach manipulation and use regardless of user39s body size posture or mobility I Guidelines 0 Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user 0 Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user 0 Accommodate variations in hand and grip size Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance 0 Selecting hardware example using lever instead ofa knob because your hands might be full or people who have arthritis don39t have to twist the knob 0 Anything that is under living will be part ofthe life activities 17 15 ofall energy use refrigerator uses a lot of energy water usage is the second highest 0 Ron Mace founder and program director ofThe Center for Universal Design 0 Developed Polio at 9 years old and wanted to become an architect and build houses 0 Known as the Father ofthe Movement and a great industrial designer 0 Worked with BFE architecture Firm put him in charge ofvarious projects 0 Concentrated on working for handicap people ID 1051 exam 3 0 Buildings accessible to handicap Powerpoint picture information o ADA lighting does not stick out ofwall more than 5 inches 0 Nice even lighting 0 Should have dimmers which help save energy and be used as a night light 0 35 foot candles of lighting 0 Doorway has a push bar so they can easily get inout o 42 inch doorway 24 inch each easy for people to go through 0 Door goes against wall and are blurred and frosted for privacy 0 Task lighting and bar in bookcase allows desktop to be located at any place along book case Aging in place homeowners may live in house until they grow old 0 Phonebooth or water closets for person with walker ideally 60 inches wide 0 Number 1 request that people of older age want to live at home 0 Aging in place house built for elderly 0 Home Health Care Industry 0 Telephone booths don39t have a place to write or sit too low to stand and too high to kneel 0 Various configurations for people in wheelchair with what they have to do to accommodate themselves in watercloset Grabbars bars that provide tube and shower access for disabled users 0 Higher level bars assist people transferring into the tub and those standing to shower 0 Lower level bars assist people who climb down into the tub o Avertical grabbar can be helpful at the end wall Materials Objectives 1 To gain an understanding ofthe complexity of materials that are used in the practice ole 2 To define specific types and uses of materials All elements are made of materials Natural available materials 0 Wood 0 Softwoods natural finishes stains or paints provide surface protection wideboard floors interior paneling and tongue and groove boarding I Evergreens pine fir cedar ID 1051 exam 3 o Hardwoods good for appearance cabinetry and furniture making I Nuts and fruits oak cherry poplar Limited by its source trees to a lengthwise strip material this limits building structure to a frame I A cage or grid of long members put together with diagonal bracing members to form a sturdy structural support for whatever wall and roofing materials will be used 0 Woodjoinery are pockets made in panels to make other panels fit inside one another andjoin the two together 0 0 Stone 0 Forms rough rubble or fieldstone neatly cut ashlar 0 Granite I Igneous rocks compact hard dark colors 0 Limestone I Includes sand stones and slate I Sedimentary rocks medium density 0 Marble I Includes travertine I Metamorphic rock varies in hardness wide range of colors 0 Travertine is a soft marble with creamy color and surface with open holes or pits Processes materials made through the mixture of natural materials 0 Concrete 0 Poured concrete made up of cement sand and small stones mixed with water and hardens into a stonelike solid I Reinforced concrete is a hybrid material using steel rods embedded in concrete to take tensile stresses and the concrete accepts compressive stress 0 Concrete block hollow cement block known for its strength and low cost 0 Plaster wall board and stucco o Plaster and stucco are prepared in a semifluid state to be applied to a backing of brick block or lath ofwood or metal 0 Wall boards are sheet materials with a plasterlike core surfaced with a special paper attached to an underlying wall structure of block or studs ofwood or metal 0 Baked Clays 0 Brick modular material made byfiring special clays into units I Mortar is used to hold brick together Dloglnexamg Popurar Bnck Patterns Running bond Basketweave Hernngbone Stackborvd BasketorrEiqe H H Urn n a r EL mt anquot o Tr ercerarmc rnosarc quarry arge and sturdy terracotta red day Meta o steet frequires a protective nrsn ofpaint or p atirrq wrtn a nonrustinq rnetat starntess steet rs nard to cut a d wor ecause orrts strengtn o rorrrknowrrfordecoratrverarhrrqsandqrerorkcastrrorHsusedfor decoratrorr brrm n easdy be damaged 0 A urmrrurnrhqhtwerqhtarrd resrstsrustrng popurarrnatenar for architecture detar s sucn aswindow frarnes or storefronts o BrassStBrorrze used rn decoratwe detarr rn nrstonc desrgn Bra nasyerrowgrearntnatrnakesrtapopurarrnatenarror hardware and rrrn 39 Bronze has deeper browrr metaHrc o er and WM weatherto the green tone Co err specrar oranqey rnetaHrc coror used for decoratron rnust be protected wrtn acquer coatrnq to prevent green cotonng y Ptastrc o Syntnetrc rnatenars made bycnernrcar cornbrrratrorr ofvarrous basrc rrrqredrerrts ID 1051 exam 3 0 Have a reputation to be cheap substitutes for superior traditional materials 0 Acrylic generic name of plastic Plexiglass and Lucite are trade names for acrylics 0 Two main families I Thermoplastics soft and moldable when heated and become stiff and solid when cooled Thermosetting plastics cannot be softened or melted after they form 0 Vinyls common floor tiles and as alternatives to leather in upholstery Hybrid materials made from a combination of natural processes andor synthetic 0 Glass 0 The use of glass in ID offers an intriguing set of possibilities for introducing barriers to movement and sound transmission while permitting passage of light along with or without vision 0 Offers decorative possibilities through color and pattern 0 Special types I Laminated or safety 0 One or more layers of a plastic sheet are sandwiched between sheets of ordinary glass Resists the tendency of plain glass to shatter into sharp edged shards 0 Ex bulletresistant glass I Tempered o Treated by heat processing to gain extra strength 0 Resistant to breakage and shatters into small harmless 0 pieces 0 Must be factory produced in desired shape and size cant be cut 0 Ex frameless glass doors and shower doors I Wire 0 Embedded mesh ofwire that holdsa sheet ofglass together even when breakage occurs 0 Useful for its ability to resist shattering from fire heat 0 Code requirement in locations where a fire barrier is needed 0 Ex windows in stairwells that lead to emergency exits I Thermal 0 Special insulating properties that offer heat limitation resistance to heat transmission or block heat 0 Have an outside and inside layerthat are separated by a LowE Surface 0 Ex windows and skylights of residential buildings ID 1051 exam 3 I SuspendedParticle Device SPD 0 SPD film is sandwiched by two glasses of plastic wall 0 When an electricalvoltage is applied the film can be varied from clear to fully opaque o Activated state particles aligned and light is transmitted o Unactivated state particles in random positions and light is absorbed and not transmitted 0 Ex eye glasses that change tint when in the sun I Mirrored 0 Glass silvered on one side creates a reflective surface like a mirror 0 When lighting is appropriately balanced it makes one way glass that permits vision in one direction but blocks it in the other 0 Ex buildings with reflective glass I Decorative 0 Wide variety oftextures and surface treatments that permit light passage but distort image transmission 0 Ex stain glass Textiles Upholstery 0 Wovenupholstery o Plaid 0 Pattern o Jacquard mechanical method of controlling a power loom in order to produce woven pattern by means of cards with holes punched in them that control the interlace of strands velvet 0 Printed Upholstery 0 Toile a plainweave or twillweave fabric linen o Resist dying a wax or starch is applied to fabric blocks coloring when the cloth is dipped in dye and after the resistant is washed out o Chintz printedpainted glazed cottons Carpet 0 Nylon 0 Olefin polyester very light fiber that resembles wool Wool sheared from sheep and processed to various levels of refinement Tufting or piles loop and sheared pile cloth or carpet surface of raised yarns looped or cut flush velvet and terry cloth Wall Covering 0 Vinyl 0 Fabric textile ID 1051 exam 3 0 Paper Sustainable Design Objectives 1 To introduce the concept of environmental responsibility as it relates to the interior environment To identify global concerns and understand the connection with decisions made in the development of interior space 3 To become familiar with steps individuals can take to make their immediate environment and the global environment healthier N Vocabulary Gray water relatively clean wastewater from baths sinks washing machines and other kitchen appliances Payback highefficiency technologies and materials have a higher initial cost 0 The designer must help the owner to understand that although the upfront cost or first cost may be high energy savings will pay for the increased first cost over time Tradeoff a compromise RecyclelUse recycled products Linear approach Cradle to grave useful life ofa product ends in the landfill or with incineration Cyclical approach Cradle to cradle the waste from one process becomes food for another process William McDonough focused on lifecycle developmentquot Life cycle of material from its origin through production use and final disposal Design will minimize waste at every stage ofa lifecycle and make use of end products through recycling and reuse All materials used in industrial or commercial processes metals fibers dyes are seen to fall into one of2 categories 0 Technical nontoxic and nonharmful synthetic materials that have no negative effects on the natural environment 0 Can be used in continuous cycles as the same product without loosing quality or integrity 0 Biological organic materials that can be thrown in any natural environment once used 0 It gets decomposed into the soil providing food for small life forms without affecting natural environment ID 1051 exam 3 o Dependent on the ecology ofthe region organic material from one country may be harmful to the ecology of another Primary Recycling amp Secondary Recycling preconsumerpostconsumer waste Active solar solar heating making use of mechanical systems such as pumped water or forced air circulation to transfer energy in order to provide environmental comfort Passive solar heating systems using solar energy and natural means of energy circulation to provide environmental comfort with little or no mechanical assistance Sustainability 0 Providing for the needs ofthe present without detracting from the ability to fulfill the needs ofthe future 0 Older Native American saying we did not inherit the earth from our ancestors we are borrowing it from our grandchildrenquot Global Concerns Environmental Issues Biodiversity Issues 0 Greenhouse effect 0 Identifies a group of concerns that have to do with ecology and with the impact of human activities on the natural environment 0 Ozone depletion o CFCs burning hole in ozone layer 0 Acid precipitation damages trees plant life fish auto finishes building materials monuments and contributes to human respiratory diseases 0 Natural precipitation pH of 50 55 0 Acid rain pH of43 100x natural 0 Lemon juice pH of 23 1ooox natural 0 Air water and soil quality 0 There is a fixed amount of water on earth Water cycle is controlled by the sun and gravity Air quality should be regulated with ventilation and airconditioning systems to avoid spread of pollutants 0 Avoid materials that produce toxins when burned 0 Energy sources 0 Solar power 0 All except nuclear are using 5 of energy 0 Nuclear fission and fusion combining power 0 There is more natural gas available in the US than any other material 00 0 Resource conservation 0 Specific plants for recycling 0 Building envelope is used to create buildings that use less energy and sunlight can go all the way in for energy 0 Waste 10 ID 1051 exam 3 0 US landfill components could be recycled or reproduced for energy I About 17 ofwastes are recycles or composted I The other 83 are hauled away and dumped 66 or burned 17 0 Problem rapid filling landfills rain filtering through garbage leaks out toxins that seep into groundwater and cause contamination Issues in the Built Environment 0 Indoor air quality 0 Energy efficiency and conservation 0 Resource conservation Nonrenewable energy sources 0 Petroleum 0 Natural gas 0 Coal 0 Oil shale 0 Nuclear Renewable energy sources 0 Solar low temperature 0 Solar high temperature 0 Solar photovoltaic Hydroelectric 0 Wind Geothermal o Biomass o Hydrogengas Upstream environmental impacts before purchase renewable vs nonrenewable resources 1 Natural resources are extracted mined harvested or collected to manufacture materials and products Natural resources are distributed to processing or manufacturing sites Processing and manufacture of building products and materials Products and materials are transported from factory to warehouse or distributor Hemp vs Nylontex style fabrics of hemp 0 250 more fiber produced per acre than cotton 600 more than linen 0 Long roots conserve water use less fertilizer and prevent topsoil from eroding Downstream environment impacts after purchase 5 Products and materials are distributed for fabrication andor to the building site for construction wzv ID 1051 exam 3 6 Construction 7 Habitation operation maintenance and renovation of building 8 Used materials and products are disposed of in landfills or recycled Embodied energy energy consumed in the construction ofa building 0 Includes the energy used by construction machinery and the energy required to obtain process and transport raw materials used for construction 0 Is a concept vital one for understanding the loss incurred when buildings are demolished rather than recycled Doing more with less shows a picture of plastic chairs that are curved in the shapr of your back as an example really simple KD knock down for flatpacking shows a picture as an example offoldup chairs Advertising agency New young clever In PowerPoint pictures 0 ADA lighting does not stick out ofwall more than 5 inches 0 Nice even lighting 0 Should have dimmers which help save energy and be used as a night light 0 35 foot candles of lighting 0 Doorway has a push bar so they can easily get inout o 42 inch doorway 24 inch each easy for people to go through 0 Door goes against wall and are blurred and frosted for privacy 0 Task lighting and bar in bookcase allows desktop to be located at any place along book case Energy efficient use of active and passive solar measures help reduce energy costs to about 3omonth Living spaces are oriented to south sun for daylight minimizing the most brutal and direct east and west sun Clerestow windows on north side admit preferred north light Glassjoints admit light Building envelope 0 Insulated walls and rood 0 Insulated windows with lowemissivityfilm 0 Low energy systems 0 HVAC Htg Ventilation Air Conditioning Lighting fluorescent o HVACwith home divided into separately controlled temperature zones 12 ID 1051 exam 3 0 Energy efficient appliances Envelope used to create buildings that use less energy and sunlight can go all the way in for energy Carpets are 100 recycled polyethylene petfrom soda and ketchup bottles The bedrooms were 12 inches wide in one direction the width ofa standard roll of carpet Water conservation 0 Reduction of demand 0 Rainwater harvesting 0 Gray water reuse Operable windows allow personally controlled admittance offresh air It is not ours to ruin Lets take care of it Design sensitively Consume wisely Historic preservation Vocabulary Adaptive usereuse the conversion of older buildings or spaces to serve current uses Conservation preserving restoring stabilizing an older room building or neighborhood Cultural or historic resource a building structure site district or object which is significant in history or culture Demolition by neglect allowing a building to fall into a state of disrepair that it becomes necessary or desirable to demolish it Design guidelines a set of recommendations intended to guide development toward a desired level ofqualitythrough the design of physical environment which is applied on anoptional basis relative to the context of development Presenation preserving a building or space by retaining its historic elements Restoration the construction of an older room building or neighborhood to re create its original state to restore a room to a certain period in time ex DuPlantier Stabilization making a building or space stabilized or more stable Rehabilitation the repair and renovation of existing buildings or space most common method in the field of historic preservationquot WHAT IS HISTORIC PRESERVATION o A wellconstructed older building can often be reworked for a modern use at far less cost than new construction would involve o Disposal of demolition wastes is reduced or eliminated wasteful consumption of new materials is minimized and a superior end result can often be achieved WHO IS INVOLVED IN IT 0 Anyone from the owner or client to a designer or architect ID 1051 exam 3 o The US Secretary of Interior has published Standards for Rehabilitation as a guide for historic restoration projects WHY IS IT IMPORTANT 0 Many places now designate historic buildings or districts as landmarks which legally protects them against the destruction or inappropriate modernization 0 Historic purpose Historic character Archaeological resources Preserve to maintain intact in an unchanged form We refer to the act of protect property or site to save its historic character Examples of Historic Preservations o Longwood House Natchez MS erected 18601861 0 Has been preserved unfinished only one ofthe floors has been completed while the rest is still unfinished o Mammy39s cupboard Natchez MS 0 Important cant be redone 0 Library at Ephesus Ephesus Turkey 0 Some structures were literally carved out of solid stone 0 Hadrian39s Villa Tivoli Rome 0 Great example of something that has been maintained 0 The Great Wall of China China 214 0 Has been restored but its still there because of preservation Bank of China Tower Hong Kong 19821990 by IM Pei Habitat 3967 Montreal Canada 1967 by Moshe Safdie 0 Made out of monolithic concrete and has geometry shapes 0 Farnsworth House Chicago by Mies van der Rohe 0 Early international style of glass house Reconstruction to recreate what was once there but is now gone 0 UNESCO United National Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization 0 Egyptian mummies and writings on the wall now are open to public to tour 4 pharaoh statues in pyramid were moved likejigsaw puzzles and are underwater 0 There was annualflooding ofthe Nile and UNESCO built a dam in it Mies van der Rohe o Preserving modern architecture international architecture example 0 German Pavilion at the Barcelona International Exposition in Barcelona Spain 0 Less is Morequot Mies van der Rohe 0 It39s linear and accented bythe detailing ofthejoints of and bythe planes 14 ID 1051 exam 3 0 Inside offirst building to fully exploit the ability of modern structural technology of steel and concrete to make walls optional elements 0 Significance of building simple crisp clean unadorned but with luxurious materials 0 Interior design assistant by Lilly Reich Villa Girasole Verona Italy 1935 Machine home between architecture and engineering Machine for living Known as the sunflower house Conceives as a twentiethcentury machine How it works 0 Circular platform is carried on railway bogies 0 Moves around 3 rails using the power of 2 threehorsepower engines 0 Engines move the house at a speed of6 mmminute
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