INTRO INTERIOR DESGN
INTRO INTERIOR DESGN ID 1051
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giovani Zieme on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ID 1051 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222988/id-1051-louisiana-state-university in Interior Design at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Materials and Their Use Part 1 Elements of Architecture 0 Basic building components 0 Walls floors ceilings columns doors windows Structural Elements 0 Those elements which support the building and enclose it Difficult or impossible to change or remove Loadbearing walls those walls which carry the weight of the roof ceiling floors and structural columns NON LOAD BEARING WALL l I LOAD BEARING WALL LOAD BEARING WALL 0 Non Structural Elements 0 Additions which do not affect the basic structure 0 Interior partitions which carry no Traditional Elements 0 Wood 0 Masonry stone brick tile block Newer Modern Materials 0 begin in the 19th century 0 metals iron and steel 0 concrete reinforce concrete Environmental and GREEN Issues 0 3 categories of environmental issues most per pertinent to Interior Design 1 impact of material selections and their use on larger environmental concerns which affect populations as a whole 2 production of excessive or problematic waste 3 impact of the interior environment on the health safety and well being of the occupants and users Cradle to Cradle Plentiful Pollution In the Cradle to Cradle model all materials used in industrial or commercial processes such as metals fibers dyesare seen to fall into one of two categories quottechnicalquot or quotbiologicalquot nutrients Technical nutrients are strictly limited to nontoxic nonharmful synthetic materials that have no negative effects on the natural environment they can be used in continuous cycles as the same product without losing their integrity or quality In this manner these materials can be used over and over again instead of being quotdowncycledquot into lesser products ultimately becoming waste Biological Nutrients are organic materials that once used can be disposed of in any natural environment and decompose into the soil providing food for small life forms without affecting the natural environment This is dependent on the ecology of the region for example organic material from one country or landmass may be harmful to the ecology of another country or landmass Biological and technical cycle The two types of materials each follow their own cycle in the regenerative economy envisioned by McDonough and Braungart Resources 0 Little concern over consumption due to their abundance 0 Sand basic material of concrete and glass 0 Stone slate and clays what brick and tile are made from 0 Iron ore iron and steel are recycled into more iron and steel 0 Class brick and concrete revert into rubble and into sand and then begin the whole process again and Waste Demolition and construction site wastes including air pollution and other waste What39s going into our landfills 0 7As the population continues to grow the amount of trash that we discard seems to grow even faster In just one year s time we are now throwing away nearly a ton of trash per person And we are only recycling about 30 of that What a shame when we realize that it costs more to throw away recyclable items then to recycle it The 30 it takes to recycle costs us 50 to ship to the landfills or 70 to incinerate Here are 10 recycling ideas to help reduce our growing landfills o 710 Items to Recycle I 71 Among the materials you can find at home glass is one of the most recyclable It follows the closed loop process meaning that a glass container can be recycled into a new glass container over and over again Recycled glass is also energy efficient since the process consumes 40 less energy than new production I 72 From newspaper to cardboard boxes junk mail to grocery bags recycling paper products is beneficial for energy conservation water efficiency and air quality not to mention landfill space Every ton of recycled paper reduces the production of Interior Environment Impact virgin paper and energy use by 4000 kilowatts water use by 7000 gallons and pollution by 60 pounds The extra 17 trees are an added bonus 73 Over 10 of our landfills is comprised of one small item plastic bottles Considering that the average US family consumes 26 gallons of bottled water 182 gallons of soda and 133 gallons of milk and juice recycling plastic containers is an important step to helping our shrinking landfills The other option of incineration is even worse as the plastic chemicals get released into the environment 74 Before you throw that soda can think about what the resources could be used for if only you d recycle it That s 3 hours of TV the saved energy could generate or a half a gallon of gas Before throwing a can in the trash or litter it in the environment consider that an aluminum can will take over 500 years to deteriorate and we consume over 80 trillion cans of soda a year 7 75 Steel is recycled more than aluminum paper and glass combined With more than 1500 food products sold in steel cans and more than 28000 recycling programs steel recycling is an easy option to implement 76 US consumers buy more than 3 billion dry cell batteries a year With almost 90 of mercury in the Municipal Solid Waste MSW stream coming from dry cell batteries it s obvious that recycling batteries is becoming even more important There are different curbside programs and recycling centers that collect recyclable materials and prevent toxic leakage into the environment 77 Ewaste Electronic waste such as computers cell phones and TVs uses non renewable resources to produce and may release hazardous substances into the environment if disposed of improperly Some recycling centers also have a monetary incentive for the recycling of ink cartridges 78 Motor oil is another item that can be recycled A single quart can contaminate 2 million gallons of clean water if not disposed of properly A truly recyclable product motor oil can be refined again and again 79 Leaves grass clippings and other yard waste can be recycled as well You can look into your neighborhood recycling options or compost that debris along with other food waste The average American throws out over 1000 pounds of compostable garbage a year 710 Although implied in a few previous categories above packaging warrants its own section It comprises a third of all landfills The more we consume generally the more packaging we generate Choosing products with minimal recyclable packaging will help to reduce trashing our environment 0 Indoor air quality 0 Off gassing fumes given off from materials such as plastic fibers in carpet drapery upholstery synthetic floor finishes walls ceilings 0 Fresh air supply and properly ventilated interiors are very important for this reason 0 Health hazards from certain materials formaldehyde lead based paints asbestos Sick Building Syndrome 0 Poor indoor air quality to the point of causing illness 0 Best defense against sick building syndrome 0 Operable windows 0 Health certification checks on all materials 0 ACNentilation systems with ample input of outdoor air 0 REMOVAL of hazardous materials 0 Use of natural materials which are the least offensive Types of Materials 0 Natural o Remain unchanged 0 Used in their natural state 0 Wood 0 Stone 0 quarry o Processed 0 Natural materials converted into special forms 0 Examples exposed aggregate plywood 0 Synthetic 0 Do NOT exist in nature manufactured through artificial processes 0 Examples glass plastics 0 Glass made from sand and other elements fused by heat 0 Plastics most familiar modern synthetics made from various chemicals mostly derived from petroleum o Hybrids combined synthetics ex fiberglass Materials and Their Uses Wood Part 2 Structural wood Timber mostly widely used most available simplest and most familiar of structural materials Limited by its source trees to lengthwise strip material and therefore timber building structures are limited to frames Frame cage or grid of long members put together with diagonal bracing members which form sturdy structural support for walls and roofing materials Durable not permanent Subject to decay rot insect damage and fire No ancient wood building structures still in existence but traces of wood construction in Egypt Greece and Rome through paintings etc Often used for floors and roofs Trusses 0 Large wooden assembled in triangular arrangements 0 Used to span spaces wider than the longest available beams o Often used in medieval barns and construction Lumber o Neatly cut and sized units came into existence with the development of power saws and planers o Studs small houses typically built with 2x4 studs placed 16quot apart to form wall framing 0 Floor joists and roof rafters typically 2quot thick x 810 or 12quot deep Interior uses for Wood Softwood 0 Wood of evergreen trees conifers 0 Fast growing soft to cut with a hand saw and easily assembled with nail and hammer 0 Pine spruce fir redwood cypress 0 Ex wide board floors wainscoting Hardwood 0 Wood from deciduous trees fruit and nut trees 0 Dense harder woods 0 Mahogany oak walnut birch maple 0 Good appearance accepts finishes well suitable for fine cabinetry and furniture making Veneer o Veneer thinly sliced sheets of wood 128quot 0 Flitch successive layers sliced from one log or slab 0 Various patterns created when the veneer is glued to its core less of the more costly wood Joinery 0 Most applications of wood require assembly of a number of separate pieces 0 Variety of wood joints used in making furniture paneling doors and manufacturing windows 0 Wood is joined in ways that aid to strengthen and enhance appearance Wood Finishes 0 Purpose to seal open grains create attractive durable surfaces 0 Paints varnishes lacquers oil wood is a natural renewable resource in spite of excessive tree cutting o FSC forest stewardship council set standards for forest management Beams and Lintels 0 Beam structural member stressed in bending by loads placed upon it o Lentil used to span door or window openings usually narrow to prevent cracking 0 Post and lintel construction Materials and Their Use Part 3 Masonry 0 Stone brick tile concrete and gypsum block 0 Require quarry resources involves tools and labor to cut transport and erect heavy material 0 Strong under compressive loads being squeezed or crushed 0 Poor tensile strength stretching 0 Construction with stone and manufactured materials 0 Arches and vaults common ways to roof enclose or cover large open spaces with masonry o Came into use by Ancient Romans 0 Examples Roman baths pantheon Stone 0 Can be used in its natural rough form OR neatly cut form a quarry 0 Granite compact hard more common in darker color range common for countertops floors walls 0 Limestone sandstone slate natural materials common for backsplashes and floors 0 Marble wide range of colors with veining o Travertine soft marble with open holes or pits on surface which are filled in for most applications Brick 0 Modular material made by forming clay into units usually in nominal sizes of 2x4x8 inches 0 Mortar used to hold brick together 0 Diverse ways of lapping the units to achieve strength and stability 0 Ex stack bond running bond herringbone basket weave Concrete Block 0 Also known as cinder blockquot and CMU concrete masonry unit 0 Large rectangular brick made from cast concrete 0 Strong inexpensive o Hollow to reduce weight and save material 0 Common size 8x8x16 nominal Plaster and Stucco 0 Prepared in a semi fluid stat ead applied to a backing of brick block or a lath of wood and metal 0 Used in older homes and buildings for interior partitions 0 Currently plaster is commonly substituted with gypsum board sheetrock sheet like material with plaster like core surfaced with special paper attached to underlying wall structure of wood or metal studs or block Concrete 0 Made of cement sand and small stones mixed with water hardens to a strong stone like solid Commonly chosen as the primary structural material where large special shapes spanning wide spaces are required where planning calls for irregular placement of columns in high rise buildings and where labor costs are low compared with cost of steel Recall reinforced concrete inherently fire resistant Structural metals Industrial revolution in 19th century brought metals into wide use High strength and moderate cost ideal for railroad rails engines machinery and ship building Steel framing I beams Steel does not burn but can be softened by heat making it fail structurally therefore its often converted with masonry concrete or a spray on material to fireproof it Interior Uses for Metal Glass Plastics Steel usually had a protective finish as in paint or plating to prevent rust ex doors doorframes hollow metal window sashes handrails hardware Iron wrought iron railings decorative grid work Aluminum light weight rust resistant often used for storefronts window frames exterior wall cladding handrails and hardware cabinet door and drawer pulls Most valued for transparency but can be produced in opaque and mirror form Industrial techniques allowed for larger pieces of glass or plate glass to be made instead of multiple small pieces of glass held together with lead strips or wood Inherently fragile easily breakable transmits heat and cold easily Special types of glass developed to limit fragility o iLaminated GlassSafeg Glass layered plastic sheets between glass sheets to resist shattering spider web cracking pattern has high sound insulation rating ex windshields skylights o iTemEered Glass treated with heat process to strengthen it if broken shatters into small harmless pieces has to be factory cut to desired shape ex shower doors tables tops 0 iwired Glass made with embedded mesh of wire that holds sheet of glass together even when it breaks particularly useful for its ability to resist shattering from heat therefore code requires wire glass where fire barriers are needed 0 iMirror glass silvered on one side to create reflective surface Synthetic materials made by chemical combination with basic ingredients derived from petroleum Lost cost often considered a cheap substitutequot Ex floor tiles plastic laminates plastics in carpet fibers wall coverings upholstery 2 main plastic families o o thermoplastics I soft moldable when heated I becomes stiff and solid when cooled I acrylics polystyrenes vinyl Thermosetting plastics I Made from liquid resin and a second liquid called a catalyst I Combination of liquids plus heat renders a hard solid that cannot be softened once formed I Melamine phenolics plastic laminates 0 Plastic Laminates o iThe Manufacturing Process 71mpregnating the paper 71 The process begins by soaking strips of paper in resin Decorative plastic laminates can be made in different grades or thicknesses depending on its intended use There may be from 718 layers of paper combined into the final sheet The bottom layers are kraft paper The paper comes in ribbons of different widths commonly of three four or five feet The kraft paper is run through a quotbath tubquot or vat containing phenolic resins The paper for the top layer of the sheet is translucent This is run through a vat of melamine resin The layer just beneath the top is the decorative layer This is a sheet of paper printed with the color or design that will show through the clear top layer for the desired surface pattern This sheet is also run through a melamine vat iDrying 72 The resinimpregnated sheets are then put into a drying chamber Next they are cut and stacked in layers The clear layer and the decorative layer are on top of the kraft paper iThermosetting 73 The layers of paper are then loaded onto a flatbed hydraulic press for final curing The press compresses the sandwich of resinsoaked paper at 1400 psi while heating it to a high temperature The heat catalyzes a reaction in the resins The phenol or melamine and formaldehyde molecules iattach to each other in an alternatingchain fashion releasing water molecules in the process The resins flow together and then set Thermosetting converts the paper sheets into one single rigid laminated sheet This sheet is dry and insoluble and it cannot be shaped or molded even at high temperatures iFinishing o 74 The dry sheet is cut into the desired size and shape It may also be bonded to a building material such as plywood flakeboard fiberboard or metal Materials and Their Uses 3222011 40700 PM Material Selection 0 Function aesthetic economic 0 Performance look durability cost 0 Will it break Wear it out How long will it last Does it attract dirt Hide stains Is it easily maintained 0 Genuine v Imitation usually decision to use imitations over originals are driven by cost and performance capabilities of the material Materials in Relation to Their Uses 0 iLeave exposed natural unfinished uncovered leave materials exposedquot ex brick stone wood concrete 0 iTreat exposed or natural materials with a preserving finish that maintains the natural appearance or with a protective finish that helps with wear and dirt wax oil varnish lacquer o 7Coat exposed materials finish that covers and seals hides with a colored pigment texture of materials still shows but construction is usually hidden like mortar joints of brick can change the texture o 7Comgletelz cover over materialcover with a second layer of material carpet over wood laminate over walls this is one way structural walls are hidden Walls and Wall Finishes 0 iLoad Bearing Walls support floors amp roofs primary material often covered and concealed by finish materials can be important interior elements when left exposed common examples brick concrete block concrete stone wood 0 iPartitions typically have an inner hidden support and an outer surface covered with a surface finish 0 7Wood studs metal studs gypsum block concrete block lath amp plaster drywall moveable partitions folding partitions toilet partitions glass 0 iPaint wall paper wood tile mirror metal plastics fabric stone Doors and Door Types 0 Openings for access 0 Door and frame are one unit 0 Usually wood metal or glass 0 Double 0 Swinging o Sliding French 0 Louvered o Accordion folding o Revolving 0 Gates Window Types Interruption in walls major role in transfer of heat and cold from outside provide daylight for interiors Best classified by how they are framed to hold glass Fixed glazing Double hung Casement Awning and projected Jalouise Sliding Window Treatments 0 Flooring and Serve variety of purposes 0 Control excessive light sun amp glare limit heat gain screen unpleasant views provide privacy hide undesirable window shapes locations or detail improveenhance bare wall introduce colorpatterntexture Roman shades Venetian blinds Honeycomb shades Drapery Shoji screens Metal chain drapery Flooring Materials iRepresent largest shares of area in an interior usually level surface iAll floor level changes require steps or ramps small level changes of one or two steps cause the most accidents because they are easy to overlook iAccess oors 7Concrete Masonry Terrazzo Wood Tile Rugs amp Carpet iResiIient Flooring linoleum cork rubber vinyl plastic Designing Stairways and Steps iSlope Handrails Landings Rise amp Run Treads Nosing 71 person 26quot 72 people 44quot 768quot wide stairway most comfortable any wider than 68quot require subdivided railings 784quot clear required for headroom Ceilings and Ceiling Materials iMake up large percentage of square footage of a space level or changing planes iEstablishes the height of a space volumetric proportions iMaximum heights usually determined by structure above iPlenum cavity above the ceiling isoffits Cove lighting Furring Cathedral Ceiling Egg Crate iPlaster isheetrock and Gypsum Wallboard 7Wood iAcousticaI Ceiling Materials special ceiling tile and panels of pressed paper fiber and mineral composition with small holes pores that trap and absorb unwanted sound 7Ceiling Systems iMetal Ceilings Textiles 3222011 40700 PM Textiles 0 Introduce texture pattern and color 0 Less durable of materials selected require periodic renewal 0 Variety of choices and uses 0 Drapery up holstery covering panel surfaces bedding toweling bath and washing services Functional Performance Characteristics 0 Green Issues 0 Maintenance Requirements 0 Shrinking Resistance 0 InitialFirst Cost 0 Useful Life 0 Color Stability Fastness 0 Fire Resistance 0 Useful Lifetime Cost Green Issues 0 Natural Material Textiles cotton linen jute bamboo 0 Animal Origins wool horsehair goat s hair leather silk 0 Not the textiles themselves that cause poor indoor air quality but adhesives for wall or panel covering that produce offgassing Color 0 Typically select all other finishes and then upholstery selections unless the upholstery is the focus or being designed around Pattern Repeats Checklist of Criteria for Fabric Selection 0 Suitability for intended use ex healthcare waiting room versus upscale hotel lobby 0 Color pattern texture o Durability life resistance staining maintenance repair 0 Will it shrink stretch or fade 0 Green Issues Sustainable Renewable 0 Fire Resistance 0 Cost Initial and Lifetime Fading and Fire Resistance 0 Ignition of textiles and other upholstery or bedding material is one of the most frequent sources of interior fires 0 Wear and fire resistance testing conducted for textiles used in institutional commercial and office applications Cost 0 Fabric Types Finishing Crypton Color Fabric is priced per yard Initial cost lifetime cost Purchase durability Fabrication and installation Reupholstering and construction mbasic material from which cloth is made natural artificial mineral fiber blends m long continuous strands or threads made from fiber Constructionthe way in which the fiber is made into cloth or textile woven fabric is the dominant type of textile Refers to various processes that follow basic fabric construction to prepare the textile for use Varies purposes repel water resist stains ad soiling resist fire increase durability Antibacterial crypton GORE sctochgard flame resistant The fabric used by Crypton is specially engineered with an integrated moisture barrier that delivers performance This fabric will remain spill moisture odor and bacteria free All the Crypton fabric is breathable but also provides a moisture barrier This is the only fabric that exceeds tests for stain resistance water resistance abrasion tearing strength breaking strength seam slippage resistance to fungal and bacterial growth and flammability Dzeingintroducing color to undyedunfinished fabrics subject to fading Fastness color fastness lasting quality of dye color Printingadds pattern and color to textiles prints onto fabric roller printing screen printing Identifying Textiles Manufacturer Pattern Color Application Content Finishbacking Width Repeat Abrasion Fabric Testing 0 Wgenbeekabrasion test rubs fabric together with cloth or wire mesh covered roller 15000 cycles of rubbing without breakdown is adequate abrasion doublerubsquot 0 Fire Resistance Refers not only to whether the fabric will ignite but how fast the flame will spread ifwhen ignited also smoldering and toxic fume release when burned Rated by Classes A B C amp D with Class A being the most resistant Color Often deemed the most important element in interior design Affects moods ambience overall feeling of a space Hass the ability to affect space visually can make spaces seem larger or smaller can camouflageconceal poor proportions Colors Warm Colors Colors such as red yellow and orange These colors evoke warmth because they remind us of things like the sun or fire Cool Colors Colors like blue green and purple violet These colors evoke a cool feeling because they remind us of things like water or grass Neutral Colors Gray Brown These aren39t on most color wheels but they39re considered neutral because they don39t contrast with much of anything They39re dull and uneventful Color Selections o Methodical process 0 Samples gathered to develop color schemequot 0 3 practical and useful approaches 0 natural color 0 all neutral color 0 functional color Natural Color 0 Natural unaltered materials wood stone brick tile 0 Limited range of color typically warm neutrals grays tans browns reds light grays amp whites 0 Generally considered safe universal appeal 0 Occurred often in Historic interiors Medieval castles amp churches European ampAmerican Colonial cottages and farmhouses 0 Ex Frank Lloyd Wright s Store House AllNeutral Color 0 Monochromatic monotone seemingly one color 0 Neutral grays in the white to black range 0 Warmbeiges amp tans Coolgrays greenish bluish violet tints 0 Most widely used neutralWHITE o Neutralplus Neutral colors plus strong chromatic often primary colors 0 Ex Modernism Piet Mondrian De Stijl Bauhaus Functional Color 0 Most widely used o Permits free use of color elements demanding only that every color is purposeful in some way 0 Enhances or offsets environmental factors of climate or orientation 0 Involves expectations of the affects on interior spaces Color Theory with Respect to Specialized Interiors 0 Study of color and the visual impact of colors on individuals feelings evoked behavior influenced by certain colors 0 OFFICES low contrast minimal distraction neutrals accents in secondary spaces only 0 SCHOOLS amp COLLEGES neutrals with accentsschool color splashes COLOR in Specialized Interiors 0 Restaurants and Food Service Areas brighter colors can be used to stimulate rapid movement fast pace 0 Shops Stores and Showrooms color selected to enhance or compliment products merchandise being solid 0 Blacks grays yellow greens strong cool colors are to be avoided Colors in Specialized interiors 0 Medical and healthcare facilities 0 Restful calm optimism happiness energy 0 Often mutedrestrained colors 0 Specific elements found to aid in recovery warm color tones with natural woods and fabrics plus a view ofto outdoor 0 Psychiatric Units NEVER blue or red blacks violets and purples discouraged no highly reflective surfaces 0 Retirement and Living Facilities 0 Recent research reveals that with advanced age color is less noticeable color perception weakens colors appear less bright o Stronger colors with higher contrasts are now being suggested for assisted living homes and retirement villages Hotels Motels and Resorts 0 Least limitation on color more color liberties o Contingent on location and clients exotic beach resort v metro city corporate business hotel 0 Typically warm or cool dominated color schemes neutral colors for fixed items accent colors on items replaced often Industrial Settings 0 Color used to aid in safety 0 Yellow moving equipment 0 Red fire safety dangerous materials B ue e e ect ca contro s ahd repau areas thtes r de t Food and drmk areas Waste receptac es B ack ahd whrte strrprhg e trathc areas aws es ahd stawrwavs nght and Coor Hurhah wsroh e ght Wave engths ahd radraht energv bram39s rhterpretatroh Dayhght whrte hght s a rahdorh rmx otaH Wave engths wheh whrte hght passes through a p sm the drttereht Wave engths are sorted hto co or whrch creates a spectrum arranged accordmg to Wave ength RDYGBIV Addwtwe Co or Mmhg ot hght Used mostW m theater ADDS together Wave emgths represe tmg three D marv co ors red greeh ahd b ue YeHoW torrhed m addmg red ahd greeh hght whrte torrhed by cornbhrhg aH three addrtwe p ma es Subtractwe Coor Ihvoves pamt p gme t Wk or dve rmxtures More reated to Wte or des g The Object otrhatena absorbs or subtracts aH of the co ors 0F hght except the coor of the Object thch s the co or We see Ex red ObJECt actuaHv absorbs aH co ors except red and re ects back onw red hght Addwtwe and Subtractwe Co or YeHaw Cyan Magema Green Addmve quotgm Subtraouve mam Addmva and subtractm color camblnaxlans Co or Whee ohh the rhrxture ot red veHoW ahd b ue P marv a red veHoW b ue Secohdarv e rmxture otp marv co ors Red veHoW orahge B ue veHoW greeh Red b ue purp e Color Systems 0 System developed to arrange and name colors due to color beyond primary and secondary being imprecise 0 Most accepted color system in interior design is the Munsell system 0 Developed by the American Painter Albert Henry Munsell 0 Uses HUE VALUE and CHROMA Hue 0 Most obvious characteristic of color 0 Color39s position on the spectrum designated by letters 0 6 basicquot hues 3 primary 3 secondary o R O Y G B I V red orange yellow green blue indigo violet o Tertiaryintermediate hues between the six Value 0 Describes a color s lightness or darkness 0 Depends on the amount of light absorbed or reflected absorbsdarker reflectslighter 0 Adding whitereflects all light lighter 0 Adding blackabsorbs all light darker 0 100 white to black scale of values arranged light to dark 0 Light values above the middle of the scale 69 are tints 0 Dark values below the middle of the scale 41 are shades Chroma o Color39s intensity or purity saturation o Numbered up to 14 from lowest to maximum chroma maximum chroma hue in its purest form 0 Ex in Munsell system YG74 indicates a a yellowgreen hue at a value of 7 and chroma of 4 The Color Solid 0 Arranges colors using gray neutral as central axis hues as ringquot on outside and all possible saturations steps of chroma radiating out like spokes 3 dimensional cluster or color solid Other Color Systems 0 CIE Commission International de l Eclairage 0 DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung DIN color wheel 0 Gerristen System 0 Kuppers System 0 OSA Optical Society of America Complementary Colors 0 Complementary Colors Red and Green Blue and Orange Purple and Yellow These are the colors directly across from each other on the color wheel o Called quotcomplementaryquot because when used together they become extremely vibrant and have heavy contrast 0 Complementary colors are useful when you want to make something stand out For example if you use a green background and have a red circle on it the red will jump off the page Warm and Cool Colors 0 Color wheel divided into 2 categories 0 Reds oranges and yellows warm 0 Greens blues and violetscool 0 Mental association with temperature sensations of hot and cold Psychological Impact of Colors 0 Reds Warm hot exciting stimulating tension danger heat and fire 0 Orangesvibrant stimulating o Yellowbright happy yellow tints considered safe colors with little known negative impact 0 Greens calm restful peaceful constructive growth 0 wrest repose clam dignity can be gloomy depressing if overused or too strong 0 Violetsartistic risky o Purgleshistorically stood for royalty particularly in clothing studies have shown feelings of tension depression caused by purples o Neutralswarm or cool grays easy backgrounds not trendy can be dull and monotonous o Whites amp Near Whitesclarity openness brightness cleanliness sanitation 0 Blacks can be an impactfuldramatic accent color depressing if used excessively best used in spaces occupied briefly Color Schemes 0 Color harmony based in comparisons of colors with musical tones o Monotone neutral 0 Single color low chroma one value or limited range of values 0 Monochromatic 0 Similar to monotone with wider range of chroma and value in same hue 0 Can be dramatic and look good in photos but are hard to live in over extended periods of time o Analogous o Achieve harmony through hues that are close together on the color wheel 0 Typically one primary or one secondary plus the hues that are adjacent on either side 0 If the hue is restricted to one quarter of the wheel a range of varied value and chroma may be used Complimentary Color Schemes 0 Use contrasting hues from opposite sides of the color wheel 0 Bright and balanced generally well liked Triad Color Schemes 0 Three 3 hues approximately equal distances from one another 0 Ex red yellow and blue orange green and violet 0 Most difficult and most likely to be harsh or confusing Tetrad Color Schemes 0 Uses four hues equally spaced around the color wheel 0 Difficult to produce successfully usually lively and satisfactory Simultaneous Contrast 0 Results from the brain s effort to interpret perceived color 0 Any color s appearance can change as a result of the colors that surround it Lighting 3222011 40700 PM One of the most important aspects of interior design good lightingquot supports convenience comfort and favorable emotional reactions improving the lighten of a space can be more effective than any other single factor as far as increasing an overall sense of satisfaction bad lightingquot hampers utility can produce depression and displeasure causes spaces to be dismal and unattractive Effects Achieved by Good Lighting 0 Sets the desire moodatmosphere o Directs or concentrates attention 0 Controls shading and shadows 0 Emphasizesmodifies spatial perception LEEDGreen Building 0 Lighting is a major consumer of energy directly and also indirectly as it interacts with ventilation and cooling in summer 0 Use of maximal daylight as a light source when possible is encouraged by the application of LEED standards Vision and Lighting 0 Seeing depends on additional factors like shading and shadows limitations of brightness contrast color and quality all combined with intensity Basic Human Vision 0 Eyedark chamber 0 Mlocated at the back of the eye light sensitive surface compared to film 0 PuLillens that changes focus to form sharp images on the retina of objects near or far away 0 This retinal image is transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain which interprets the picture to create the mental image that we see Image is in color and in focus only at its center 0 Human vision often compared to a camera Goals of Good Lighting 0 Promote good visibility 0 Generate qualities of atmosphere 0 Convey appropriate mood through aesthetics and emotional impressions Light Leve 0 Quantity of light of lighting level 0 Iris ring around the pupil that gives the eye its distinctive color automatically regulates the size of the pupil to admit more or less light 0 Adjustment Retinaoptic nerve brain system Accommodation Iris Retina adjustment amp accommodation Ex When you go from inside a dark theater out into bright daylight your eyes have to adjust and accommodate to the change in light levels Adjustments of the retina optic nerve brain system cannot handledeal with a visual field that includes bright and dim area that both demand attention Contrast and Diffusion Daylight Shades and shadows emphasize form but conceal details Pointsource light creates strong shade and shadows draws attention accents form and texture sunny Diffused light light that is distributed evenly through the scattering of rays diminishes or blocks shading promotes good general vision cloudy Most attractive form of illumination Lighting for which our eyes were createddeveloped Variability of daylight makes it pleasant and satisfying Admitting Daylight Determine by the architecture location amp orientation of building Depends on the windows what direction they face how they operate what height and position they sit at on a wall noise transmission heat loss or gain amp privacy To relocate or cover up a window or skylights can be a costly and unsightly maneuver and usually effects the exterior elevation Controlling Daylight Orientation Multiple glazing using 23 sheets of glass factory assembled into a sandwich Dead air space in between sheets minimizes heat loss make difference in summer and cold Ex Storm window Natural laws influence ways that daylight penetrates interior space Latitude and season determine the sun39s movement East facing strong sunlight in early morning West facing receive later afternoon sun sometimes too much sun on late summer afternoons North facing no direct sun cool consistent light even on cloudy days South orientation sun consistent for most of the day depending on the season considered most favorable in terms of light pleasantness and controllability The Last American Light Bulb lThe last American light bulb GE stops making its iconic bulb in the US Sarah Gilbert Sep 30th 2010 GE and its products are part of the American iconography Its founder was Thomas Edison one of America39s foremost thinkers inventors and tinkerers His invention of the light bulb in 1876 marked the moment of GE39s genesis If you can say that light bulbs capture the spirit of American ingenuity you can also say that GE39s soul is encapsulated in that inverted pearshaped quotA linequot light bulb Generations of Americans see the GE logo in their mind39s eye on the round base of a glowing light bulb On September 24 that classic American light bulb was switched off Changing American preferences and looming government regulation resulted in the shuttering of the only remaining US factory to make 100watt Aline incandescent bulbs in Winchester Virginia The bulbs are still being made in Monterrey Mexico but the empire of the classic incandescent light is in its decline Over the past five years says Kim Freeman of GE Appliances amp Lighting quotthe demand for these incandescent bulbs has declined by 50 and that39s all customer preferencequot Educated by green media such as Greenpeace and famously Al Gore39s takeaway in An Inconvenient M that the best thing viewers could do for the planet is to change their bulbs consumers are doing what the government is slowly asking them to do In 2012 bulbs between 100 and 150 watts manufactured in the US will have to be at least 30 more energy efficient by 2014 bulbs between 40 and 99 watts will have to meet those new 30less standards With current technology incandescent bulbs can39t do this at least not for a price consumers are willing to pay Artificial Light Electric Began with Thomas Edison s invention of the light bulb Allows for total control over brightness color placement and quality Countless possibilities Planning Lighting Careful planning Analysis of needs Selection of lighting devices to meet these needs Fixture spacing and locations to achieve desired lighting levels Planning Steps Define general goal in terms of characteratmosphere of space depends on function and use Identify specific purposes for required lighting Determine intensigy levels for vision balance this with energy efficiency plays a major role in determining lamp type and fixture location Select fixtures based on specific needs Determine fixture placement very calculated process in larger commercial projects Reflected Ceiling Plan o reflection of the ceiling and what s on it includes all fixtures and mechanical supply air and return air grilles any part of the ceiling that is visible from within the space Lighting Needs 0 3 Categories 0 Task Lighting for specific visual function reading writing dressing putting on makeup using a computer also special purposes such as operating rooms theaters art galleries 0 General Ambient Lighting overall light comfortable level of lighting background light avoids excessive brightness and contrast 0 Special Lighting generates variety of contrast focuses attention on specific objects and areas accent lighting Level Illumination 0 Lighting measurement unit is called candlepower o Candlegoweramount of light given by a standard candle of controlled size and composition 0 candella1 candlepower o Footcandlethe light delivered to a surface one foot away from a standard candle 0 Light meter used to measure lighting levels in units of footcandles tables of recommended illumination levels for various purposes in lighting handbooks by IESNAIlluminating engineering Society of North America 0 Overall lighting is not as critical as those located at a task 0 Lightsourcelamp with certain wattage has a alight output measured in Iumens o Lumenunit of light that will deliver a level of one footcandle to a surface one foot square at a distance of one foot 0 Illumination levels vary depending on the distance of the light source 0 Inverse Square Law Brightness Contrast o Reflectance the quality of a surface that controls the appearance of brightness o FootcandIelighting level arriving at the surface 0 Footlambertslighting reflected back level of brightness unit 0 Example Selection of desktop surface material with respect to light source in order for the desk occupant to be able to read write work on a computer without eye strain Selection of Lighting 0 Basic light source bulb or tube 0 lamp is the professional term 0 Selection begins with the type of light source type of lamp all have advantages and disadvantages o Incandescent o Fluorescent Incandes Cold Cathode Neon 0 Fiber Optic o HID centTungsten Lamps 0 Pointsource light produces sharp shadows and bright highlights Invented by Thomas Edison in 1867 oldest most familiar light source Has continuous spectrum recall additive color Warm light attractive flattering to human coloring cozy and comfortable 0 Economic issuepower consumption Unwanted byproductheat produced Tungsten Halogen Special type of incandescent with a higher light output than standard very hot 0 Sometimes used for display lighting due to its small size and easy directional adjustability o Halogenflattering to foods people and most types of merchandise Fluorescent Lighting 0 Came along in the 1930 s as an economical alternative for incandescent lighting Uses about 13 to 14 of power consumption for given light output of incandescent 0 Most popular fixture the norm for factories offices schools restaurants and stores 0 Long tube shadowless light higher initial cost than incandescents but operating cost is less Glowing phosphors mercury vapor xenon amp others inside the tube that fluoresce to give the source its name 0 Can alter color perception distort natural coloring and sometimes be aesthetically unpleasant Solution warm white deluxe white lamps 0 Variety of lamp types amp compact shapes all have integral transformers or ballasts that allow them to be screwed into regular lamp sockets o CFL Compact Fluorescent Lamps 0 Energy saving High Intensity Discharge HID Light 0 Combination of incandescent and fluorescent light 0 Acceptable color characteristics economic operation long life 1500024000 hours vs 1000 hours for incandescent o Bulky expensive transformer slow starting not immediate 3 lamp types available mercury vapor high pressure sodium and metal halide Fiber Optic Lighting 0 Strands of glass or acrylic fiber that transmit light internally like water through pipes or air through ducts o Bundles of these fibers pipe light from a central light source called an illuminator 0 Can be remote form light source used where space limitations make conventional bulbs or tubes are impractical where ventilation to extract heat is hard to provide and in outdoor locations where there are safety concerns regarding wetness 0 Higher priced great alternative to neon lighting Ex ceiling with tiny star like points of light stairways with illuminated steps movie theater and displays or decorative elements with slim ribbons of light Light Emitting Diode LED Light 0 Extremely long life up to 100000 hours 0 Low current consumption low heat output but costly o Produces varied lighting can be controlled to produce an unlimited range 0 Uses small signal lights electronic devices stop lights traffic signals 0 Available in high intensities of red blue and green recall additive color 0 Manipulate room color used where special color effects are desired A building goes beyond the single structure Master plans are needed Landscape architecture 0 Lots of different elements 0 People who install landscapes 0 Very broad profession 0 Can be city planners 0 Plan golf courses 0 They design what you ll see at a park notjust the landscape but the facilities that will be use 0 Work with rivers coast 0 Shaping of the land 0 Residential or corporate 0 Land preservation Take polluted areas and turn them into parks 0 Sitespace planning planning the site what goes where on the land where is the best place to put things 0 Have to be careful where you build Designing on high ground of the property Reviving downtowns Regional planning Park and recreation planning landscape architecture name given after the building of central park in New York first park in US 0 weren39t any parks in the US until after the Civil War 0 often work in teams architect landscape architect and the interior designer France Motts eventually came for decoration Plant shrubs had designs Expensive to maintain s were very important Landscape takes place everywhere 0 Has a lot to do with gardens 0 Landscape architectures have to work a lot with concrete in cities 0 The architecture designed should be part of the landscape 0 Using the materials in the surrounding area to build Frank Loyd Write first to create an architecture school in US for landscape 0 falling waters preserved his sights of where his buildings were built 0 Palo Silary dug into the earth to get his structures Example of Preserving the Land Long Island Parks don t have to be gigantic popular parks in New York now are on the size of tennis courts 0 mini parks You have to shapefurnish the space Water Fronts 0 Turning something old to something new and attractive Baltimore indoorOutdoor relationships 0 Video of Landscape Architecture 0 How to properly use land 0 Bring together man made and natural elements 0 34 architects on one project 0 the landscape is just a giant outdoor room that has to be furnished whether naturally or by man 0 a space to be occupied 0 you have to keep in mind the alternatives 0 don tjust make decisions because it looks good that way but because that s the best way to do It 0 elements of nature extremely important to the landscape In39r39rA r rl quotI rAnrl ir ruin u n WHAT TO STUDY FOR THE FINAL sstsps ordesigr p 1 56 19 1 654 69 adjaccncy studies and charts used stypes onlahs p 1 704 71 1 3975 s aw to Evaluate the plan types of heat transfers and systems sidentity terms that long to SaFety alctrical plumbing systems race t s vertich transportat on sbuilding codes restrict and regulate buildinga 47 s tl e ms t baqzd on their perFormahce tools use by ids and a 390 tests sideutiey drawing and models Y stypes ole bids and earinn b dels wed s ussinese mu sr EDIE carporutlsnetc