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Week 4 Notes

by: Vanessa Zimmerman

Week 4 Notes PSYC 10400

Vanessa Zimmerman

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About this Document

Continuation of research notes, then progresses into prenatal development.
Introduction to Developmental Psychology
Cyndy L. Scheibe
Class Notes
developmental psychology, Psychology, psych, development, developmental, intro, Introduction, introduction to developmental psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Zimmerman on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10400 at Ithaca College taught by Cyndy L. Scheibe in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/22/16
Week  4  Developmental  Psychology  Notes     Problems  in  doing  research  with  human  beings   1.   Ethical  dilemmas   2.   People  may  lie   3.   People  may  refuse  study  (ruins  random  selection)     Dominant  Gene:  one  that  gets  expressed  (regardless  of  the  other  gene  in  the  pair)   Recessive  Gene:  can  be  carried  from  one  generation  to  the  next,  but  only  gets  expressed  if  the   individual  has  both  recessive  genes  for  that  traits     170  males  to  100  females  at  conception  but  by  birth  104  males  to  100  females   males  are  more  vulnerable  to  not  make  it.     Nature  vs  Nurture:   Twin  studies:   1.   Identical  vs  fraternal   2.   Identical  reared  apart   Adoption  studies   1.   Adoptive  parents’  vs  birth  parents   2.   Animal  breeding  studies   3.   Concordance  studies  (family  histories)   4.   Gene  mapping,  epigenetic  research  (newest  study)     Prenatal Development: Last around 266 days, from conception to birth. Divided into 3 parts. First Trimester: Part 1: the germinal period: First 2 weeks after concep tion. Includes creation of zygote, continued cell division, and attachment of zygote to uterine wall. Part 2: the embryonic period: Occurs in the 2-8 week after conception. Includes faster cell differentiation, organs appearing and support systems for cell s form embryo: mass of cells divided into 3 layers endoderm: inner layer of cells. develops into digestive and respiratory system. mesoderm: middle layer, becomes the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system. ectoderm: outermost layer, becomes the nervous system, sensory receptors, and skin parts. organogenesis: process of organ formation during the first two months of prenatal development life support systems develop rapidly. amnion, umbilical cord and t he placenta Second- Third Trimester: Part 3: The fetal period: begins two months after conception and usually lasts seven months, growth and development continue their dramatic course during this time. fetus: unborn baby more than eight weeks after concep tion. Determine sex of fetus 11 -13 weeks of gestation Hazards to Prenatal Development: teratogen: Any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes. (EX. drugs, incompatible blood types, environmental pollution, infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, maternal stress, advanced maternal and paternal age) Psychoactive Drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions and change moods. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): A cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy. (EX. facial deformity and defective limbs, face and heart, lower intellect) Environmental Factors X-ray radiation can affect the development of the embryo/fetus, especially in the first several weeks after conception maternal age & diet: fetus is determined by mother’s total calorie intake as well as her intake of vitamins, proteins, and minerals. Also, the rate of mortality in infants doubles if the mother is above 35.     Informed  consent:  parent/guardian,  but  if  7+  need  parent  and  child’s  consent.  18+  legal   consent.   Evocative:  child’s  genetic  tendencies  evoke  responses  from  the  environment  that  reinforce   them   Active  (niche  picking):  child’s  genetic  tendencies  cause  them  to  actively  seek  out  environmental   situations  to  match  their  tendencies   Teratogens:  environmental  influences  (Not  genetics)     Cause  harm  during  prenatal  development     EX:  mother  drinking  alcohol  can  lead  to  FAS  (Fetal  Alcohol  Syndrome)     Nicotine,  caffeine,  heroin  or  any  other  psychoactive  drugs   Factors:   1.   Dose  (how  much)   2.   Timing  in  prenatal  development  (what  is  developing?)   3.   Genetic  Susceptibility  (change  occurring)     Radiation:   th th Neuron  Migration:  8 -­‐16  week  after  conception   Radiation  stops  the  neurons  short  of  their  destination,  leading  to  severe  cognitive  deficits     How  prenatal  development  is  studied:   •   Natural  experiments  (EX:  women  pregnant  during  the  bombing  of  Hiroshima  and  how  it   affected  their  pregnancy)   •   Animal   •   Case  studies   •   Correlational/descriptive  studies   •   Inutero  studies  (ultrasounds)   •   Autopsies  of  still  born   •   Studies  of  preterm  infants    


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