INTR TO PETR ENGR
INTR TO PETR ENGR PETE 1010
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ron Huel on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PETE 1010 at Louisiana State University taught by F. Thurber in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/222991/pete-1010-louisiana-state-university in Petroleum Engineering at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Articles PETE Test 1 New Oil Crisis An Engineer Shortage o A lack of engineers is one of the reasons for higher oil prices o More than half of the oilfield professionals will retire in the next decade and with the oil prices so low during the 19905 the output of engineers has decreased o With recent prices so high more complex projects for harder to reach oil are possible but they must have the engineers to work on the projects o The shortage will make these projects even more expensive and longer to complete As Oil Industry Fights a Tax It reaps Subsidies o Federal officials want to tax oil companies for the BP Deepwater Horizon spill but it could cause the loss ofjobs increased oil prices and higher dependence of foreign oil o The oil industry receives a lot of tax breaks so Congress is trying to cut down on the subsidies while the industry is trying to defend them RiskTaking Rises as Oil Rigs in Gulf Drill Deeper o Bigger wells much more sophisticated than the one that caused to BP oil spill are being used and they propose higher risks o Example Perdido deepest offshore platform in the world o Many things can go wrong such environmentally such as mudslides waves hurricanes and extreme temperatures and the wells are so far out that it would take much too long to get assistance out there o Some say the industry has become complacent because accidents are so rare but industry officials reassure them that they are taking all the safety precautions o More than 20 percent of all bids in the gulf last year were for leases in water deeper than 6500 feet The deepest well in production in the gulf Perdido s Tobago well lies in 9600 feet of water o The worry is that everyone is focusing on the most recent problems and not looking at all possible problems Natural Gas o Natural gas is colorless odorless and shapeless in its pure form c When it is burned it gives off a lot of energy and few emissions o It is a mixture of many hydrocarbon gases but mostly methane Ethane propane butane and pentane o Natural gas is dry when it is almost pure methane O What is Petreleum World Oil Transit Chokepoints Report Says Oil Agency Ran Amok SEC Jumps Into Fight Over Fracking Energy Panel Wants Answers On Gas Fracking Louisiana Official Reports Activity On Third Expansive Play Worries Over Water As Natural Gas Fracking Expands Brazil Hopes To Add Oil Wealth To A Booming Economy Oil Industry Boost in Energy Could Create 1M Jobs Oil Falls Toward 88 Amid Signs of Weak US Demand Daniel Yergin Examines America s Quest For Energy Mud Logging Wiki Natural Gas Extraction Creates a Boom for Sand Facts About Shale Gas France Moves to Ban Shale Gas Drilling New Book Reshapes Oil World Rock In North Dakota Moodle Notes PETE Test 1 Hydrocarbon Measurements The typical natural gas contains 9012 Methane Most commonly measured properties 0 Specific Gravity API 0 Viscosity 0 Color 0 Odor Specific Gravity A dimensionless number which is a measure of the density of a substance compared to the density of pure water at an arbitrary temperature and pressure Specific Gravity 14151315 API Oil Gravity The specific gravity of water is 1 thus SG of oil lt 1 API Gravity od water is 10 thus for oil API gt 10 0 Heavy 10 20 API 0 Intermediate 20 30 API 0 Light gt30 API Gas Gravity the density of gas at standard conditions divided by the density of air at the same conditions Oil volume is measured in barrels o 1 barrel 42 gallons Gas volumes are measured in cubic feet Pressure Absolute pressure total pressure measured from an absolute vacuum It equals the sum of the gauge pressure and the atmospheric pressure Psi psig pounds per square inch Porosity amp Permeability Porosity the ratio of voids or pores in a rock to its total volume or size Permeability a measure of the ease with which fluids can flow through a porous rock Ch 1 Petroleum Geology PETE Test 1 Two jobs of a petroleum geologist Reconstruct geologic history of an area to find likely locations for petroleum accumulations Evaluate this location and determine if it has enough petroleum to be commercially productive Petroleum reservoir a rock formation that holds oil and gas somewhat like a sponge holds water East Texas field large width not very deep Gronigan Field not a large area but large depth Basic Concepts of Geology Crustal Plates 0 Oceanic crust Thin 5 7 miles thick Made of heavy rock that forms when magma cools 0 Continental Crust Thicker 10 30 miles Lighter than oceanic crust so continents ten to float 0 Movement of the North and South American continents is forcing the pacific plate downward into the mantle This collision of oceanic and continentals plates accounts for many of the volcanoes and earthquakes in this zone 0 When 2 continental plates collide the crustal collision buckles creating mountains Example Himalayas Collision of India and Asia Geologic Structures 0 Warps when broad areas of the crust rise or drop without fracturing The rock strata appear to be horizontal but are actually slig htly tilted o Folds rock strata that have buckled or crumpled into wave like structures Anticlines upward arches u Dome short anticline with its crest plunging downward in all directions Synclines downward troughs u Basin a syncline that dips down to a common center Faults When rocks near the surface break or fracture the two halves 0 move in relation to each other Horizontal movement normal and reverse faults Vertical movement over thrust and lateral faults Growth faults Both horizontal and vertical Graben a long narrow block of crust between two faults that has sunk relative to the surrounding crust u Example North Sea oil accumulates in sediment filled grabens Horst A similar block but has risen instead of sunk Life On Earth 1 15 billion years after Earth formed living organisms began appearing in oceans Organic matter is necessary for the formation of oil Categorizing Rocks Types of Rocks 0 Igneous Formed when magma cools and solidifies Granit and Basalt o Sedimentary Rocks formed in horizontal layers or strata from sediments May consist of eroded particles of older rock that was downhill into oceans or of minerals that precipitate out of water Water is a crucial ingredient to forming sedimentary rocks Minerals in water cement deposits into rocks Limestone sandstone clay o Metamorphic Rocks that have been buried deeps in the Earth where they were subjected to high temperatures and pressures 0 Formation A belt of one type of rock Petroleum Bearing Rocks 0 Most oil and gas accumulations occur in sedimentary rocks 0 Most of the world s oil lies in sedimentary rocks formed from marine sediments deposited at the edge of continents Accumulations of Petroleum Organic Theory 0 Oil and gas formed from the remains of plants and animals 0 Beds of silt mud and sand were buried deep beneath the earth The bottoms beds became rock under all the pressure and geologists believe that high heat and pressure and chemical reactions turned the organic remains into oil and gas Inorganic Theory 0 Petroleum is either left over from the formation of the solar system or was formed layer deep within the Earth Chemistry of Hydrocarbons o Hydrocarbons chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached 0 Organic theory shows that organic sediment buried too deep produces no hydrocarbons due to extreme temperatures T gt 500 F Porosity and Permeability of Oil Bearing Rocks 0 The greater the porosity of a formation the more petroleum it is able to hold 0 To be commercially valuable reservoir rock must have a porosity of 10 or more 0 A rock is permeable when its pores are connected oil gas and water can flow through it by moving from one pore to another Measurement Darcy 0 Sand stones and carbonates are generally the most porous and permeable rocks and are also the most common reservoir rocks 0 Shale porous and contains hydrocarbons but has no permeability o Tar Sands formations made up of sand cemented together by tar or asphalt very sticky types of oil Canada Venezuela and Russia have large tar sand deposits Migration of Petroleum 0 Unless oil and gas are trapped underground by geological formations they will continue to move upward until the escape the surface 0 Seeps when oil and gas are actually able to reach and escape the surface Traps 0 An arrangement of rock layers that contains an accumulation of hydrocarbons yet prevents them from rising to the surface 0 Structural Anticlinal originally horizontal rock layers are folded up into a dome and hydrocarbons migrate from below into one of the porous layers of rock n Caprock a layer of impermeable rock above the reservoir that seals the oil from migrating any further up a Santa Fe Spring Fields Agha Jari Iran Fault formed by the movement of rock along a fault line a Reservoir rock is only on one side On the other side is an impermeable layer that moved opposite the reservoir u Gouge within the fault zone itself Plug Traps u A dome that has a core of rock called a plug that has pushed into the other formations u Plugs are usually made of nonporous salt a US Gulf Coast Germany Romanian Oil Fields 0 Statig raphic Unconformity A layer of rock has formed and then eroded and new sediment has ben deposited on top of it to form a younger layer The unconformity is the time gap in the geologic record a Nonconformity Old eroded layer of igneous with a new sedimentary layer a Disconformity old and new rock layers are parallel u Angular unconformity older rock deformed before the overlying rocks were deposited Lenticular Trap a Change in permeability within a rock layer a Often formed in buried river sandbars 0 Combination Traps Most common formed by faulting folding permeability changes and other conditions EX Seelingson Field in Southwest Texas Reservoir Fluids Usually contains 3 fluids oil gas and water Water 0 Connate interstitial water salt water that remains in the formation when the reservoir is being formed 0 Bottom Water beneath oil accumulation o Edgewater found at the edge of the oil zone Oil 0 Pushes water downward and fills the pores of reservoir rocks 0 Wetting water a film of water that surrounds the poor spaces 0 Rare exception Oil Wet reservoirs 100 oil saturation Natural Gas 0 Gas in solution occupies space in a reservoir 0 Free gas Gas not dissolved in oil tends to accumulate in the highest part of a reservoir where it forms a gas cap 0 Dissolved gas lowers the viscosity of oil Reservoir Pressure Normal Pressure 0 As long as a connection to the surface exists rocks that overlie a reservoir do not create any extra pressure 0 Therefore the only pressure in the reservoir is caused by the fluid Abnormal Pressure 0 Reservoirs that do not have an outcrop to the surface and therefore are affected by the overlying rock 0 Or if the outcrop is in a higher elevation than the rig Ch 2 Petroleum Exploration PETE Test 1 Surface Geographical Studies Topography the natural and man made features on the surface of the land Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images 0 Remote Sensing using infrared or other means to map an area 0 Landsat Primarily to map vegetation and observe long term changed to the earth s surface ASTER a sensor especially built for geological applications 0 Radar Bounces high frequency radio waves off land features to a satellite or an airplane Side looking airborne radar imaging radar used in airplanes 0 Oil and Gas Seeps Occur either along fractures that pierce the reservoir or at spots where formations dig up to the surface Collecting Data Private Company Libraries Public Agency Records Databases Geophysical Surveys Geophysics study of the physics of the Earth its oceans and its atmosphere Magnetic and Electromagnetic surveys o Magnetometer Surveys Detects slight variations in the earth s magnetic field that mainly show how deep magnetized rocks are buried Micro magnetic detects magnetic anomalies to predict fractures in the igneous basement and overlying sediments o Magnetotellurics Rocks of different composition have different electrical properties Closely spaced survey sites result in a detailed survey which is helpful when deciding where to drill new wells Gravity Surveys 0 Gravimeter a sensitive weighing instrument for measuring variations in the gravitational field of the earth 0 Very dense rocks exert a gravitational force more than light rocks Seismic Surveys o Seismology Sensors called geophones pick up the reflected seismic waves of an artificially produced earthquake and sends them to a recorder The recorder seismograph amplifies and records the characteristics to produce a seismogram Seismic section a 2 dimensional slice from the surface of the earth downward 0 3D Seismic A cu be that shows the types of rock their depths and whether hydrocarbons are present in a trap 0 Early Methods First seismometer David Milne 1841 Seismograph Mt Vesuvius Palmieri Mintrop portable seismograph u Seismos first seismic exploration company a Discovered that different formations transmitted waves at different speed 0 Modern Land Methods Thumper drops a heavy steel slab from as high as 9 feet into the ground to create shock waves Dinoseis uses a mixture of propane and oxygen in an expandable chamber to create an explosion Vibroseis generates low frequency sound waves whose reflections are picked up and changed into electrical impulses by the geophones 0 Marine Seismic Methods Hydrophones the marine version of geophones Vertical cable survey each cable has an anchor on one end and a buoy on the other end and the ship sets off seismic waves on the cables Reservoir Development Tools Well Logs o A record of information about the formations through which a well has been drilled o Driller s Log provides basic info to the geologist Drillers keeps records of the rocks and fluids encountered at different depths o Wireline Logs A metal line that can be run into the hole with a tool attached to the end a Conductor Line can carry electricity to the tool A sonde is lowered into the wellbore on conductor line It measures electrical radioactive or acoustic properties of formations Electric Logs u Spontaneous potential records weak electrical currents that flow naturally in the rock next to the wellbore Most common log Resistivity log records resistance to the current a u Induction log records conductivity Salt water conducts much better than oil so these logs help determine how much water the formation holds and permeability Nuclear Logs u Gamma ray Records gamma particles and helps identify impermeable formations such as shale and clay u Neutron log Slow neutrons Hydrogen is present Fluids are full of hydrogen but not rocks so it shows how much fluid is in the formation and its porosity Acoustic Logs u Sonic Log a record of sound waves sent through the rock and receives a ticking sound a The denser the rock the faster the sound waves Sample Logs 0 Physical Samples of Underground Rock 0 Core samples Core slender column of rock that shows the sequence of rocks as they appear within the Earth Use a coring bit 0 Cutting Samples Cuttings when a regular bit is drilling a hole it breaks up the rock into cuttings Help geologists analyze the rock being drilled Drill Stem Test 0 The primary way to test a formation that has just bee drilled 0 Measures pressure and captures fluid Strat Test 0 Stratig raphy the study of the origin composition distribution and sequence of rock strata Stratig raphic Correlation o The process of comparing geologic formations O Analyze data to figure out the type of environment a rock was in when it first formed Maps 0 O O 0 Base maps show wells property lines roads buildings etc Topographic maps show surface features such as mountains and valleys Bouguer Gravity Maps show subsurface formations Contour maps Most commonly used by petroleum geologists Lines on a map represent depth or thickness Structural map depicts the depth of a specific formation from the surface Isopach map shows variations in thickness of a formation Isochore shows thickness of a layer from top to bottom along a vertical line Lithofacies map shows the character of the rock itself and how it varies horizontally within the formation Biofacies map shows variations in the occurrence of fossil types 0 Vertical Cross Sections Represents a portion of the crust as though it were a slice of cake Lecture Notes PETE Test 1 History of Oil I 1St Well C Colonel Edwin Drake in Titus Pennsylvania 1959 0 An illumination fuel 0 Retired railroad conductor John D Rockefeller 0 Standard Oil Trust Order to the chaos o Realized that there was money in the business 0 Stabilized the industry in unethical ways 0 Exxon Mobil is part of the SOT Dad Joiner and Doc Lloyd 0 East Texas Oil Field 1930 o Joiner promoter convinced widows to let them drill on their land 0 Lloyd geologist had a theory that the oil was draining to the south King Saud and FDR 1945 FordCarter turbulent 705 0 Corporate Average Fuel 0 Economy standard We re addicted to oil Raised mpg for cars By 2025 525 mpg Where is the oil and who consumes it US reserves 2 of world reserves US Production 85 of current worldwide US is 40 of domestic consumption China is 10 of consumption 20 consumption by US Well Logging Formation Evaluation Techniques 0 Rock Sample 0 Fluid Sample 0 Pressure and Flow Test 0 Well Logging Logging while drilling LWD Electric Line Logging a Open hole logging u Cased whole logging Advantages of Well Logs 0 Obtain large amount of data in relatively short time o Reasonable cost 0 In situ measurement of formation properties 0 Determine where other tests should be conducted Shortcomings of Well Logs 0 Indirect measurement of needed parameters 0 Need for involved interpretation techniques Well Log Interpretation 0 Interpretation is a thinking process 0 Process implies organization 0 Organization implies logic 0 Logic implies step by step progression to solve problems based on knowledge and not by random guessing Options Management 0 Identify the problem 0 Determine all possible options Should cloning be used to save endangered animal species Well Logging Graphs Spontaneous Potential 0 To the right 9 Shale 0 To the left 95andstoneproductive Gamma Ray Measures natural gamma radiation 0 Shale is more radioactive than sandstone Resistivity Curve 0 Resistance to the flow of electricity 0 Salt water is more conductive to electricity than oil or natural gas Deep induction 0 Zone where the fluid was originally placed is still there and undisturbed by drilling fluid Sonic Curve 0 Measuring the speed that sound goes from one receiver and makes it back to the other receiver Water Saturation o SWsqrtRORT o ROResistivity found in 100 clean sandstone Lowest point on well log 0 RTTrueTarget Resistivity highest point on well log deltaTLog deltaTmatriXdeltaTquid deltaTmatriX o deltaTmatriX555 o deltaTfluid 189 Density neutron 0 Whenever there is separation the neutron is high and the density is low Shale 0 When the lines are together Some fluid 0 Separated Neutron low density high Criss crossing Presence of gas Pressure Normal pressure the pressure is affected by the liquid in the formation but there is an outlet to the surface Even if rocks overwhelm it if it has an outcrop it is still normal pressure However if there are impermeable rocks around a lenticular trap and it has no outcrop it will be under abnormal pressure Abnormal pressure if outlet is at a higher elevation than where you are drilling you ll be drilling into abnormal pressure outcrops into mountain greater hydrostatic head Hydrostatics head 9 depth X density X 052 not on test one For Test Well Logging Homework Know hydrocarbons are found in sedimentary rock Most common reservoir rock in Gulf of Mexico Sandstone Most common rock in Gulf of Mexico Shale Wetting Water 0 Smaller sand grains have more wetting water than large sand grains 0 More surface area API Gravity 42 Barrels per gallon Geology and Exploration sections in textbook 9272011 73200 PM Test 1 Review France banned fracking Hydrocarbons are found in sedimentary rock SP log is used for The primary log to track lithology is the gamma ray most common reservoir rock in LA and GoM Sandstone mWFWNE Geologists classify faults by movement Movement is vertical in what kind of fault Normal and Reverse 7 Ratio of volume of empty space to volume of rock Porosity 8 Change of permeability in a rock layer causes what kind of trap Lenticular 9 Under most circumstances where would you expect to find oil Anticline Oil flows to the highest point 10 Gap in geologic time unconformity new sediment is put on top of older sediment 11 API gravity of water 10 2 Ability of a liquid to flow permeability HH W Most abundant sedimentary rock in LA and GoM Shale 4 Oil does not displace all water Water that sticks to or is absorbed by the rock grains wetting water H U39l Smaller grains vs Larger grains Which one has more wetting water Smaller More surface area 16 Abnormal Reservoir pressure results from Surrounded by impermeable rocks or the artesian affect outcrops at a higher elevation 17 API Gravity Calculation 18 Water Saturation Calculation 19 Porosity Calculation 20 Neutron curve high density curve low what type of formation Shale 21 Neutron and Density are similar what type of formation Oil andor water 22 API value of heavy oil 10 20 23 Oil production is among the most heavily subsidized businesses Taxed at a rate of 9 significantly lower than the 25 for other businesses 24 BP Blowout Well Macondo 25 Shale Drilling in Pennsylvania 26 42 gallonsbarrel 27 June 2009 end of the recession that began in December 2007 Longest recession since WW2 28 True or false Unconventional hydrocarbons increase from 42 to 64 True 29 Caliper Tool engaged in a sandstone as opposed to a shale well logging