PARTICLE MECHANICS PHYS 2110
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elva Fahey on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 2110 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/223007/phys-2110-louisiana-state-university in Physics 2 at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
1142014 61600 AM What is a fishery o a place where fish are reared for commercial purposes o a fishing ground or area where fish are caught o the occupation or industry of catching or rearing fish Dominant commercial fisheries group finfish crustaceans mollusks and kelp o Dominant commercial fishery groups 0 Finfish is the largest crustaceans mollusks kelp o Main use protein and oil o Finfish made up 1235 MMT million metric tons o 365 MMT made of crustaceans mollusks and kelp Why do we harvest fish o For protein and oil Industrial fisheries c We harvest and process fish for industry for their oil and protein o A fishery for nonfood purposese refers to high level of technology investment and impact it brings to a fishery 0 Define stock o Fisheries stock assessments are stringent scientific tools used to judge the health of fish populations o give managers fishermen and the public a sense of the effectiveness of management strategies that sustain fish populations ecosystems and the socioeconomic viability of commercial and recreational fisheries Yet because counting fish is an inexact science they tend to produce results that include a varying degree of uncertainty o Assessments estimate a fish population s size how many exist biomass the sum of their weight productivity how quickly and often they reproduce and age structure how many old ones compared to young ones many commercially and recreationally exploited fish and invertebrate stocks declined during 19 amp 20th centuries due to environmental fluctuations and overexploitation 9 29 overfished many nonexploited aquatic species declined in abundance from habitat loss and degradation Stock assessments are used to determine whether a fishery has overfishing occurring or of the fishery is overfished The terms overfished and overfishing are obviously related but they have very different meanings in terms of fishery management A fishery can be overfished even if overfishing is not occurring because of overfishing activity in past years It can be experiencing overfishing without being in an overfished condition because the population is large enough to handle a small amount of temporary overfishing but continued overfishing will lead to an overfished condition It also can be both or it can be neither Overfishing o is the act of catching more fish in a given time period usually one year than the population can naturally replace through reproduction Overfished o Overfished refers to a state of being an overfished fishery means the fish population is below sustainable levels due to fishing activity assessments help predict how a population will change in the future Therefore assessments provide fishery managers an evaluation of the potential outcomes of different management options o Limiting overall harvest setting area restrictions o Requiring minimum or maximum size limits o Establishing daily catch limits o Imposing gear restrictions o Employing individual fishing quotas also known as catch shares which provide a fisherman or group of fishermen a set percentage of the catch Reason we use stock o If we had a population of fish from Maine to Mexico and we wanted to manage the growth amp mortality rates Maine does not have the same info as Mexico W h ile it is one population mere are 2 stocks which is different managementwise Why do stocks fluctuate What What o Overpopulation o Density dependent 0 Resource availability with increased population food and habitat becomes limiting o Competitione more speciesmore competition 0 Predation increases with increased population o Density independent 0 Temperature eggs are sensitive to water temperature limits the geographical range of fish 0 Climate effects major impact on larvae because climate controls temperaturee can have short term or long term effects is the law and tragedy of the commons o Theory by Garret Hardin according to which people act independently and rationally according to each one s selfinterest and behave contrary to the whole groups long term best interested by depleting someone common resource o Historic trends in many fish stocks illustrate this law o Exploitation without ownershipe resource decline o Important part of fisheries conservation has been the ownership of resources by the government are ways in which fisheries managers can manipulated harvest Controlling fishing effort through limits on harvest gear crew size area season etc 0 Change quotas the creel limits possession limits how many fish u can have Explain the characteristics of water Ie density pressure Water has a high density Warmer water has less D09 leads to physical exertion Movement difficult stress9 high density makes it hard for fish to move around Pressuredepthphysiological problems PressureDOstress in piokilotherms regulate temperature based on outside temperature temp of inside is same of the outside Turbidity a problem for plants and fishes 9 low PP primary production limited feeding larval mortality 0 Explain the characteristics of fish and physical properties of water ie temperature DO sediments gills growth ontogeny Life history stages of fish High fecundity they die quickly just a few make it to reproductive Sun fish highest fecundity More into resources than offspring Follow type 3 Complex trophic ontogenye not going to eat the same as u did as a baby What is a ESU Evolutionary significant Units 0 Salmon Species under the endangered species Act Designation of critical habitat a population of organisms that is considered distinct for purposes of conservation Defining ESUs is important when considering conservation action 0 We want to preserve ESU based on their genetic material 0 O O 0 Differences between commercial finfish and invertebrate fishery o High economic valve of invertebrate fisheries o Get more money for a crab than for a fish o Invertebrates 0 Important in all aquatic systems Critical trophic resources Complex life histories Important as bioindicators EPT s Why are aquatic plants a fishery o Trophic web base c We can use them for food o Commercial fishery What is a stakeholder and a management system Stakeholder groups diverse anyone with an interest in a fishery includes existence value c stakeholder all those with an interest in the science and management of fisheries and the marine environment o management system framework of processes and procedures used to ensure that an organization can fulfill all tasks required to achieve its objectives 0 need resource that s your trying to conserve for 9 stake holders interested 0 go look at chart Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible Natural Resource Management System resources profitseeking industries management bureaucracies diverse publicscan you explain these different sections o management of natural resources such as land water soil plants and animals with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations stewardship Explain the state management system what does the state manage o Recreational fisheries mostly managed by state agencies o Have jurisdiction over state waters o State territorial sea out to 3 miles until federal waters take over What does NOAAnational oceanic and atmospheric administration fisheries manage o Management of straddling stocks fish stocks that migrate through or occur in more than one exclusive economic zone o Help manage with the state but they are federal so they take over once u get to federal waters Louisiana Fisheries and Wildlife Commission political component of fisheries management o 7 members appointed by governor o 3 members fur and commercial fishing o 4 members other 9 stacked against commercial fishing sportfish issues with red drum in Louisiana what are the issues9 red drum was dlisted as a commercial fishery because of over fishing now that its back we could open a commercial fishery for it now What are the Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Act 1950 and WallopBreaux Act 1984 o provides Federal aid to the States for management and restoration of fish having quotmaterial value in connection with sport or recreation in the marine andor fresh waters of the United Statesquot In addition amendments to the Act provide funds to the states for aquatic education wetlands restoration boat safety and clean vessel sanitation devices pumpouts and a nontrailerable boat program o Federal aidestablishes all the funds on reels and boats o Breauxtax on the fuels o Work in conjunction to pay into the aquatic resource fund money for fisheries management from 10 tax on sportfishing gear 185 motorboat fuels tax Aquatic Resources Trust Fund 570 million split between Boating Safety and Sport Fish Restoration accounts funds redistributed to states on 75 federal25 state cost share basis based on license sales and size of the state 5 maximum per state coastal states must split equitably between fresh and salt water 125 on access mandatory up to 15 on education 18 to three wetlands programs Where does the data for managing systems come from o Biota o Going out and catching the fish biota relative abundance and species composition of the fish assemblage growth annuli on hard parts such as otoliths spines and scales mortality based on abundance of year classes recruitment addition of individuals to the fishable portion of the stock food habits fecundity parasites etc habitat water quality structural abundance and complexity depth flow substrate riparian characteristics stakeholders attitudes expenditures harvest levels understanding of regulations Define fisheries management and explain management activities o Manipulation of biota habitats and user groups to achieve specified goals and objectives o Activities 0 Population control or eradication common carp Turbidity and loss of macrophytes 0 Prevention of invasive speciesfish Laws and guidelines Rotenone Commercial netting Barriers Prevention for invasive speciesplants Water quality problemse messes up DO Probs with fish stunting slow growth of overabundant juveniles in plant beds Control options advantagesdisadvantages Mechanical removal Chemical treatment Biological control TampE species programs what is this Habitat manipulation Artificial propagation Predatorcompetitor control Habitat restorationenhancementstreams lakes marine areas Water quality improvement Riparian zone restoration Liming acidified lakes Lake destratification DO improvement Riparian wetland developmentmore nutrients 0 Access facilities improvement 0 O O O 0 What are the different types of stocking activtites Introduced and invasive species o Sports fish o Mantainence stocking 0 Because they are hybrids and they can t reproduce on their own o Supplemental stocking o Forage Population control ballast exchange types see reading o Ballast echange water in the boat keeps boat afloate water that helps it sit in the water 0 Through that it entered an invasive species so now they have to empty it into the same ocean they got it from Habitation restoration structures ie tree amp Rigs to Reefs increase productivity o Ways that managers can manage to increase fisheries o Can put different strucuture in water to change velocity for fish prefereance o Rigs to reefsfor lakes just put things there because it increase productivity and attracts more fish in salt water verses fresh water and concentrate fish diversity in depth flow rate and substrates Water quality improvements temperature DO pH gas supersaturation wetlands o riparian zone restoration 0 doing the banks 0 limingdecreases acidificiation by putting in lime or calcium carbonate 0 gassupersaturation we take water and plunge it and it gets a bunch of gas and put it at water level at the bottom of dam where fish are 0 lakedestratfificationby using bubbles creates circulate and increase primary productivity Invasive plant control types of control problems associated with invasive plant o water quality problemsDO biologicalputting in beetles etc types Access ramps facilities etc things we do with management fund helps us manage because if we don t have acces can make things pretty or take things away depending on where we want u to fish Fisheries Regulation define and explain Limiting stakeholders closed areas for protection of anglers consumption advisories Limiting fishing seasons o Tend to close seasons when breeding is going on What is a creel limit o How many u have on you plus how many at home or on cooler or truck etc o 24 hr period 0 What is a possession limit o Have much u have on you right then on your person What is catch and release o A way to manage for recreation not commercial o Only works if hooking mortality is low when does it work When does it not work Gear res minimum maximum and slot size limits o Certain type of hook Commercial fisheries management Concerned with stock production and harvest Laws and what do they establish 0 Whats the EEZ What type of authorization must be granted to foreign fleets to fish there what s the foreign observer program ECT o Exclusive ecconmic zone o 200 miles from your shore o what is the US owns where they get mineral rights fishing rights own everything in that area Stock assessments o Abundance ofjuveniles recruits adults o What is MSY and CY 0 Maximum sustainable yield Maximum u can catch that will sustain your population for later 0 OYoptimal yield Optimal amount u can catch that s based off MSY and economics of country environmental conditions politics o How are they different How are they determined o Sources of mortality o Use of SSB o How is overfishing determined Remember RstockD and F and how changes in these effect populations and determine overfishing Management regulations o Quotas 9 QUOTAS can be trnsferable o Gear specifications Effort Aquaculture What is it o Farming of a fishery stock o Why do we need it 0 Need it because our demand for fish is higher than what we can get out of the ocean Terrestrial ecosystems 1142014 61600 AM What is a biome Why do they differ large community characterized by its climate and unique assemblage of plants and animals obviously not completely separated from other biomes ecotones but remember the strength of interactions within versus without 4 major types of terrestrial biomes desert grassland tundra forest climate causes them to differ and what can grow there geographical area that is very large in size Each of these geographical areas has certain groups of animals and plants that are present within it They are able to thrive there due to their ability to adapt in that particular type of environment The changes in a region such as the climate and the geographic layout affect which biomes are found where in the world The classifications are plentiful to help break them down What is desertification and who is at risk class amp reading persistent degradation of dryland ecosystems due to human activities and variations in climate 0 taking land that wasn t desert and making it desert because of climate change and human activities everyone at risk Proximate chief drivers of desertification include overdrafting of groundwater overgrazing and tillage practices in agriculture that place soils more vulnerable to wind and surface runoff scouring In drylands water scarcity limits the production of crops forage wood and other services ecosystems provide to humans Drylands are therefore highly vulnerable to increases in human pressures and climatic variability especially subSaharan and Central Asian drylands conversion of desert fringes 0 complex process but removal of vegetation and wind erosion is critical as are changes in global temperatures and rainfall patterns Desert Why do deserts receive little rain o Often in the rain shadow What are the characteristic vegetation and fauna o dominated by sparse droughtresistant shrubs creosote bush cactus mesquite shortlived annuals that can bloom quickly aNer rainfall or barren 0 what are the conservations issues o arming of semiarid areas salinization of irrigated desert lands overgrazing of desert shrub communities Chaparral o western coasts of US Africa South America Australia also Mediterranean What makes these unique in terms of climate o area between hot dry high pressure and cool wet low pressure o hot dry rain during the mild winters o hot dry summers winters cool and wet o animals are more like deserts o very fire resistant Vegetation needs fire and likes some disturbances vegetation similar to deserts and biota o dominated by short vegetation with thick leaves extensive horizontal and vertical roots fire resistant dwarf evergreen forest o wildlife can resemble desert biota Conservation issues o Development o climate change decreased rainfall increased fire o desertification o loss of endemic biodiversity 0 o Development and fire suppression climate change o Taking away the firesumach and lorals can t grow Grasslands o Often in central portions of the continents o Temp 817C rainfall 2575 cm Tall vs shortgrass prairies o high rainfalltallgrass o less raindryshort grass Why considered a disturbance climate community o It likes fire so it does well with disturbances like fire Fire and drought o Fire lack of water leads to elimination most tress o Arid grasslands not suitable for agriculture What is the trophic structure based on Biodiversity high in herbivores o Trophic Structure refers to the way in which organisms utilize food resources and hence where energy transfer occurs within an ecosystem o Based off of herbivores for grassland trophic structures Conservation issues o Unsustainable farming and invasive plants which plants 0 know names of pi o unsustainable grazing Forage and forage characteristics 0 Animal unit month AUMs o in a grazing area it is calculated by multiplying the number of animal units by the number of months of grazing which provides a useful indicator of the amount of forage consumed c on public lands authorized use of forage for grazing is expressed in animal unit months how much an animal can consume in a monththe acres Fallow periods and rotational grazing what are the benefits forage recovery forage production improved rainfall infiltration improvede reduces runoff runoff and erosion reduced wildlife habitat maintained 0 higher nutrition grazing concentrated on new foliage improved health and growth of livestock more uniform range use water and salt provided no riparian degradation Decreasers increasers invaders Decreaseslittle blue stem highly editble good foliage for livestock 0 Once they start eating it it obviously decreases Increasers come in and increase in biomass can be eaten by cows etc but not as edible 0 Increase as decreasers decrease Invaders come in when things start to go from food to faire will grow faster than increasers and decreaserse things like mesquite and cactusthings horses and cattle don t like to eat Excellentbarely grazed Loss of biodiversity and secondary chemicals grassland conservation issues overgrazingloss of biodiversity competitionstart to have competition with invasives that are coming in secondary chemicalse some create saltspoisons Rangeland health soil and site stability hydrologic function biotic integrity decreasers increasers how healthy your rangeland is Bureau of Land Management c an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers American public lands totaling approximately 2473 million acres or oneeighth of the landmass of the country c public lands doing better because they are following best management practices Best Management Practices o Fallow periods etc Tundra o Temp 5716C o Rainfall 1050 cm is there snow o Cold windy 5 of precipitationyear Lichens sedges mosses grasses low shrubs are these common in tundrasshort growing seasons so can t grow really tall based off climate o Decomposition slow 0 Because its cold o Permafrost o a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout the year occurring chiefly in polar regions o Summer marshes define 0 Part of permafrost can thaw and it rains a little bitand turn into wetlands and support a bunch of birds o Shallow soil slow plant growth o Most fragile ecosystem in the world whybecause its where the majority of the heating is going onpermafrost is going away9climate change o Highly susceptible to human disturbance takes a long time for anything to change there o Substantial engineering problems like Forest More rain less fire Tropical rainforestshottest and the wettest o Higher rainfall Fire is less common Temp 18 335C Rainfall 1251250 cm Near equator warm year round heavy rainfall Dominated by broadleaf evergreen trees Soil nutrients low Greatest biodiversity on planet What type of trees soil seasons why do we care Rainforest Conservation issues o Unsustainable logging cut out the forest cnat grow trees as fast o Unsustainable farming because of low soil nutrients and high iron in soil o cattle ranching slash and burn o mineral and oil extraction lead to small village development near drilling site forest loss for resources explain o fragmentatione impacts on biodiversity explain 0 taking a continuous piece of land and cutting little parts out of it so problems with biodiversity because animals and plants don t like itedge effect things don t like to be along the edge deciduous forest o temp 3038C o rainfall 60225cm o moderate temperatures has 4 seasons o abundant rainfall 75150 cmyear o dominated by a few winter dormant trees o nutrientrich soils explain eaf fal change their leaves during winterhealthy soil Deciduous forest Conservation issues Oldgrowth forest 01 no old forest left Forest conversion Sustainable forestry we are going into more sustabibale society explainnnn Boreal Northern Coniferous or Taiga forest temp 5421C rainfall 20200 cm snow located below the tundra long cold winters growing season short but water and nutrients are abundant needleleaf trees water loss 9 explain how it is water lossthe needles themselves don t do well with conserving watere wax on them the design of that leaf acidic soils Coniferous Conservation issues oil exploration global warming 0 liberation of C02 and CH4 as decomposition increases with temperature logging slow growth What type of renewable products do terrestrial ecosystems provide Food Fuel building materials Forage for domesticated livestock 0 Fiber meat milk leather Medicines Genetic warehouse Habitat for native biodiversity recreation What are their ecosystem services Photosynthesis oxygen carbon sequestration Hydrologic processingwater quality and quantity local climate aquifer recharge Soil enhancementorganic material physical structure Biogeochemical cyclessources sinks processes nitrification Biodiversityhabitats and resources Detrital processingnutrient cycling 1142014 61600 AM can u explain the stuff regarding recreational fisheries for anglers and for fish stocks stuff Fisheries CampM options o catch and management options o since gills are open can lead to the benzene PCB s dioxin metals to move through them more anglerscatch with a reel and rod NGO snon governmental organizations Be able to recognize the different types of stakeholders General public existence value people who are that salmon or something that around Sportfish fun cost sharing fund 75 percent from federal funds 25 percent from state Habitatriparian characteristicswhether or not if there are ripples etc pools Rotenonechemical that kills fish Aquatic nuessanceballast exchange TampE threatened and endangered species programs o Arittifical propagationmove them places that they wouldn t naturally go in order for them to survive better Predatorcompetitor control o Can control them in a threatened and endangered species Lake destratification thermoclinee upper part warm lower part colder Terrestrial Endemic biodiversitynative biodiversity Halogetoncreates salt and a toxin Leefyspurenot as edible decrease caring capacity Cheatgrassnot edible make lilopathic compoundinvader Decreasersbig bluestem wild rye bufflograss Incerasersthistle wheatgrass Invadorscactus and mesquite Rangeland healthif healthy hydrologic function better because less runoff Biotic intengrityless invadors more decreasers
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