INT TO ENV SCIENCES
INT TO ENV SCIENCES ENVS 1126
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tremaine Prohaska on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 1126 at Louisiana State University taught by E. Laws in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/223064/envs-1126-louisiana-state-university in Environmental Science at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 17 Environmental h The dose makes th ENVS 1126 Study Guide for Final Exam May 8 1230 to 230 azards and human health e poison translation of a statement made in German by the 16th century physician Paracelsus Exposure to toxic substances lifestyle issues Tobacco 2 then heart diseas 0 of deaths in US most were lung cancer then respiratory disease and e Cigarette smoke contains several hundred toxins Ammonia deliberately added to convert bound nicotine to free nicotine Arsenic Benzene Benzoapyrene Carbon Monoxide binds to hemoglobin myoglobin cytochrome oxidase Nicotine responsible for addictive effects DNA damage oxidative stress Alcohol Oldest drug traceable to 1500 BC Greater than 08 blood alcohol legally drunk Tendency to vomit after drinking too much is defense mechanism allowing the body to rid itself of the alcohol not already absorbed into the bloodstream Abuse of pr Cocaine an escription painkillers analgesics most drugrelated deaths associated with prescription painkillers that are opioids Oxycodone OxyContin Hydrocodone Vicodin Propoxyphene Darvon Hydromorphone Dilaudid Feelings of euphoria which leads to addiction d heroin Cocaine Very addictive Causes dopamine to accumulate at nerve synapses in the brain Feeling of euphoria mental alertness talkative and energetic Medical Effects cardiovascular effect neurological effe cts gastrointestinal complications Heroin Obesity Body mass Most rapidly acting of natural opiates chemically similar to morphine Once inside the brain it s converted to morphine and binds to opioid receptors Sharing needles infect and spread hepatitis B and C and HIV 36 of AIDS cases and 7080 of new hepatitis C infections that occur in US each year are attributable to injection drug use index BMI 703 weight overdivided by height squared Weight is in pounds Height is in inches The Body Mass Index Underweight lt 185 Normal 185250 Overweight 250300 Obese 300400 Extremely obese gt 400 Obesity Substantially Increases the Risk of all of These 1 Morbidity from hypertension 2 Dyslipidemia abnormal amounts of lipids such as cholesterol and fat in the blood 3 Type II diabetes adultonset diabetes 4 Coronary heart disease 5 Stroke 6 Gallbladder disease 7 Osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease 8 Sleep apnea abnormal pauses or abnormally lowbreathing during sleep 9 Respiratory problems 10 Endometrial lining of the uterus breast prostate and colon cancers 11 Social stigmatization and discrimination Global issues The 10 leading global risk factors responsible for onethird of all deaths and much of the global burden of disease DALY disability adjusted life years 1 Underweight 2 Unsafe sex 3 Blood Pressure 4 Tobacco 5 Alcohol 6 Unsafe water sanitation and hygiene 7 Cholesterol 8 Indoor smoke from solid fuels 9 Iron deficiency 1 0 Overweight Infectious diseases Access to safe drinking water Diarrhea Malaria dengue fever tuberculosis schistosomiasis HIVAIDS Chapter 18 Global climate change Ultraviolet UV Visible and infrared radiation IR Greenhouse effect Major contributions of gases to greenhouse effect 0 H2 0 3 670 0 C02 926 0 CH4 49 0 O3 37 Atmosphere traps some but not all of IR emitted by Earth Major greenhouse is water vapor C02 is second but is more important at high latitudes why Atmospheric C02 has increased from 280 to 390 ppm since start of Industrial Revolution Primarily as a result of fossil fuel burning Half of anthropogenic C02 in atmosphere 25 in ocean 25 taken up by terrestrial plants Quaternary ice age last roughly 26 million years Cycle of glacials and interglacials 100000 years Milankovic theory Precession axial tilt eccentricity Need cold summers to initiate glacial We are currently in Holocene interglacial Burning all fossil fuels will increase C02 to about 1900 ppm by year 2250 Recovery will take roughly 10000 years Most C02 will be taken up by ocean Acidi cation of ocean surface waters Temperatures will rise the most at high latitudes why Temperature rise will be greatest at high latitudes in Arctic The Arctic Ocean will probably be icefree during the summer by 2050 Melting all the ice on Greenland will probably take 5001 000 years Muir Glacier in Alaska has been shrinking signi cantly since 1941 Melting of ice on Arctic Ocean just a few meters thick Sea level rise Melting ice on Greenland will raise sea level by 7 meters Timeframe 500 1000 years Chapter 19 Atmospheric pollution Troposphere 10 15 km and stratosphere Stratospheric ozone good Tropospheric ozone bad Pollutants of concern PM 25 and 10 VOCs N0x 502 03 Pb Temperature inversions why do they happen Most polluted air China Over 1 million people die every year to outdoor pollution Cause of death are tiny particles that enter lungs and bloodstream leading to enhanced pulmonary and coronary problems Gasoline engines N0 and VOCs N0 destroys 03 03 is not directly produced by fossil fuel burning It is produced by series of reactions involving VOCs N0 and N02 Catalytic converters remove VOCs and N0x from exhaust Phase out of leaded gasoline catalytic converters do not work if gas leaded Human exposure to lead How to reduce emissions of N0x and 502 from power plants N0x lower combustion temperature Fluidized bed combustion S02 stack gas scrubbing Acid rain Both S02 and NOX responsible for acid rain nitric and sulfuric acid Problem more severe in eastern US because ofhighsulfur coal in eastern US PH of rainfall has been increasing as result of steps to reduce emissions of NOX and S02 Stratospheric ozone Absorbs UVB radiation very deadly 99 of UV radiation that reaches the Earth s surface is UVA Chloro uorocarbons are gases at room temperature They liquefy under modest pressure and give off heat When they vaporize they absorb heat and become hot CFCs chloro uorocarbons remove 03 from stratosphere CFC39s used in Heattransfer uids in re frige rators airconditione rs he at pumps Production of plastic foams Cleaning computer parts Pressuring agent in aerosol cans Chlorine free radicalis responsible for 03 removal Lifetime 40 100 years in stratosphere Working uids in refrigerators other applications 0 3 hold over Antarctica Phased out as result of Montreal Protocol Chapter 20 Water pollution and its prevention Eutrophication excessive nutrients Hypoxic zone in Gulf of Mexico Lake Erie Bottom waters in central basin anoxic in late summer year after year Solution remove most P from wastewater treatment plant ef uents But problems from nonpoint source runoff land runoff persist Toxic substances Mercury Methyl mercury is most toxic form Solution discontinue most mercury use nd substitutes PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls Electrical capacitors and transformers Solution use phased out during 1970s DDT and related pesticides Effects on reproduction of birds Solution use phased out in 1970s Pathogens in recreational and drinking waters Separate and combined sewer systems Solution chlorination Drinking water need to maintain residual of killing power in distribution system Special cases Polio vaccination Salk and Sabine Testing ofwater Indicator organisms very unsatisfactory state of affairs Many pathogens Some very resistant to chlorination Lake Washington Excessive eutrophication Water very murky in summer Solution divert wastewater to Puget Sound Kaneohe Bay Eutrophication again Adverse effects on coral reefs Solution divert wastewater to Paci c Ocean Minamata Ba Mercury discharges from factory Mercury converted to methyl mercury Permanent neurological damage More than 2000 victims many died Bleaching of pulp with chlorine Solution use unbleached pulp or switch to oxygenbased bleaching Three general categories of solutions Discontinue use DDT PCBs mercury chlorinebleaching of pulp B Remove from effluent phosphate in wastewater discharged to Lake Erie pathogens in wastewater C Discharge somewhere else Lake Washington Kaneohe Bay Chapter 2 1 22 Municipal solid waste and hazardous chemicals Agriculture Street Land ll New Orleans Municipal land ll 1910 1958 Covered over and developed for housing and elementary school 1976 National Priorities List Superfund 1994 Cleanup 1998 2001 Lawsuit residents prevail 2004 Today residential properties and community center still on NPL list Categories of hazardous waste Ignitable corrosive reactive toxic Constraints on disposal to air and water Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act NPDES Land disposal Deepwell injection Impoundments liquid Land lls solids Problems with land lls Lack of regulation historically eg Love Canal Valley of the Drums Leaky land lls and impoundments can easily contaminate uncon ned aquifers RCRA 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Regulates municipal solid waste and hazardous waste cradle to grave Must have a permit to operate a land ll SDWA 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act Underground injection control component to safeguard aquifers Clean Water Act 1972 Concerns navigable waters now very broadly interpreted Effectively controls contamination of any surface waters NPDES must have a permit to discharge CERCLA concerns abandoned hazardous waste sites NFL and Superfund Rocky Mountain Arsenal US Army chemical warfare and Shell pesticides Liquid waste discharged into unlined ponds Groundwater contamination Solution Pump and treat National Wildlife Refuge Other solutions Burn but PCBs require temperature of 1200 0C Bioremediation if biodegradable Phytoremediation Reclamation of stripmined land Brownfields sites that need to be renovated cleaned up but do not qualify for NFL Toxic Release Inventory Usemanufacture of toxic substances on list has declined by roughly factor of 2 since 1988 Modi cations to production process to reduceeliminate generate of hazardous waste Can save money in some cases Recycling Can dramatically reduce waste generation and energy costs ENVS 1126 Review Chapter 1 Science and the Environment Elements of the scientific method Fate of anthropogenic CO2 Ocean acidification Deforestation of Easter Island Reasons that human societies behave in apparently irresponsible ways Changes in the rate of growth of the human population Global warming temperature changes and sea level rise Biodiversity why we should care Sustainable development what is it Alternatives to fossil fuels Stewardship Ofthe CO2 that has been emitted to the atmosphere as a result of fossil fuel burning and deforestation in the last 250 years about has been taken up by the ocean A 10 B 25 C 50 D 75 Globally the fastestgrowing source of electricity is A Geothermalenergy B Wind energy C Sunlight photovoltaics D Hydroelectric dams Chapter 2 Economics Politics and Public Policy Environmental issues in China Economic models Kinds of capital GDP versus Genuine Progress Indicator Intergenerational equity Need for environmental public policy Market versus regulatory subsidized access to public lands cap and trade pay as you throw Public policy cycle Montreal Protocol Kyoto Protocol Cost benefit analysis The countries that signed the Montreal Protocol agreed to scale back Production of chlorofluorocarbons CFCs Emissions of CO2 Emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides that cause acid rain Use of synthetic pesticides such as DDT Powgt Approximately states have bottle laws to encourage and facilitate recycling of bottles Chapter 3 Basic needs of living things Ecology Species9populations9biota ecosystems ecotones9landscapes9biomes Limiting factors abiotic and biotic Mangroves along Gulf Coast Niche and habitat Laws of thermodynamics Kinds of energy Essential elements six required in greatest amounts Cycling of carbon biomass excretion respiration Grazing and detritus food chains Cycles of nitrogen and phosphorus nitrogen fixation and denitrification legumes A biome is a large area of the earth s surface with similar and A Plants animals B Plants climate C Animals climate D Temperature rainfall The six most abundant elements in organic matter are nitrogen I and Chapter 4 Populations and communities Exponential and logistic growth R selected and K selected Biotic potential and recruitment Environmental resistance Density dependent and density independent limiting factors Bottom up and top down control Critical number Carrying capacity Kinds of interactions competition etc Keystone species Intraspecific and interspecific competition character displacement and resource partitioning Response to change adaptation migration extinction Natural selection Effects of continental drift on climate Invasive species and pest management Five species of warblers coexist in the spruce forests of Maine by feeding at different levels in the trees and on different parts of the trees This is an example of A Intraspecificcompetition B Mutualism C Overgrazing D Resource partitioning E Character displacement Cattle egrets ride on the backs of water buffalo and feed on insects stirred up by the grazing water buffalos The relationship between the cattle egrets and water buffalos is an example of which two of the following A Commensalism B Amensalism C Mutualism D Symbiosis E Resource partitioning Chapter 5 Energy Patterns and Disturbance Food chains trophic levels autotrophs heterotrophs primary and secondary production Ecological efficiency ecological pyramids Food chain magnification Primary and secondary succession Ecological role of fire resilience Eutrophication natural and cultural Valuation of ecosystem services 40 trillion Heterotrophs include which ones of the following kinds of organisms A Decomposers B Carnivores C Omnivores D Herbivores E Detritivores F Scavengers Which one of the following kinds of plants is most sensitive to damage from fire A Redwood trees B Grasses C Broadleaved trees D Pine trees Chapter 6 Wild species and Biodiversity Number of species Rate of species extinctions Some success stories Value of biodiversity HIPPO deforestation Important legislation Lacey Act Endangered Species Act Marine Mammal Protection Act CITES Convention on Biological Diversity Illegal killing of rhinoceros species has been motivated by the fact that A Their horns are valued as a traditional medicine B Their tough hides make exceptionally good leather products C Their meat is considered a delicacy in certain Asian countries D They are perceived as a serious threat to crops grown by subsidence farmers The flower pictured on the right has been a source of a chemical compound used to treat A Childhood leukemia B HIV C Malaria D Dengue fever E Infectious hepatitis Chapter 7 The value use and restoration of ecosystems Maximum sustainable yield Precautionary Principle Tragedy of the Commons Open Access Cause of most deforestation Sustainable forestry management Status of marine fisheries Law of the Sea Magnuson Act Status of whale populations Overcapitalization technology Peruvian anchovy cod fisheries off east coast of Canada and US Politics economics social science Ecosystem based management catch shares Climate change ocean acidification Coral reefs The tragedy of the commons is a consequence of which one of the following kinds of tenure over the land and water where resources are found A Communalownership B Open access C Private ownership D State ownership With the exception of some harvesting by a few indigenous peoples Japan Iceland and Norway are the only nations currently involved in whaling The species of whale primarily targeted by these three nations is the whale A Minke B Blue C Fin D Humpback E Sperm
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