INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY
INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY PHIL 1000
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gianni Kunde on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1000 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Schulz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/223066/phil-1000-louisiana-state-university in PHIL-Philosophy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
PHIL 1000 TEST 1 Axial Age 2500 years ago Rise oftrue philosophers In the west and east PRE SOCRATIC Socrates first and greatest of western philosophers He begins by assuming he knows nothing and brings no presumption which is why a Delphic oracle says that he is the wisest He seeks the truth Socrates believes that good is knowledge and truth and evil is ignorance An unexamined life is not worth living Apology Socrates explains his life to the Athenian court because he was accused of atheism and corrupting the minds of the youth FREE WILL VS DETERMINISM Make decisions based on your own willpower Predetermined actions that cannot be changed Kant different understanding of ethics than Socrates Utilitarianism conceived by two British philosophers who have ethics that are very different from Socrates and Kant s ethics Socrates Argument for his Life He taught the city for free for decades so they should give him free meals for life but fine him 5 The jury didn t appreciate this so they convicted him to death Sophists played on the emotions Socrates had a duty to the truth even in the face of his own death You can kill the body but not the soul The soul and body are two different things The Ghost soulspirit is the real you not the body In death he will either go to sleep forever or he will go on to the afterlife so he will win either way Branches of Philosophy 1 Logic 2 Aesthetics beauty and art 3 Epistemology study of knowledge Three schools of Epistemology a Dogmatists believe truth exists but all that can be known is known There is no need for inquiry or philosophy Philosophers Agree that the truth exists and that we can know it They don t think that we know all there is to know and we might never They always question whether we really know truths or not The pursuit of the truth is what counts not the reaching of the goal c Skeptics Believe that there is no such thing as the truth or if there is truth it s so shaped to beliefs that there is no validity to it 4 Metaphysics beyond that which physicsscience is capable of explaining theology or questions of being Ludwig Wittgenstein s student GEM Anscombe a PlatonistsCartesians9believe that the only real existing thing is the mind Everything else is imperfect manifestations Reality doesn t exist 57 b Aristotelians There might be perfection and there are things that science and math can prove There are also things they can t prove but human experience will tell you exists c Positivists Materialists Deny metaphysics If it can t be seen touched or processed then it cannot exist It is merely creations ofthe weak 5 Ethics the study of good and evil a Virtue Ar te9 Socrates Machiavelli entirely concerned with the character of the person making the decision The entire life ofthe character judged as a whole is what counts b Deontology Duty9 extremely mechanistic When faced with a moral choice act only in such a way that you would wish every other person confronted by this decision would Kant s Imperative c Utilitarianism Jeremy Beutham James Mill and son John Stuart Mill Whatever benefits the most people is the decision that you should make Maximize pleasure and minimize pain make 51 ofthe people happy d Relativism claim that all moral decisions are situational and there are no guidelines that hold in all situations Entirely situational All truths are equal e Nihilism ethics are essentially irrelevant no such thing as good and evil and to think about it is pointless Belief in nothing Gets lumped with relativism because both reject all other forms of ethics no objective standards of evaluation For this course we are not interested in logic or aesthetics but we are interested in epistemology metaphysics and ethics Problems for Kantians Anne Frank Problem should you lie to protect the lives of others and animals cannot commit suicide or lie Flaws for Utilitarianism If it costs society more to keep handicapped people the kill them to make the rest happy How does it all Relate Ethics rules responsibility duties to society depends on metaphysics proof of reality which depends on philosophical anthropology who we are and where we came from Aesthetics are seeing wonder and beauty of all these things and epistemology logic puts it all together 0 Aristotle wonders quotDo we exist then wonders if our existence is merely random and chaotic or if there is some design or purpose Referred to the philosopher of common sense because he bases his decisions on actual human experience empirical data 0 For Plato forms ideas are the only perfect things in existence They can never be wrong Everything else out there is an imperfect copy Perfection is out there somewhere Platonic Heaven Platonic heaven is a fictional creation in the human mind to help us process things answer one Forms or platonic heaven exists in the mind of god answer two Forms exist beyond time and space and can never be accessed with the human mind answer three No such thing as forms answer four 0 Aristotle says to forget platonic heaven forms and wants to ground it in the real world with substance and essence Substance is what something is composed of Essence is what it is Essence exists in substance but also goes beyond substance Scientists are concerned with substance while philosophers are concerned with essence Realism and Nominalism o Da sein9 being in the world with others o Nominalists can t talk about universals and abstracts only concrete things They can talk about things with proper names or specific things Realists look to your own experience and common sense believe in universals o Nouns are easier for nominalists to work with while adjectives are harder Telos the end purpose 0 Aristotle believes that everything has a telos or purpose If everything has a reason to exist what is a human s telos Aristotle says we were built for excellence or to exercise virtue If we are purpose built what are we 0 Both Plato and Aristotle say the soul and the body exist Plato believes the soul is separate from the body ghost in the machine The soul is the real you At death the soul and the body separate and the soul moves on to hades There is a limited existence ofthe soul like a shade or a ghost Aristotle believes they are joined and they are of equal importance Body is the expression of the soul When the body dies so does the soul Aristotle disagrees with Plato about the afterlife He believes that there is no afterlife Third position is that the soul is immortal and continues to exist in heaven hell or purgatory after the death of the body Causality why do things happen Is there a purpose to why things happen Positions 1 David Hume causality is strictly fiction Connection between two things is completely made up as the minds way of understanding what is happening 2 Things happen because God wanted it to not because you will it or natural causes Expression ofthe will of God 3 Causality is real and it follows naturally occurring laws Predictable Aristotle s view Prime Mover according to Aristotle this was the first cause that put everything into motion creation ofthe universe M 0 Time is a way to measure the passage of how long you have existed in the world of the distance between events 0 Before now and after describe things when we can use past present or future tenses 0 Properties of an event change and alter into A series9 past present and future states B series9 Before now or later after while before and later can change now can only be now 0 JME McTaggart9 quotThe Unreality of Time 1908 00 o Says the more correct is A series they both have problems 0 Objections to A series looking at the whole of time we are always in possession of all three properties which violates the Rule of Logic Ex Of the Rule of Logic Qcannot be both x and not be x at the same time o Objection to B series depends on the point of view ofthe observer and only the observer No concept ofa continuous unbroken line You can t take into account the other people in existence o McTaggart comes up with C series between 0 Objection can be very vague Doesn t possess more than one property but it isn t practical to use 0 Because we can t talk about time in any of the three series he says that time is an illusion and all that exists is movement Past doesn t exist anymore Time Travel 0 Theoretically possible o PhilosophicalObjections o McTaggart9 past and future don t exist 0 Aristotle can t be both here and there at the same time o If you change an event in the past you change the future temporal paradox If your actions in the past change you going to the past in the future then nothing has really changed 0 Time flows and knows what you are going to do in the past and you can do nothing to change the future Rene Descartes built an entire system of philosophy Grandfather ofGPS Unlike Socrates Descartes says I doubt it all instead of don t know Intense skeptic who seeks knowledge Starts in doubt and builds from there Interested in proving his existence and stumbles onto ontological proof of God Proof for Me Descartes Part One Doubt Part Two Reason way out of doubt Part Three somebody is acting doubting and reasoning Part Four if someone is acting then that someone must exist I think therefore I exist Je pense donc je suis Cogito ergo sum These all mean the same thing 0 Because of this he knows his brain exists Soul Body OR Brain mind Body Problem Descartes split them and created the mind body dualism The body may not even exist and if it does then it is unrelated Brain exists somewhere but everything else could be and illusion If all other reality is illusionary then where does my brain lie How to prove the existence of others If I don t believe you exist then why can t I kill you This causes moral problems You have no obligation to other people because they don t really exist so you can do whatever you want to Solipsism the trap of being so purely rational that you are forced down a blind alley You have to know that there is going to be problems and accept the limitations of logic and find other ways to solve problems If everything is a figment of my imagination then why isn t my life perfect Why do I experience pain instead constant pleasure Writing the universe and participating in it calls for a split in the consciousness One split for authorparticipant and another for the audience If you take this logic then it becomes unlikely and you have to create more unlikely explanations How do I know the original ME is still me 0 Just because it can t be logically disproven it doesn t mean it can be logically proven Descartes Ontological Proof of God I can doubt If I doubt I am thinking If I can doubt there must be reason to solve that doubt Version A 9 If I can reason then perfect reason must exist If there is perfect reason or extreme truth the God must exist Version B 9 If I can imagine a supreme truth perfect being existence is necessary for perfection therefore the supreme truth perfect being must exist Objections 1 Aquinas You cannot imagine what God is because the human mind is too limited You would have to imagine every aspect and that is impossible essence 2 Hume No empirical data has shown that God exists No way to demonstrate that what we imagine exists 3 Kant Existence is not a necessary component of essence Don Miguel de Unamuno Niebla mist There is a drive among Spanish authors to redefine what it means to be Spanish They are confronting problems now that the king is gone 12th century He is redefining the form of the novel Unamuno is a professor of philosophy and many languages He examines questions of reality and fiction and introduces philosophical concepts in a playful manner Another novel of his is Amor y Pedagogia Why is it different from other novels 0 2 Prologues The first prologue is written by a character from the story Unamuno writes the post prologue and says that the first one was a bad job He disagrees with a character he wrote and even threatens that character If he the character makes him Unamuno mad he ll write him out of the story kill him off 0 Agonist word Unamuno uses for the main character because the character is going to suffer through every page Or is it Unamuno who is going to suffer through writing it Reminiscent of Hamlet Hamlet torments Shakespeare and Augusto torments Unamuno Bildungsroman coming of age novel Orfeo a dog that Augusto picks up to impress the girl but he ends up leaving the dog at home and talking mostly only to him We know that Augusto dies but did he commit suicide or did Unamuno kill him Augusto son ofa rich businessman who died ofa hemorrhage and a widow who makes her son her entire life wealthy man in his 20s mother s mission was to run his life and get him married off almost entirely incapable of making decisions by himself which is why his mother wants him to marry a woman who will do everything for him The characters fight back against Unamuno and try to tell their own story much to Unamuno s distress Augusto falls in love with Eugenia She was named after the wife of an emperor whom she the wife destroyed Augusto overthinks everything in two ways metaphysical contemplation and what is real and what isn t He wonders if he created her or she created him or they created each other He often wonders if he really exists and then asks Orfeo if he ever felt that way Then he decides that Orfeo is too young and a dog He basically tells Unamuno that if he dies then Unamuno can just start to write his story in a new way Eugenia piano teacher who just might be doing it for the money OR she might have initially loved music but became jaded by having to do it for money She says she is an anarchist Eugenia s Aunt and Uncle seem to be exact opposites Do opposites attract or was it a marriage of convenience In some ways they are deep thinkers like Augusto o Aunt practical minded woman trying to get her niece married off even though Eugenia has a boyfriend whom she the aunt doesn t approve of She s obsessed with her canary who Augusto rescues She s like Augusto in that they are obsessed with animals and they both want Augusto to marry Eugenia o Uncle like Augusto who s always contemplating metaphysical ideas Theoretical metaphysical anarchist immediately addresses Augusto in a strange language call Esperanto Esperanto created by a German professor who believed that if we would speak the same language there would be no fighting It is a mix of all the languages Eugenia s uncle is dedicated to the spread of Esperanto because he s a metaphysical anarchist Augusto doesn t know where he s headed and he s been lost since his mother died 6 months earlier He s bored and wants a challenge Augusto wants something that will prove to him that life is real 0 I love therefore I exist Amo ergo sum His life revolves around his love but he is so obsessed with it that he walks by Eugenia without even acknowledging her He doesn t grasp the chance to talk to her even though he wants to meet her Eugenia and Augusto reflect her aunt and uncle but will they really work Mauricio is a loafer who doesn t want to get a job Eugenia is willing to support him when they re married but he is worried about his reputation if that happens She never wants to be dependent on anyone but she doesn t mind people being dependent on him Mauricio advises Eugenia to marry Augusto for his money and let him live as her lover Love doesn t matter to Mauricio but stability does Augusto meets Rosario his young laundry girl She is agitated when she comes in because Augusto never acknowledges her Rosario is a young introvert that is kind of like Augusto She has a tremendous crush on him but he never notices her Augusto is quotin lovequot with Eugenia but he notices the beauty of other women and stalks them Is he really in love Victor says that Eugenia unlocked Augusto s capacity to love so we don t know if he s in love with Eugenia or if he s in love with being in love quotMan is born good It is society that perverts and corrupts himquot Philosophical Anthropology Jean Jaques Rousseau 0 quotMan is born free but everywhere he is in chainsquot 0 He thinks that humans in the state of nature tribal era were instinctively perfect but naturesociety is flawed 0 Rousseau wants a democracy One in which everyone is equal and there is one general will Ex Everyone can vote but they have to all vote the same way 0 Opposing theory to what humans are by nature 0 Humans are flawed but nature is perfect Championed by Thomas Hobbes 17th century and Jean John Calvin 16th century 0 Hobbes quotOutside of society human life is solitary poor nasty brutish and shortquot o In order to contain natural instinct we need societylaws Mist continued 0 Mauricio and Eugenia embody the beliefs of Hobbes If not for society and social norms Mauricio would be happy to hurt someone and let Eugenia marry Augusto for money Eugenia is held in place by the mortgage and need for money which creates potential for the marriage between Eugenia and Augusto o Orfeo has been a best friend for Augusto He is the confidante and sounding board 0 Victor He married young in an arranged marriage Are love and marriage two separate things They get married because she thought she was pregnant but it was a false alarm After they got married there were quotslipsquot which could mean they cheated Elena couldn t get pregnant so they started to blame each other quotEven a mere savage can have a child punctuallyquot Victor is warning Augusto not to marry on impulse Augusto s parents had an amazing marriage Eugenia s aunt and uncle have a workable marriage With Victor s warning reality is intruding in Augusto s world 0 Reality V Second Reality 0 There is the real world and the second reality where Augusto lives He creates an entirely different life but reality intrudes on it Augusto s whole concept of being is challenged Victor is the first to challenge it 0 Rosario is 19 Victor has a new term for a novellook it up 0 Augusto is starting to assume responsibility but he s taking it too far He s starting to want to take responsibility for other s actions Rosario comes onto Augusto but Augusto apologizes for it even though he was passive He could feel like he s toying for Rosario s emotions Two possibilities 1 Eugenia is damaging Augusto and he needs to let it out He s merely showing others how it feels 2 Eugenia is damaging him and he thinks he s a stud because he s finally found love 0 How does dependency talk about reality 0 Both Victor and Elena are upset that she s pregnant 0 What is love Being married Mutual respect Compatibility developed over the years Augusto and Eugenia s ideas of marriage are unrealistic It s a balance between them Existentialism o Unamuno studied and became an authority on L Soren Kierkgaard who wrote in the 1830s 1850s P 03 L Soren Kierkgaard He is completely irritated with GWF Hegel and his ideas on the universe He believes each person has value as an individual You are not attached to the state You have to stand alone and define yourself GWF Hegel believed the universe was a perfect machine with perfect rationality The individual is consumed by the state no individuality 19th century 1920 s and early 1930 s9 Existentialism becomes darker Kierkgaard breaks it off with his fianc because he doesn t know who he is how can he be a we when he isn t an I He spends the rest of his life pining for his fianc who married another man Late 19th and early 20th9 Deeper side of existentialism written by Friedrich Nietzsche who calls himself the antichrist He begins on the same page as Unamuno and Kierkgaard When they turn to love he turns to will power in a weird corruption of Compte Reality is merely a product of your will Alter your will and you will alter your reality His philosophy planted the seeds for Nazism in 1939 The events in the above A led to an existentialist movement in 1929 1935 new direction for existentialism o Jean Paul Sarte Communist which is almost purely economic No DAMNED meaning to life Suppose everyone is wrong and there is no meaning to life You have to exist with other people but he hates other people quotHell is other people Not happy in political society When life has no meaning it becomes absurd Acknowledging that life is absurd is how life is given meaning He is an atheist who is desperate not to be an atheist Martin Heidegger Nazi racist theorySole concern if I have to define myself then my life is the only real thing Living an authentic life is the only real thing Comes up with Da sein being in the world with others We don t choose to be herebe born We are forced to exist Two events that cannot be ignored birth and death Instead of using those terns he uses beginning of possibility birth and possibility of no further possibility death In order to live the authentic life you have to accept the possibility of no further possibility because at one point you will die Dealing with this brings us angst and anxiety about defining yourself and not letting others define you key teaching of existentialism O Mist continued An expert on woman told him he had to either focus on one woman or three He chose Eugenia Rosario and Liduvina The expert on women was created by taking bits and pieces of other authors and making fun ofthem He talks about how accomplished he is but he hasn t really published anything Studies woman from the past or fiction but he completely insulates himself from the subject women who are dead or who have never existed Unamuno makes an appearance and talks about how he s using the characters to justify his narrative playing God Augusto goes to see his creator because he didn t like his story He wants Unamuno to fix it or let him kill himself Who is to take the blame for Augusto s death Augusto or Unamuno o Augusto angers Unamuno and Unamuno says he s going to kill Augusto off Augusto overindulges and lets his head get to him He dies in his sleep 0 Orfeo delivers the funeral oration which proves that Orfeo understood to some extent and he looked up to Augusto as God 0 Unamuno is both the author ofthe story a participant in it and a reader of it But are the characters exerting their existence How do they really prove their existence How do you know your character isn t written by some author The only way for Augusto to know is to exert his own will which is why he killed himself Religious Comparison Jesus was born in Bethlehem Jesus lived in Nazareth John in the River Nothing really happens until Jesus is 30 Jesus is awakened which ultimately results in his death 0 This relates to Unamuno because Augusto is awakened by his love and it results in his own death 0 Nivola doesn t want people to think he is breaking the rules of writing a novel Unamuno 0 He tried to redefine the Spanish novel Don Quixote was THE Spanish novel 0 Unamuno s Political Views 0 Ideas on what he is I Anarchist Nietzschean fascist communist nationalist democratic o What he really is I Liberal Repulican doesn t believe exactly in democracy more like a Athenian democracy Since they couldn t have a king and didn t like the oligarchy the only option left was a republic o In the middle ofa civil war Unamuno picked neither side yet he irritated both He insulted the guy in charge He was then put under house arrest where he eventually died He was an existentialist and a Roman Catholic llnamlmn s Views in quot 39 39 quot to Others Aristotle Cicero Thomas Aquinas Kierkegaard and Kant Unamuno
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