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by: Jeffry Gleason


Jeffry Gleason
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W. Major

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W. Major
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This 57 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeffry Gleason on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLST 2090 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Major in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/223076/clst-2090-louisiana-state-university in Classical Studies at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
History 10032 12506 Chapter 14 The West Before 1550 Intemal Frogmentation amp Outward Expansion Outward Expansion A The Global Economy amp the ottoman Problem B Columbus s Mistake C Conquest amp Consequences Columbus s Journey to India believed he had landed on islands off the coast of India east of Asia 4 journeys Slowly Ferdinand amp Isabelle realized weren t in India discovery of the new world was exciting at rst but then became disappointing bc wanted to be in India or china though this couldn t gain access to silk and spices DID gain access to a treasure gold amp silver minds owed into spain main foundation for domination in the new world Conquest and Consequences westem culture is splitting Europe b c of reformation while new world is coming into realization 2 motives for conquering l greed gold and silver 2 God religion religion is what lead Columbus to travel In conquering the New world new Spanish empire motive of claiming new world for the catholic church make sure new world was catholic and not Lutheran Spanish succeded Spiritual and economic Journey Tale of Two Journeys The Century of Crisis c 15501660 I The Iron Century II The Religious Crisis III The Economic Crisis IV The Social Crisis V The Political Crisis El GrecO Laocoon 7 depiction of greek myth overall impression showing unhappy time anger restlessness distortion torment Bronzino Venus Cupid Folly amp Time seems happy but anger and anguish amp pain in the background Michelangelo The Last Judgement emphasizes on torment and anger Something seems to be wrong people of the time called this the Iron Century kind of hardness weeping during suffering Cervantes Don Quixote 160515 Delusional knight joulsting w windmill raises question on truth amp what is real and noble The Age of Anxiety people couldn t gure out what was wrong amp who to blame II The Religious Crisis adds to the pain of the century The Lutheran Reformation Sola Scripture 9 after luther other people didn t accept authority Bc of belief of only 1 truth you get the time of reformation as incredible violence St Bartholomew s Day Massacre 8241572 religious riot full of blood The Age of Religious Wars E g 1540s Protestant Lutheran German Princess vs Catholic holy Roman emperor whole series of religious wars breakout EG 15621598 French wars ofreligion Civil war in france Protestants Hugenots vs Catholics EG 15661648 The Dutch Revolt Spanish Catholics vs Dutch protestants Calvinists Dutch want independence from Spanish Main reason for going forward w war Religious Passion Spiritual Crisis w Religion 111 The Economic Crisis IV The Social Crisis During l6Lh Century recovering from bottoming out from plague population growth proved to destabilize them 1 Shift to commercial farming is reaction from destabilizing but brings cultural change winners amp losers those who profit and those who lose their land street ppl homeless ppl bible says loaning money is bad but cant do commercialization wo banking so what is right and what is wrong brings anxiety History 10032 12506 Chapter 14 The West Before 1550 Intemal Frogmentation amp Outward Expansion Outward Expansion A The Global Economy amp the ottoman Problem B Columbus s Mistake C Conquest amp Consequences Columbus s Journey to India believed he had landed on islands off the coast of India east of Asia 4 journeys Slowly Ferdinand amp Isabelle realized weren t in India discovery of the new world was exciting at rst but then became disappointing bc wanted to be in India or china though this couldn t gain access to silk and spices DID gain access to a treasure gold amp silver minds owed into spain main foundation for domination in the new world Conquest and Consequences westem culture is splitting Europe b c of reformation while new world is coming into realization 2 motives for conquering l greed gold and silver 2 God religion religion is what lead Columbus to travel In conquering the New world new Spanish empire motive of claiming new world for the catholic church make sure new world was catholic and not Lutheran Spanish succeded Spiritual and economic Journey Tale of Two Journeys The Century of Crisis c 15501660 I The Iron Century II The Religious Crisis III The Economic Crisis IV The Social Crisis V The Political Crisis El GrecO Laocoon 7 depiction of greek myth overall impression showing unhappy time anger restlessness distortion torment Bronzino Venus Cupid Folly amp Time seems happy but anger and anguish amp pain in the background Michelangelo The Last Judgement emphasizes on torment and anger Something seems to be wrong people of the time called this the Iron Century kind of hardness weeping during suffering Cervantes Don Quixote 160515 Delusional knight joulsting w windmill raises question on truth amp what is real and noble The Age of Anxiety people couldn t gure out what was wrong amp who to blame II The Religious Crisis adds to the pain of the century The Lutheran Reformation Sola Scripture 9 after luther other people didn t accept authority Bc of belief of only 1 truth you get the time of reformation as incredible violence St Bartholomew s Day Massacre 8241572 religious riot full of blood The Age of Religious Wars E g 1540s Protestant Lutheran German Princess vs Catholic holy Roman emperor whole series of religious wars breakout EG 15621598 French wars ofreligion Civil war in france Protestants Hugenots vs Catholics EG 15661648 The Dutch Revolt Spanish Catholics vs Dutch protestants Calvinists Dutch want independence from Spanish Main reason for going forward w war Religious Passion Spiritual Crisis w Religion 111 The Economic Crisis IV The Social Crisis During l6Lh Century recovering from bottoming out from plague population growth proved to destabilize them 1 Shift to commercial farming is reaction from destabilizing but brings cultural change winners amp losers those who profit and those who lose their land street ppl homeless ppl bible says loaning money is bad but cant do commercialization wo banking so what is right and what is wrong brings anxiety Introduction to Myth ythos 7 Greek word for story not necessarily true or false Mythology 7the study of myths Primitive people needed to make storiesmyths in an effort to understand what was going on in their world Humans are the only beings with a need to understand things a dog doesn t think why me Primitive people when scared hurt depressed created myths to explain their pain or discomfort All cultures make myths in their early development Around 1200 BC ancient Greeks began to take written history and to make rational and logical stories Mythmaking came to an end once this began Myths illustrate the truth much as Jesus did in his parables He did not give an exact point but told a story that showed what he meant Myths may not tell the literal truth but they illustrate human nature and human experience Theories Max Muller 7 concluded that all ancient myths are about nature and natural phenomenon 0 this myth is about nature because it is about the lightning bolt which falls from the sky and strikes you Senele is destroyed in this story Carl Jung 7 noted that same kinds of myths turn up in all different cultures such as each culture having their own version of the Great Flood He developed his theory of the Collective Unconscious 7that all humans are born with these same ideas in their brains lying deep and unconscious He said that myths explore these deep ideas of the collective unconscious 0 all human beings are born with a set of ideas in their mind 0 animus is mascular idea that all woman have of men Men are violent and distructive every man will turn into a violent beast o anima is feminine woman will make men crazy woman are apprehensive Claude LeviStrauss 7 research on human brain that different sides were responsible for different functions Noted that the body is binary 2 arms 2 ears 2 legs and says that we think in pairs with ideas on amp off right amp wrong good amp evil yes amp no They are pairs of opposites in con ict with each other LeviStrauss says that man s entire experience is based on con ict and that myths present the con icts then resolve them within the story The 201h century was in ways spent examining and interpreting the ideas of the l9Lh century Despite technological strides it has been said that no ideas came from the 20Lh century For example 20Lh century scholars spent their lives working on the l9Lh century ideas of Darwin Marx and Freud Sigmund Freud 7 all human nature is driven by sex Freud started psychotherapy He turned his focus to myths and concluded that all myths are about sex and are a way of revealing sexual fears and desires without having to confront them every day Characters Zeus Semele Hera Zeus 7 lord and king of the gods Constantly making love to females of all kinds In this story Zeus is making love to Semele But Zeus is married to his sister Hera who always finds out about his infidelities Hera disguises herself as an old human woman and visits Semele who confesses that not only is she making time with Zeus but that he loves her more than his own wife Hera says that no he doesn t because with his own wife he appears to her as he really is 7 as an almighty god Usually Zeus appears as a human 7 tall strong distinguished a little bit of gray So the next time Zeus comes around Semele asks him to appear as he really is Zeus denies her saying that she doesn t want to see that So she bitches and moans until he gives in makes love to her and appears to her as the god that he is 7 at which point she is immediately destroyed by a bolt of lightning That story can be analyzed by the four theories listed above Is any single theory correct Are none of them correct 1 Muller s Nature Theory 7 because primitive people are in constant contact and con ict with nature Zeus is the ultimate god even over the god of thunder and they nd thunder frightening Lightning is Zeus weapon and experiencing a lightning bolt is the closest that they could get to Zeus So to them a lightning bolt IS Zeus Getting struck by lightning is getting hit by Zeus That s where nature comes in Zeus is frequently depicted with a lightning bolt Jung s Collective Unconscious 7 two of his ideas 7 Anima and Animus Anima is the male idea of the ideal woman the universal woman who makes men crazy and keeps them off balance by nagging and manipulating Animus is the idea that all women have of men 7 violent destructive aggressive rapists So myths provide an expression for these ideas which lie deep in the unconscious Both appear in this Zeus story 7 she nags him like crazy and he destroys her LeviStrauss 7 humans are obsessed with con ict and resolution Each of the three characters in this story are in con ict with every other con ict But as soon as you get rid of Semele all con icts are resolved Freud 7 it s all about sex Castration Anxiety a boy has one a girl doesn t The boy thinks she must have cut hers off and worries that she ll cut his off Penis E v 7 the girl looks he has something she doesn t she knows she s never had one and she wants one In this myth Semele insists to see Zeus as he really is or naked She s obsessed about it penis envy But when he stands there naked he has to kill her castration anxiety N E 4 Creation Know that myths con ict and contradict each other and the Greeks did not have them in a logical order One does through give a story of creation which we compare to Genesis from the Bible Genesis 7 God is already in existence at the beginning of Genesis then he creates the universe the creation order matches the evolutionary order The climax of the story is when god creates the rst man But then man complains that he needs a companion so woman is created Greek7 starts with chaos which in Greek means emptiness or nothing So you start with nothing Then ve beings come into existence I Ge 7 pro gay the earth feminine any word that ends in e in Greek is feminine Tartarus 7 dark terrible prison located beneath the earth Eros 7 passionate love Erebus darkness Night 7 night Of the ve three are frightening and dark It s scary because 90 of human animal information comes from sight and human animal has poor night vision So night was scary for primitive humans because their predators had either excellent night vision or great sense of smell Night is a time when we re defenseless Only one of the ve was imagined by Greeks to be in human form Eros was an adolescent boy They knew a 16yearold boy could impregnate more women at that age than at any other time in his life When Romans took over Eros they turned him into the veyearold boy we know as Cupid Next Ge gives birth with no help from a man to Mountains Seas and Heavens Ge I I I I Ge does this without the help of any male It was assumed for a long time that women made babies all on their own with no help from men This gave them a position of importance and prominence in society while the men were unimportant After all sex was just for fun and there was no immediate effect No one put it together until man learned how to count 7 that was a bad day for women They gured out the solar year then the months then that 9 months after sex the baby came along So it was the man involved after all And eggs were inside and invisible while the male secretion was obvious So it was the man that actually parented the child the woman was just a carrier So now men were the most important So later Ge needed a husband since men were necessary after all She married her son Heaven or Uranus Ouranos Since Uranus was the man and Ge was the woman Uranus got all the credit After a long dry spell when the rains came and the land became green again it was Uranus up in the heavens that fertilized his wife Ge and gave them crops Also heaven must be male because he s on top and above Mother Earth Primitive people like children saw the world in terms of themselves 7 they thought rain from the sky was male sperm impregnating the earth Anthropomorphism 7the process by which we give human form to things that are not really human His current example was Barney but the Greek gods had the same range of emotions hatred jealousy that Greek humans had This is man making god in man s image since it was the only form they knew well ie marriage of heaven and earth 7 putting a human occurrence to the supernatural So we ve got Ge and Uranus But Uranus hated his children 7 he thought they were ugly So he stuffed each one of them back into the body of Ge earth She asked the kids inside of her for help but only C ronus would help her She got some iron from inside herself and formed a sickle and gave it to Cronus Cronus hid in the evening until Uranus came back to sleep with his wife then Cronus jumped out grabbed Uranus genitals chopped them off and threw them into the sea where they oated A foam formed around the genitals and out of that foam came Aphrodite the goddess of passionate love How does Cronus get out Does he stand on his mother Ge since she is the earth Is Uranus the heavens or is he a man with genitals The Greeks weren t concerned with realistic details 7 the more bizarre and violent the story the older and more primitive it is Now the male is the only parent since he provides the visible sperm and the woman is just a carrier So the male is the head of the family and a male king rules over all families So since babymaking was the important part a castrated male could not be in charge So Uranus was no longer chief 7 Cronus his defeater became the chief god Cronus let all of his siblings out of Ge And he needed to marry so he could make babies So he married his sister m They had kids but Cronus knew from his own experience that kids could endanger his power So he swallowed each child whole Rhea was distressed him swallowing the kids and all and went to Ge and Uranus for advise They said to give him a rock wrapped in baby clothes next time that he d never know the difference So she hid the next child Zeus and Cronus swallowed a rock instead Rhea took Zeus to Crete and hid him in a cave to grow up safely Once grown Zeus tricked Cronus into spitting up all of his brothers and sisters and there was a war between Cronus generation and Zeus generation Cronus generation his brothers and sisters were called the Titans Zeus people chose Mt Olympus as their war base and after winning he and his siblings lived on Mt Olympus a mountaintop where primitive Greeks would expect their gods to live Zeus and crew were called the Olympians Zeus used lightning bolts as his weapon to lead the Olympians to victory and Zeus took over as god of the universe until the end of mythology Zeus hurled most of the Titans his aunts and uncles down to Tartarus the deep prison that is dark and terrible so that they could never challenge his power But he couldn t bring himself to do that to Cronus his father Cronus was sent west into exile never to return to Greece Cronus went to Italy and hid there where he used the Latin name Saturn which Saturday was named after Cronus was still a god and presided over a golden age in Italy Then we went further west but the Italians recalled the golden age with a midwinter festival called Saturnalz39a in which the high point was December 25m On that day no one worked or went to school and families exchanged gifts with each other When the Catholic church took over Rome they took over existing festival days smoother transition and Satumalia was changed to celebrate the Mass of Christ Christmas Generations Ge amp Uranus 9 Cronus amp Rhea 9 Zeus amp Hera Creating People The creation of the first man male was very unimportant Myth is not even clear as to who did it Some say Zeus created man out of dirt Others say his cousin Prometheus created man and had sympathy for humans But human life was pathetic and weak and helpless and inferior to animals 7 humans can only walk better So Prometheus went to heaven and stole fire and gave it to man Now every human had fire for warmth light and protection When Zeus found out he was so angry that he wanted to offset the gift of fire so he gave man something very terrible 7 woman The creation of woman was a big deal H eghaestus the craftsman constructed the first woman and handed her over to Aphrodite the goddess of passionate love and the most beautiful Aphrodite gave woman irresistible beauty and charm then handed her over to Athena goddess of wisdom and later technology Athena taught woman important and useful skills then handed her over to the god Hermes who among other things is god of the practical joke Hermes gave woman the character of a thief and the mind of a bitch Then all of these gods 7 Hephaestus Aphrodite Athena and Hermes 7 brought woman before Zeus who named her all gifts or Pandora Zeus had a gift for Pandora 7 a bigjar M a box ceramic 4 or 5 feet tall She asked what was in it but Zeus refused to answer 7 just take it with you he said Zeus took her and her jar down to earth and the society of men Prometheus had an earthly brother Epimetheus Prometheus means forethought and thinking before speaking or acting His brother Epimetheus well not so much Afterthought Prometheus had warned his brother not to accept any gifts from gods but he took one look at Pandora she of irresistible beauty and charm and took her and her jar in Life was good for a while but Pandora was so curious about the jar She d go and listen to it shake it smell it Finally one day she opened the seal and out came all of the ills that we face 7 disease pain famine drought 7 only ho was left in the jar and it remained there when she finally got the lid back on So hope was left in the jar 7 what was hope doing in ajar full of evils The Greeks were deeply pessimistic and felt that life was hard and cruel with no happy ending Note that most myths end unhappily and violent So to them hope was the greatest evil of all 7 hope makes you think none of the evils would happen to you But the certain future is that we re all going to die so the Greek pessimism is based in reality But hope makes us think that none of that will happen to us Second Creation 7 The Great Flood In the Old Testament God wipes out horrible man and saves only Noah s family God tells him to build an ark and despite sure ridicule Noah does He puts a male and female of each animal on the ark with his family and survive when the rains come and ood the land He sends out doves until one returns with an olive branch 7 a sign of dry land The ark sets down on Mt Ararat and Noah and his family reproductively recreate the human race Every culture has a ood story Were the Biblical stories made up as the myths were to make sense of the world around them But there are ood stories all over the world 7 proof ofa great ood The earth goes through warming and cooling periods 7 did a warmth come through and melt the glaciers ooding all inhabitable land Many ancient cities were built in river valleys 7 at some point or another every river will challenge its banks and ood which would create a version of the same story all over the world So some myths may well be based in reality The Greek Flood version Zeus went down to earth disguised as a human to check out human society and found it disgusting corrupt evil and treacherous So Zeus returned to Mt Olympus and told the other gods that he was going to ood the earth to get rid of the evil human race The other gods provided an answer to the question why does man exist If Zeus destroyed all humans there would be no one left to worship the gods So Zeus goes back and finds a husbandwife worth saving Deucalion and Pyrrha They were pious and just 7they had the right relationship with the gods and in their dealings with other humans This parallels Jesus two great commandments 7 love only one god and love thy neighbor Usually Greek myth is not concerned with human morality but here it mattered to Zeus So Zeus puts Deucalion and Pyrrha in a boat and ooded the land After the waters subsided Deucalion and Pyrrha saw that they were the only people left and they were terri ed Being pious they prayed to the gods for advice They were told Take the bones of your mother and throw them over your shoulder You often see strange answers when people talk to gods This was even weirder because the Greeks prioritized proper burial so digging up bones didn t sound appropriate So Deucalion and Pyrrha tried to figure it out and came up with mother was Ge Mother Earth So they threw rocks and stones over their shoulders and where they landed the new human race formed That parallels Lot and his wife leaving Sodom and Gomorrah She looks back over her shoulder after being warned not to and is turned to a pillar of salt She wasn t supposed to see the supernatural So that s why they threw bones over their shoulders 7 so they couldn t see the supernatural event You can t watch 7 you ll destroy yourself Zeus destroying Semele or you cancel out the event Greek religion was not a monotheism one god or a polytheism many gods but a henothez39sm 7 belief in one god most powerful but other gods exist Zeus is the powerful one here over other gods and humans Now Zeus was sleeping with any woman he could get his hands on 7 human goddess nymph 7 because his power came from babymaking Unsentimentally father is like a dog that sires just a babymaker Morality didn t matter Zeus was the great father god up in heaven a carouser but that s due to anthropomorphism as well So Zeus marries his sister Hera and appoints two of his brothers to control parts of the universe under his command and authority Poseidon god of the sea and Hades god of the world of the dead Hera is the goddess of marriage 7 she understands marriage she s not nice or sweet but cunning and cruel with sexual jealousy being the worst Her Latin name is Juno so June weddings are traditional and girls wanted to marry in her month to gain her blessing Poseidon 7 god of the sea 7 Latin name Neptune often shown as jolly but he s not Poseidon was associated with horror sea monsters tidal waves and earthquakes He also constantly was having affairs one with a human girl named Scylla Poseidon s wife no name given finds out about the affair waits for Scylla to get in the bathtub then poisons the water When Scylla stood up she had a ring of wolves heads growing out of her waist Poseidon came back to make love to her 7 no way wolfie She begged him to hide her so he put her in a cave near the water where she waited for sailors to come too close where she d capture them and feed them to the wolf heads Poseidon is an example of gods being more thanjust gods Poseidon is god ofthe sea but Poseidon also is the sea The Mediterranean is violent like Poseidon Gods always have the character of what they re god of Hades is god of the dead There were no temples built to Hades to honor him with statues and sacri ces Every human makes his individual sacri ce to Hades by their own death The earth had three layers 7 the top layer which Greeks walked on the land of the dead underworld and Tartarus the deep prison in which the Titans were kept Dead people go to the underworld The Greeks believed in immortality and that the souls of all people go to these dark unhappy caverns for eternity Odyssey 7H omer 7 told the stories of the travels of Odysseus who goes to the entrance of the world of the dead and looks in the west s oldest account of death He saw that the ghosts of the dead were transparent recognizable and too weak to talk or to touch and they shrieked like bats Odysseus kills an animal and drains its blood which they drink to give them the strength to talk to him This makes sense 7the body rots away when you die leaving only bones and eventually dust The Greeks knew to love live because the afterlife had none of the pleasurable experiences of life in the body To the Greeks the afterlife had no place of reward nor punishment 7 all souls went to the same gloomy place longing for physical life and the pleasures of the body Alternatively Christianity teaches that the pleasures of the soul are better than of the body 7 that the body is somehow dirty The Greeks though praised nudity They gured that God made the body so every part of it down to the armpits should be considered beautiful So the Greeks imagined gods in beautiful human forms thinking there was no form any higher or more beautiful Cronus amp Rhea S Hestia Hades Poseidon Demeter Hera Zeus Hestia is one of the oldest children the goddess of hearth replace She just stayed home and kept the re going 7 never married just stayed home The Temples to Hestia always had re going for people who needed it Her Roman name was Vesta as in Vestal Virgins No real stories about Hestia Demeter 7 Zeus s sister goddess of Agriculture recall that the father is the only real parent but if the momfemale doesn t feed and nourish the child it dies Therefore the earth which provides food to people is female So Demeter is also the goddess of Motherhood Demeter s daughter is Perseghtme whose father is unclear maybe Zeus Demeter completely loved her child an anthropomorphic transference of emotion Hades was Persephone s uncle but he fell in love with her Being god of the dead he knew he could not persuade her to love him so he opened up the earth rose up in his chariot swept her up and took her back with him to the underworld as the earth closed So Demeter comes back and can t nd her daughter She goes nuts Searched and searched Finally the sun who sees all tells her that Hades had abducted her Now gods cannot interfere with other gods 7 only Zeus has that power so she knew there was nothing that she could do and couldn t get Persephone back Demeter disguised herself as an old human woman and went to work for a family with a newborn baby She transferred the love she had to someone else s child She loved the child and wanted to give the human child a divine gift So every night she d hold him in the fire to make him immortal One night the real mother walks in and sees her holding her baby in the fire She screamed madly and rushed toward Demeter Demeter became very angry and threw the child on the oor 7 angry because the fantasy she had built up to battle her own grief had been shattered Now she had to face the fact that her child Persephone was gone The family of the baby found out she was a goddess and were very frightened and built her a temple on that very spot Demeter walked into the temple and started to grieve The Earth went barren and would give no fruit responding to Demeter s grief Recall that the goddess of earth IS earth Without food people started dying in droves Eventually the other gods went to Zeus to get him to do something 7 if all the people died there d be no one to worship them Zeus sent a messenger to Hades to give it up Hades stood before Persephone and handed her a pomegranate She took one bite and handed it back to him He then took her in his chariot and brought her back up to earth and set her down next to Demeter s temple Demeter saw her and was overjoyed and the earth bloomed and grew But because she ate part of the pomegranate she must go back to Hades for part of each year and during that time Demeter grieves for her and the earth does not give food This fits into Muller and nature 7 it explains the seasons and why food does not grow during certain parts of the year Putting the story in such human terms made it easy for the Greeks to understand that season In some societies a man and woman sharing a meal the pomegranate especially in his home means that they re married This is still continued with the bride and groom sharing cake the oldest part of the modern ceremony New story Orgheus was the best musician in the Greek world Orpheum theatres are still named after him He was so good that wild animals would come to listen to him such as the lion in the statue He played a m a stringed harplike instrument Trees would also uproot themselves a move closer to him when he played and rocks would roll over toward him This shows the power of music 7 it has no physical benefit yet it has a tremendous effect on us On Orpheus wedding day to Eurydice his bride stepped on a poisonous snake was bitten and died So Orpheus went to Hades and pleaded for him to send his dead wife s soul back to earth He brought his lyre and got ready to play to persuade Hades Orpheus appeared before the court of Hades and began to sing about how much he missed Eurydice It was so moving and powerful that even Hades god of the dead wept So Hades allowed the soul of Eurydice to return to earth but Orpheus was told he must walk back up to earth the way he had come and Eurydice would be sent after him But 7 Orpheus could not turn around and look behind him to see if she was indeed following him Remember you can t look at the supernatural such as the dead coming back to life So Orpheus starts walking back up the dark gloomy corridors excited about getting his Eurydice back He tries to listen for her behind him 7 he tries to look peripherally at the walls to detect her shadow moving He sees nothing and begins to doubt After all the gods had never allowed the dead to come back to life before 7 maybe Hades had just told him that to get rid of him He became convinced he would never get his Eurydice back and grief overtook him It seemed so simple when Hades agreed but now he simply could not believe it was true So he turned around 7 and there was Eurydice right behind him beautiful as ever But as soon as Orpheus looked she was snatched back to the land of the dead 7 he had cancelled the miracle and had lost her again but this time it was entirely his own fault He ran back down to Hades to beg him to let her return but Hades said he would not grant it a second time So Orpheus had to return to earth alone He became a hater of women 7not because they had wronged him but because Orpheus was afraid of getting hurt again So now he became famous for two reasons 7 his music and his hatred of women He was singing in the woods one day alone he thought when a group of women came upon him and killed him tearing him apart He then joined Eurydice in the underworld The Greeks made this myth to show that theoretically it was possible to survive permanent death if you did exactly what the gods or priests said The Great Greek Gods of Olympia Aphrodite 7 name means born from the foam that being the foam of her father Uranus genitals when they were cast into the sea Her Roman name is Venus and she is the Greek goddess of love being the most beautiful of all gods But it s not hand holding warm and fuzzy love 7 it s uncontrollable sexual desire that makes you crazy and not concerned with the risks or consequences of such passion Now the Greeks through the powers of the weather came from heaven that the sea s power was from the gods and even the earth can feed or starve 7 they personify the powers of nature in gods So why sex They thought that inside you there are also powerful forces and Greeks needed to understand why sexual wantonness was so powerful so there s a goddess for it Now since gods are what they represent Aphrodite is sex 7 a real slut Humans are not instinctively monogamous 7 promiscuity was instinctive and Aphrodite is the goddess of the promiscuity She did sleep around a lot with human and with god But Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus the god of craftsmen who crafted Pandora Hephaestus is the only physically imperfect god having crippled legs So the only imperfect god is married to the perfect woman The Greeks that only a disabled person would stay inside all day outside good to Greeks and make things with his hands Manliness was defined by fighting and hunting but Hephaestus cannot fight Now Hephaestus had a brother m Roman 7 Mars the god of war and because war was hated Ares was the most hated god even among the other gods But he was a perfect physical specimen As soon as Hephaestus would leave for his shop Ares would sneak in the back door for a little lovin from Aphrodite Eventually the sun who sees all told Hephaestus about the affair So Hephaestus made a giant strong net and concealed it above the bed The next day after he left for work and Ares came in the net came down and held them in place so tightly that they could not even move out of their lovemaking position So Hephaestus comes in but gods cannot harm one another 7 so he went out and invited all the other gods and goddesses to come in and take a long look The goddesses were too modest but the gods came in They laughed pointed measured discussed what they would do if they were in Ares position which many of them probably had been So there was no physical violence but lots of laughing and humiliation Hephaestus freed them and Ares never entertained Aphrodite again So sexuality was beyond the Greeks control 7 that s why they had to have a god for it Pygm alion 7 a rare Greek happilyeverafter myth Pygmalion a guy was a sculptor but he was very lonely So he carved a statue of a beautiful woman and eventually fell in love with the statue So he went to the temple of Aphrodite made sacrifices and prayed for the statue to be a real woman So he gets home and the statue comes alive They lived happily ever after So how does this parallel Greek life The man who finds the perfect woman is the man who creates her himself This re ects the frustration that the Greek people had in finding someone to love This myth was a fantasy 7 not of coping with reality but of escaping from it Cybel 7 not a Greek myth but a NearEastem legend on which a Greek myth was based but changed and adjusted as we ll see Cybele was the great mother goddess who was both male and female She decided that she d be much better off just being female so she cut off her male genitalia and threw it away Where it landed the first almond tree grew Along came Nana a nymph Greek for bride 7 nymphs are halfhuman and halfdivine they live forever and are always young and beautiful but they have no god like power and cannot leave the area where they re assigned Nana took a white blossom off that first almond tree and put it between her breasts It disappeared there and she turned up pregnant She named her son Attis and he was a perfect example of a young man So much so that Cybele mother goddess fell in love with him But Attis loved someone else so Cybele s love drove him mad until finally he castrated himself and died from the wound Cybele was so distraught that she asked the other gods to bring him back to life They agreed but with the condition that he d have to be castrated and die every year The Greek version Myrrha 7 Myrrha was a human girl whose only real parent was her father since her mother died when she was very young She loved her father dearly 7 too much because she realized that she wanted to sleep with him even though she knew it was wrong She eventually became physically lovesick and depressed over it When the nanny who raised her noticed that Myrrha was sick she asked why Myrrha tried to hide it but eventually blurted out the truth Well the old woman nanny was only concerned with Myrrha s happiness so she went to the father and told him that a young girl in town wanted to sleep with him 7 but the girl was shy and wanted her identity to be concealed so there must be no lights He agreed So the old woman told Myrrha that she had arranged it and Myrrha was horri ed She had wanted it yes but now that it was possible Eventually she decided to go ahead with it So she started to visit her father repeatedly in his dark room She got pregnant Also the father was getting curious about who his lover was tried to recognize her around town and couldn t so one night he hid a lantern in the cupboard and closed the door While his lover was in his dark room he took out the lantern saw his own daughter and realized what he had done He was furious that he had been tricked and tried to kill Myrrha who prayed to Aphrodite Aphrodite transformed her into a myrrh tree which is where the name came from Myrrh trees give off an aromatic sap that was used in embalming 7the symbolism of Jesus getting a gift of myrrh signified that he would die This myth helps explain why myrrh sap is used in embalming 7 death is associated with sadness and the sap is the sad tears of Myrrha But Aphrodite saved Myrrha s baby 7 a boy child named Adonis Adonis was a perfect young man and Aphrodite herself fell in love with him It was a dangerous world and Aphrodite was concerned about Adonis but he didn t care and he went boar hunting Boar hunting was very challenging and dangerous because the boars are smart and would hunt their hunters So boar hunting was done in groups 7they d use dogs to track and comer a boar into a cave The hunters formed a semicircle around the cave and the dogs would drive the boar out The plan was that when the boar came out and saw all the hunters it would freeze for just a second 7 long enough for the hunters to kill it But some boars didn t freeze 7 they just charged out and killed a hunter or two in the process Charge 7 bye Adonis Aphrodite grieved and asked the gods to bring Adonis back They agreed but once a year Adonis would have to be killed by a boar and come back again Both Attis and Adonis are called resurrection gods With a woman loving both of their dead bodies we saw a statue of how that resembles Mary holding the body of crucified Jesus Now for a god to fall in love with a human was considered disgusting to the gods much like a human falling in love with a chicken But Aphrodite delighted in making gods fall in love with humans for her amusement So Zeus decreed that Aphrodite would fall in love with the next human she saw That human was a shepherd named Anchises It was summer and in the summer shepherds worked naked So she transformed herself into a beautiful human girl and approached him 7told him that she was under a spell and the only way to break the spell was for him to sleep with her Anchises became uneasy he could tell she was a god because 1 gods were tall where Greeks were short 2 gods were blonde where Greeks were dark and 3 gods smell good not like meateating Greeks who stank Anchises thought it was too good to be true but still he agreed Afterward he rolled over and went to sleep Aphrodite didn t care about him any more 7 she had conquered and the novelty was gone so she decided to tell him her real identity She woke him up and told him and Anchises was lled with terror 7 thinking she had used him up and that he d be impotent She laughed at him and assured him it would still work So she went back to Olympus and he like any other guy went to the nearby city of Troy and bragged that he had made love to the goddess Aphrodite Bad move he should ve kept quiet Zeus was angry with him and struck him with a lightning bolt which crippled him Aphrodite on the other hand with it being revealed that she had slept with a human was mocked ridiculed and humiliated Exam 2 Hermes 7 recall that Hermes gave Pandora the character of a thief and the mind of a bitch but he is more complicated Hermes is the god of good luck and the god of businessmen and thieves Good luck from out of the blue and god of those professions because they rely to a degree on such uncontrolled good luck 0 After World War II auto company did huge market research spent millions on analysis engineering r J quot teaser J 39 H1t 39 it was ugly lost a fortune 7the Ford Edsel Hermes had not blessed the venture so no good luck 0 Late 50 s university students frequent a store selling meat pies in aluminum pans which the students would throw back in forth Two young men saw their popularity borrowed 200 from their fathers and with no knowledge and no experience invented the Frisbee According to the Greeks their venture had been blessed by Hermes Hermes is also the god of the practical joke This is a form of power the Greeks didn t understand 7 when something happened over which they could not stop laughing You have no control humor takes you over So there is a god of the practical joke since they had no control and figured it must be supernatural Hermes is also the only god with stories about him as an infant He is the son of Zeus his mother a goddess named Maia whom the month of May is named after She gave birth to Hermes in her cave put him in his crib and as soon as she turned around he hopped out and went to the door of the cave He found aturtle killed it and cleaned out the shell and used the guts to make strings creating the first musical instrument 7 the lyre He was so pleased that he left the cave to see what else he could find He went to the place where the gods kept their cattle He came to the pen of the cattle of Apollo his brother So he stole 50 of Apollo s cattle and took them up the road 7 but he made the cattle walk backwards so that it would look like they had been walking into the pen He took the cattle to another cave nearby and sacrificed 2 of them to the gods for thanks for a successful theft Then he went back to Maia s cave and slept So Apollo comes to the pen noticed he was 50 heads short saw the prints leading into the pen and couldn t figure it out He asked the farmer across the street if he had seen anything and he told him he saw a baby walking 50 cows backward up the street Nothing unusual Apollo knew a new baby god had been born so he went to Maia s cave He shook Hermes cradle Where are my cows Hermes What s a cow I was born yesterday Apollo I know it was you This went back and forth until Apollo grabbed Hermes and shook him and Hermes let out athundercloud as babies will tend to do Apollo let him go 7 it was a standoff Apollo then took Hermes to Mt Olympus to let Zeus their father deal with it They each tell their story and Zeus turns to Hermes and tells him to give the cattle back So Hermes takes Apollo to the other cave and gives him the cows back Oh only 48 now Apollo is angry Where are they So Hermes tells him how he sacrificed the 2 cows to the gods Apollo went out to get a switch to beat Hermes but when he came back Hermes pulled out the lyre and played a beautiful chord Apollo said if you give me the lyre I ll forgive you for the 2 cows Done deal Son of Hermes and Aphrodite H ermaghroditu 7 a boy about 16 years old goes to the pool and strips to swim A nymph runs up and asks him to make love to her 7 Hermaphroditus is emba1rassed he doesn t know about lovemaking and wanted to be left alone So the nymph left and Hermaphroditus went swimming But the nymph came back jumped in wrapped her arms around him and prayed that they d always be joined Whoops Together they became H ermaghrodite Muller s nature would say that this describes hermaphroditism Hermaphrodite had both parts male and female and this gave the sculptors something to do for a while making their statues Dionysus Continuation of Zeus Hera amp Semele story 0 Gods always appear in disguise 0 Always smell good are tall and blonde 0 Always a pregnancy They believed both parents had to be gods to have a god as a child 7 otherwise the child would not be immortal Semele a human was Dionysus mother Zeus saved the fetus after he consumed Semele in lightning cut his leg and put the fetus in his thigh Dionysus became a god because he was born from the thigh of Zeus the only real parent Dionysus Roman 7 Bacchus was raised in India and came back as an adult to Greece Dionysus is the God of Wine Grapes didn t grow in Greece that s why he had to be raised somewhere else then come back to Greece Freedom from fear and anxiety was Dionysus gift to humans 7 one of the only gods who gave humans a gift The Greeks call this gift the little madness since you stop being responsible act like you don t have a care in the world Ifyou refuse his gift then you are cursed with the Big Madness of going insane Dionysus is called the liberator by the Greeks and he also frees us from pain He is the god of wet stu in nature such as sap or blood You worship him with a communion 7 drinking something These communions usually involved music and dancing Sometimes they would catch an animal eat its esh raw and drink the blood Women followers of Dionysus were called Maenad Men followers of Dionysus were called Satyr These were mythological creatures who were halfhuman and half goat Dionysus first came to Thebes His mother was a princess from there part of the royal family Pentheus was king of Thebes and Dionysus cousin The royal family didn t believe that he was related so he cursed them with the Great Madness Pentheus s grandfather told him he should accept Dionysus offer to bring the women back to let Pentheus see the female rituals to not go up against a god Tiresias also tells Pentheus to accept the offer Tiresias later kills the female of a mating pair of snakes and was turned into a female Seven years later he she came across a mating pair of snakes killed the male and was turned back into a male Zeus and Hera argued over sex 7 Zeus asked Tiresias who had experienced both who enjoyed sex more Zeus said women did Hera said men did Tiresias said ear story that women enjoyed sex 110Lh as much as women did This angered Hera who blinded him Zeus felt sorry for him and gave him the gift of prophecy So Dionysus takes Pentheus in disguise to see the Bacchic women and sets him on a pine tree Pentheus sees them just sleeping Agave his mother is there Everyone seems peaceful She walks up to a cow rips off its leg and eats it raw The women hear him and Agave rips off his arm 7 she is overcome by the Great Madness and doesn t realize that it s her own son She puts his head on a staff thinking he s a lion or a bobcat She gets back to the palace and realizes what she s done So don t reject a gift from a god Midas 7 Dionysus gave Midas any wish he wanted 7 what he wanted was for anything he touched to turn to gold He went back to Dionysus to get rid of the giftcurse washed in a stream as instructed and it was gone He was offered this gift because he returned a lost follower of Dionysus m 7the god of the Shepard 7 part manpart goat Pan was attracted to a nymph but she didn t want him She ran and prayed to the gods for help She was turned into reeds Pan cut the reeds and made the Pan Pipe musical instrument that is still used today Echo 7 a nymph Narcissus 7 a human male Recall that nymphs live forever Zeus s wife Hera suspected that Echo and Zeus were in cahoots 7 that Echo would visit Hera and talk to her so that Zeus could go play So Hera cursed Echo so that she would not be able to initiate a conversation and could only repeat the last few words someone else had said So since Echo could no longer start a conversation to distract Hera Echo quit visiting So cursed Echo is out by her pool one day when Narcissus comes by Nymphs always wanting sex so Echo approaches Narcissus but she couldn t initiate a conversation she just stood there and looked at him He nally said go away and she repeated go away He said leave now she repeated leave now Narcissus said I ll never let you possess me and she said POSSESS ME He said no and left Echo became so lovesick over Narcissus that she prayed to the gods that Narcissus would fall in love with someone that he couldn t possess Echo lovesick stopped eating and since nymphs live forever faded away until she was only a voice Narcissus bent down to take a drink and saw his re ection in the water 7 and fell in love with his re ection He tried to reach for it but he disturbed the water and it went away He wouldn t leave the re ection for food and wouldn t drink to disturb it so eventually he died right there Narcissism 7 obsessive selfabsorption with no room for anyone or anything else Next god is Apollo 7 the most complicated of the Greek gods there s no Roman equivalent 7 he s Apollo in both all other major gods have a different Roman bizarroworld twin Apollo is the son oneus amp a goddess Artemis and Apollo were twins Because Hera was known to be violently jealous over affairs with Zeus Leto looked for a place that would let her give birth to her twins Fearing Hera s wrath all said no except for the obscure island of Delos When she finally gave birth to the twins Leto was widely honored as the mother of two gods The only one who wouldn t honor her was a human princess named Niobe who had 14 kids of her own 7 boys and 7 girls Most kids didn t live back then and all of her 14 had hardships so she had been honored until Leto stole her thunder and now Niobe resented it The first of the great sins 7 Hubris which is being too proud especially with respect to the gods treading on the gods territory or playing god So Niobe s resentment was an act of hubris 7 she said her 14 children were more important than the two gods Leto complained of this to her two children Artemis a daughter and Apollo a son so the two gods went to kill all 14 of Niobe s kids This is how Artemis and Apollo became responsible for unexplained deaths of children So when it came to killing the last daughter Niobe tried to protect her but Artemis killed her anyway Apollo killed the 7 sons and Artemis killed the 7 daughters Niobe was so overcome that she turned to stone but continued to weep even though she was a rock There was a weeping stone that people would go visit supposing it was Niobe Apollo looked for a chance to prove his divine power It happened at Delphi He took two eagles set them free from opposite sites of the earth and they met at Delphi So it was there that he proved his divine power by killing a giant serpent So Apollo made Delphi the main location for his worship Apollo is the god of prophecy and of art Prophecy is what s in the god s minds while art encompassed artwork painting sculpture music and athletics Art and prophecy are linked musicians put together notes in a pleasing array so they organize noise Sculpture takes the randomness of natural stone and reorganizes it Athletes take the human body and turn it into a skillful organism This relates to prophecy because the Greeks thought artists must be inspired by a god as they reveal something that has its source in the gods It s what only the gods knew was possible until the artist put it into a form humans could see Oracle the shrine of Apollo 7 an oracle can be either the prophetic message itself or the placeshrine At the oracle there was a priestess with the title Pythia through whom Apollo spoke to humans You had to have a signi cant question for the Pythia there was a period of fasting and you had to pay a fee buy a cake sacri ce a sheep or goat That sacri ce was not because the gods had any use for sheep or goats more that it was disposing of a part of your wealth and giving up something valuable So you ask Pythia your question Pythia would rock in her chair and utter an answer of incomprehensible jibberish Priests there would translate and write it down to give to you It was much like fortune tellers very ambiguous answers Croesus was king of Lydia now Turkey which bordered on Persia Croesus invented money as we know it 7 stamping coinage of pure weighed gold with his seal Lydia was a wealthy land but Persia was growing rapidly conquering lands around it Croesus worried about the Persians trying to overtake Lydia so he considered a preemptive rst strike So he sent his people to Pythia and the oracle The answer was if you attack you ll destroy a mighty empire He attacked Persia whupped him and took Croesus prisoner The Persian king was so angry that Croesus had attacked him that he was going to burn Croesus alive at the top of a huge pyre They had started the re when Croesus yelled Apollo why did you deceive me The Persian king heard this and wondered what it meant as the clouds parted He ordered his men to put out the re to save Croesus don t want to anger the gods but it was too late The big black cloud burst and put out the re So the Persian king spared Croesus and put him under house arrest In the palace Croesus noticed there were just a bunch of yes men around the king The men were looting the cities of Lydia 7 Persian king told him it was natural for him to be upset since they were looting what Croesus had lost but Croesus pointed out that they were actually looting what was not his stuff So the king made Croesus an advisor and granted Croesus one wish Croesus wanted to go to Delphi to ask why Apollo had deceived him So he traveled there and the priests told him that he had not been deceived that he had misunderstood the oracle and should have asked for clari cation You did destroy a mighty land so Apollo did not deceive you Croesus He saw their point The Oracle really was used to make military decisions until the Roman empire shut it down fearing it had too much in uence Apollo s Love Life Sibyl Cassandra Marpessa Daphne Hyacinthus Coronis Marsyas m 7 she was a beautiful human woman Apollo was interested in but she was not attracted to him He tried to bribe her to sleep with him She asked for the gift of prophecy 7he gave it Will you sleep with me now Still not attracted so she scooped up a handful of sand I want to live one year for every grain of sand in my hand Apollo granted it Will you sleep with me now No Sibyl said Ithought I could but I can t go through with it and she backed out Well the gods can t take back gifts once they were given So instead Apollo pointed out that she forgot to ask for eternal youth and beauty D oh So she got old ugly big and butch and then Sibyl started getting smaller until she wasted away and was just a voice They kept the voice in a bottle and people would visit to ask her for prophecy and advice One man who got his prophecy asked her if there was anything she wanted 7 she said she wanted to die but she couldn t 7 she knew just how many years she had left Cassandra 7 another beautiful woman who wouldn t sleep with Apollo The gifts he gave Cassandra included prophecy but she also rejected him after receiving the gift In anger Apollo spat in her mouth and after that she could predict the future accurately but no one would believe her M argessa 7 Apollo actually got this one in bed but there was a human male who was also interested in her Both Apollo and the man wanted to marry Marpessa so she had to make her decision between a god and a human She thought it s a bad idea to marry a god it would be violent if she rejected her and besides he s eternal and she would grow old and lose her looks and he s begin cheating on her So she ma1ried the human someone with whom she could grow old together Daphne 7 Apollo is in love again recall that he s the god of the arts including athletics and archery 7the bow is Apollo s weapon of choice Cupid Eros also carries a bow and arrows of desire Apollo saw little Cupid around Mt Olympus one day and made fun of him Cupid decided to get even Cupid is the god of passionate love much like Aphrodite Another aspect of their power is the frustration of one who cannot get the one they love and how that frustration drives you mad BC glasses or NY judge who wrote threatening letters to a woman who had jilted him Aphrodite can make you ecstatic or miserable Similarly Cupid had two different types of arrows 7 goldtipped arrows that make you fall in love and en ame your desire and leadtipped arrows that make you repelled by someone So there s a hill Daphne s walking up one way Apollo s walking up the other and Cupid is on top He shoots Apollo with a goldtipped arrow desire and shoots Daphne with a leadtipped arrow repelled So when they come around the hill face to face with Apollo naked he falls in love and she runs in terror repelled by him He was getting close to catching her so she prayed to the gods to transfer her into something to get away She became atree So Apollo is in love with atree It s a laurel tree which became sacred to Apollo H jgacirithus 7 Apollo also liked young boys before puberty Greeks tended to be bisexual liking boys before they got body hair So Hyacinthus was about 16 and Apollo loved him physically and otherwise They were practicing athletic events standing at opposite ends of a field and throwing the discus back and forth Apollo threw it it hit a stone when it landed bounced up and hit Hyacinthus in the head a fatal wound As a memorial Apollo caused a bloodred ower to grow out of the ground at that spot the hyacinth Coronis 7 a woman who had a sexual relationship with Apollo He found out that she had been unfaithful so he shot an arrow through her chest In dying she admitted that she had been unfaithful but also that she was carrying his child Apollo was the god of medicine and he saved the baby The child was namedAscleQius Apollo gave Asclepius to Chiron to raise Chiron was a centaur 12 man and 12 horse Chiron taught Asclepius the art of medicine and Asclepius became the best Greek doctor so good that he could treat any disease and even had brought a patient back to life The gods didn t like this 7 it was an example of hubris So they complained to Zeus who killed Asclepius with a thunderbolt Thanks a lot M arsjgas 7this man challenged Apollo to a music contest Apollo was the god of music Marsyas was a satyr 12 man 12 goat who played the pan pipe Satyrs are mortal so for a mortal to challenge a god to a contest was hubris Apollo agreed to the contest and asked what the prize was Marsyas had no answer so Apollo suggested that the winner get to do whatever he pleased to the loser Marsyas agreed and went first Apollo then played his lyre The judges declared Apollo the winner Marsyas asked so what do you want to do with him Apollo said you ll see Apollo had Marsyas hung upside down from a tree took out a knife and skinned him alive 1 7 Apollo also had a contest with Pan who was a 12 man 12 goat god This musical contest was not hubris because Pan was a god So they both played and all judges except one voted Apollo the winner King Midas was the lone judge to vote for Pan Apollo was so angry that he caused Midas ears to become bigjackass ears Midas started wearing a turban to cover them and only his barber knew his secret Still the barber sworn to secrecy had to get it off his chest somehow So the barber went into the woods at night dug a hole whispered into the hole Midas has asses ears covered the hole and left But reeds grew up in the spot that he had dug the hole and every time the wind would blow through the reeds the reeds would sing out Midas has asses ears on the wind so the whole town found out anyway End of Apollo stories start of Artemis stories Artemis 7 daughter of Leto Apollo s twin goddess of the forest 7that part of the earth that is still wild also considered the goddess of nature Recall that gods have the personality of the things that they are god of and nature is ruthless cruel and terrifying therefore so is Artemis Nature may seem pretty from a distance but up close it s not There are no old animals in nature 7 they are either prayed upon or can no longer acquire food Same with plants 7 99 of acorns never get to thrive because resources are taken by the mother tree And nature s violence is not attached to morality 7 it s not the good or bad who die it s the careless or weak Artemis is also the goddess of hunting anal wild animals One day Actaeon a human went hunting with a group of people but got separated and lost As he was searching he blundered onto the pool where Artemis was bathing and he saw her naked Even then it was instinctive not to look at people naked without their prior permission and even though it was accidental Artemis was very angry since she hated all forms of male sexuality Artemis turned Actaeon into a deer but he kept his human consciousness and understanding To Greeks this was even worse than death because you lost your humanity Actaeon as a deer ran terri ed from Artemis through the forest 7 until his own hunting dogs picked up his scent Actaeon recognized them but all they saw was a deer and as a deer he could not command them or speak to them He was torn to pieces by his own dogs H iQQoljgtu 7 a human the son of Theseus who was the king of the kingdom of Athens Hippolytus mother had died when he was young so he grew up with no mother He was a fine prestigious young man but he had a special devotion to Artemis she who was so hostile to males Still Hippolytus was devoted to her and was not satisfied with mere devotion Now Artemis Hestia and Athena were the only virgin goddesses 7 Greeks thought young girls devoted themselves to Artemis and dedicated their virginity to her Hippolytus was so devoted to Artemis that he took the same oath Hippolytus also thought that sex was revolting just as Artemis did and he expressed this to anyone who would listen But for Hippolytus a human to say that sex was disgusting was also to say that Aphrodite goddess of sexuality was also disgusting And that s hubris Aphrodite finally got fed up with Hippolytus saying that sex was disgusting and decided to destroy him Theseus Hippolytus father had remarried to a woman named Phaedra who was not much older than Hippolytus So in revenge Aphrodite caused Phaedra to fall in love with her stepson Hippolytus Phaedra was horrified by her own feelings but eventually they became so intense that she revealed her desire to Hippolytus and became vulnerable to him But Hippolytus already thought sex was disgusting so now this was utterly hideous He rejected her and she became bitterly hating of him Hate is not the opposite of love 7 indifference is its opposite But hate is as strong as love and are the same physiologically Angry over the rejection Phaedra wrote a letter to Theseus saying that while he was away Hippolytus had tried to rape her Then she hung herself Theseus found the letter and his dead wife believed it and cursed his son A curse was considered to be a very serious prayer to the gods in order to destroy someone In the aftermath Hippolytus left Athens and was driving his chariot along the sea Poseidon sent a giant bull from the sea which scared the chariot s horses which crashed the chariot and killed Hippolytus So Aphrodite had her revenge Artemis then went to Theseus and told him that Phaedra had lied and that he d made a mistake While she wouldn t lift a nger for Hippolytus while he was alive she cleared his name after he had died This type of deception has been historically found in other sources in the Bible there s the story of Joseph who was his father s favorite son and was given the elaborate coat of many colors Joseph s brothers who initially were going to kill him instead sold him into slavery He was owned by an Egyptian named Potiphar While Potiphar was away his wife tried to seduce Joseph who resisted her To get her revenge she told her husband that while he had been away Joseph had tried to rape her Joseph was imprisoned and was to be killed until he was saved by the Egyptian pharaoh So the ruse of the attempted rape is not only found in mythology Callisto 7 a beautiful young woman who had taken a vow of virginity a god came down and took the appearance of Artemis whom Callisto admired The god kissed her on the cheek and that was OK Then kissed her a little more rmly than usual Then the god held her down and raped her It was of course Zeus Humiliated Callisto wanted to hide the fact that she had lost her virginity because she wanted to stay in Artemis crew But she was pregnant with Zeus child and once she started to show she stopped doing things the others in the band did such as swimming naked in the pond Artemis noticed this and confronted her telling her to strip When Callisto wouldn t the band tore her clothes off When Artemis saw that she was pregnant she made her leave the group never to return 7the fact that it was not her fault didn t matter Callisto gave birth to a son Hera looking to get even with the other woman especially now that she had had a child by Zeus turned Callisto into a bear 7 again a terrible punishment since she lost her human nature The son was raised by foster parents Years later the son is out hunting in the woods and comes across a bear but the bear is not acting right 7 it s not running from him it just stands and stares He s about to kill the bear his mother when Zeus intervenes and turns the boy into a bear as well Muller would say that this explains Ursa Major and Ursa Minor Orion 7 a hunter who tried to rape Artemis The punishment was that he was sent up into the sky as a constellation next to Scorpio which is stinging him for eternity Why did the Greeks worship such cruel gods not that the gods gave them what they wished for but because they were afraid not to worship them Every one ofthe great goddesses can be shown to portray a certain role to men Hera 7 the wife Aphrodite 7 sex Demeter 7 mother Artemis 7 frustration But Athena may represent what women really are She does not represent a role to men Here start our Athena stories Athena is a virgin goddess but not hostile like Artemis 7 Athena s is the virginity of someone who is simply not concerned with seX She is the goddess of wisdom and technology 7that wisdom that can make life easier Also the goddess of engineering usually thought of as a man s domain The Greeks knew that human intelligence is the one thing that raises humans above the animals Athena is the child of Zeus and Metis Metis is the Greek word for wisdom with met being the root word such as in Prometheus and Epimetheus meaning forethought and afterthought After Zeus and Metis made love Zeus found out that she was going to give birth to a child more powerful than her father Well he knew the dangers of that so he swallowed Metis whole including her unborn child So officially Metis didn t give birth to Athena so the prophecy would not come true Athena actually popped out of Zeus head Athena had three characteristics of note at birth 1 She was born fully grown and had no childhood 7 she s the goddess of wisdom so she could not be allowed to have a childhood since children are stupid She was born wearing armor of a soldier which signi es that in war intelligence is the winner and that a woman can better do anything that a man can do So Athena is also the goddess of warfare Ares may be the god of war but he is that of brutal war friendly re and lack of planning Athena is strategy 3 She was Zeus favorite of all his many children N Athena gave her name to the city of Athens The people of that city invited the gods to compete to see who would be the patron god of their city Only 2 gods took part in it 7 Poseidon and Athena Poseidon went rst 7 he took his triton and struck the side of a large hill and out poured a saltwater spray a salt spring It was a small miracle indeed but as the people thought about it we can t drink it can t cook with it can t wash our clothes with it An impressive miracle yes but a useless one Athena then created the rst olive tree and showed them the technology to make use of it The olive tree became most useful The olives from the tree could be used to make olive oil from the rst pressing and this was used as a condiment to improve their food From the second pressing they made ointments salves and medicines With no soap their water baths dried out their skin and the ointment relieved them after bathing From the third pressing came the oil for little household lamps This was the rst portable illumination with large replaces being the norm beforehand This freed them from having to live by nature s dusktodawn clock Only the olive tree had so many uses but this was Athena s wisdom and style So she gave them the tree and necessary technology and they named her patron saint of the city now Athens Poseidon was not happy about losing He threatened to ood the city so they agreed to worship him as well secondarily even though Athens was the patron saint of the city Athena s temple remains in Athens 7 the Parthenon meaning temple of the v1rg1n Arachne 7 a human girl very adept at weaving it was assumed that women could make clothes but also that they made the very cloth that the clothes were made from Arachne was the best weaver in Greece in a way that would be a testament to the wisdom and skill of Athena But Arachne did not give the credit to Athena 7 she insisted that her talent was all her own and was not due to Athena That of course is hubris So Athena disguised herself as an old woman and visited Arachne telling her that she should give Athena credit Not only did Arachne say no but said that she could probably weave better than Athena This infuriated Athena who tore off her disguise and insisted on a weaving contest between the two So they got their looms and went at it Athena wove a tapestry showing the details of her contest with Poseidon and the olive tree 7 it was beautiful But Athena was curious about the tapestry Arachne was weaving so she went over to look at it Arachne s tapestry depicted gods having sex with humans including Apollo and Hippolytus and many other travesties Athena was furious at what she saw and smacked Arachne over the head Ashamed for her tapestry Arachne hung herself Athena was not satisfied however so she brought Arachne back to life and turned her into a spider so that she would weave for all of her life Mythology Exam 3 1M myths Now our myths will be focused on human beings instead of gods These Hero myths are not about extraordinarily courageous or superior people as our common interpretation of hero denotes Instead heroes in mythology are capable of stupidity cowardice and other weaknesses though some are naturally brave and smart Greek heroes basically are ordinary human beings who live extraordinary lives who could either succeed or fail at their tasks Greek hero myths show what it was like to be human M 7 a concept somewhat foreign to our culture which emphasizes freedom of choice and autonomy as well as responsibility for your own actions Greeks believe that it was all mapped out for you since you were born 7 an unchangeable blueprint with personal choice being merely an illusion We re ruled instead by fate 7 but Greeks were unclear as to who authored fate since even the gods could not change it Later on came the concept of three women who controlled fate one of whom wove the thread of fate the next who measured it and thereby measured your lifespan and one who cut the thread Belief in fate made the oracle of Apollo so important 7 it let visitors find out what their fate was going to be Astrology and horoscopes are also based on the assumption that you do not have freewill 7 that the stars determine your life Psychology says that you were born free but your development and childhood dictate what kind of person you ll be ithat you re not free anymore The biological basis for human behavior says that both physical attributes and personality are controlled by your genes Whether you re violent or peaceful it s genetic So each of these things is a form of predetermined fate 7 we may think we re free but the things and sciences we surround ourselves with say otherwise Croesus king of Lydia 7 he was the richest person in the world and it was he that created to concept of money He had the fortune to do or have whatever he wanted to A famed Greek philosopher named Solon visited Croesus and the king really wanted to impress this powerful man After Solon had been shown the grand tour of all of Croesus riches and power Croesus asked Solon who the happiest person in the world was Solon to Croesus surprise named someone he d never heard of So Croesus asked who was second Again someone he d never heard of Finally exasperated Croesus asked OK what about me Solon replied Call no man happy until he s dead This was confusing to Croesus ithe Greek view of the afterlife was very bleak with eternal misery What Solon meant was that if you can die with a good life with nothing bad happening to you then you can be called happy as in having had a happy life But while you re still living something bad might still happen to you So until you complete life happy you can t be happy Such is the story of the father whose two sons won medals at the Olympics People around him watching told him to die now because he would never be happier Well Croesus didn t believe him He knew he was happy After Solon left Croesus had a beloved son who at birth the priests had said was fated to die by a manmade weapon This type of thing happened all the time but Croesus with all of his money and power decided that he would beat fate and not let a manmade weapon near his son This also meant that the son never could lea1n to use such weapons even a knife with which to cut his food All other boys got trained but the king s son was raised like a girl Very early the son started complaining to Croesus but Croesus still said no Still as a parent it was very hard for Croesus to tell his son no you can t grow up like a man but he was doing it to protect him Another visitor came to visit Croesus iAdrastus a man who had killed his own blood relations in his own country Killing was common but killing your own blood was considered breaking both human law and it offended the gods When someone killed a blood relative they were forced to leave their own country and travel about until they could convince the king of another country to perform the religious rites to cleanse them of their crime This was done to protect the home country from the wrath of the offended gods So Adrastus came before Croesus who agreed to perform the rites which put Adrastus under great moral obligation to the king Adrastus looked for ways to repay him and one day some peasants came to the king to ask for hunters to rid their village of a killer wild boar Croesus said OK he d send the boar hunt The son asked Croesus if he could go not to participate but just to watch Croesus said no Adrastus saw this stepped forward and said if you let him go Iwill act as his guard and protect him with my own body The son begged his father even more until Croesus nally said yes Both were overjoyed 7the son because he d be going to watch the boar hunt and Adrastus because he d found a way to repay Croesus So the boar hunt gets underway and the semicircle of hunters surrounded the cave where the wild boar hides The boar charges out of the cave and is supposed to stop for a second surprised by the semicircle of hunters just long enough for it to be killed Instead the boar charged directly for the king s son Well the son had nothing to logically fear 7 the boar had no manmade weapons But Adrastus panicked and grabbed a spear from a nearby hunter He threw it at the boar missed and hit the king s son killing him So despite Croesus attempts to defy fate fate won and the very thing that he did to try to defeat fate sending Adrastus as a bodyguard caused fate to come true Adrastus killed himself and Croesus finally understood what Solon had meant about a living man not being happy Croesus in dealing with his grief set out to attack Persia was defeated and became a prisoner He later traveled to Delphi to ask why Apollo had betrayed him Heracles 7 name means glory of Hera son of Zeus and Alcmena since Hera takes out her wrath on the children of Zeus affairs one woman Alcmena named her child Heracles to try to protect the boy from Hera Zeus came to Alcmena in the form of her husband and made the night last three times longer than normal So her husband returns the next day wanting to make love and she said I m surprised you d want to after making love all night last night They figured it out7 must have been Zeus When Heracles was being born Hera found out and sent the goddess of childbirth to the front porch of Alcmena s house to sit down and hold her knees together This is a form of sympathetic magic like voodoo 7 since the goddess of childbirth did this Alcmena could not give birth which became excruciatingly painful Hera was seeing to it that Alcmena suffered for being too attractive and getting the attention of Zeus Finally Alcmena s maid ran out and yelled My mistress has given birth This couldn t be but still the goddess of childbirth jumped up to see what was going on and Heracles popped out In revenge Hera turned the maid into a weasel Hera took out her wrath on the children of Zeus affairs because they were walking monuments to his infidelities So she sent two serpents to the crib of Heracles to kill him but instead he strangled the snakes Heracles is the strongman of Greek myth analogous to Samson in the Bible Heracles was born human but becomes a god after his death 7 he lives and dies physically but Zeus wanted the soul of his son to be spared the underworld so he transfers it up to Olympus and makes him a god Heracles used his weapons to hunt and fight The king in a neighboring kingdom had a problem with a maneating lion Heracles was l6years old when he came in and killed the lion which he skinned Heracles became the only Greek hero to wear lion s skin In thanks the king offered Heracles all 50 of his daughters 7 Heracles either spent 50 nights in the kingdom one with each or spent a single night in which he made love to all 50 An example of masculinity by arithmetic Heracles got married but Hera was still out to get him so she drove him insane and while insane he killed his own wife and kids Then she restored his sanity so that he d have to live with the guilt Recall that when a man kills blood relatives such as his kids he was forced to leave the kingdom So Heracles had to leave his country and nd a king to perform the religious rites to cleanse him He found a king to do it but he made Heracles perform 12 Labors 7 12 problems which needed to be solved Here are a few The Lion of Nemea ZEemean Lion 7 different from the lion he had slain earlier but also a maneater This lion s hide was so thick that it could not be pierced by any manmade weapon Heracles had to kill it bring back its skin for proof He killed the lion with a club since spears didn t work but still had to skin it and knives wouldn t work on that hide Heracles looked closely and thought7then used the lion s own claws which were after all not manmade to take its skin off The H lgdra of Lerna 7 he had to kill this water serpent that had 9 poisonous heads Heracles started chopping heads off but each time he d cut one off two would grow back in its place Hera still out for revenge sent a giant crab to harass him So rst he killed the crab but the crab had performed well so Hera set it up in the sky as a constellation Cancer Heracles went and got a friend who brought his sword and made it red hot in a fire Heracles would cut off a head and the friend would cauterize the wound But when the 9111 head was cut off it was immortal still snapping Heracles buried it under a big rock He then milked the poison of the head and dipped all his arrowheads in the poison to make them more deadly This would later cause his own death Stables otAugeas Augean Stables 7King Augeas had 30000 cattle whose stalls had never been cleaned Heracles was given one day to clean them He saw the task and knew it couldn t be done in a single day But he also saw two rivers nearby 7 narrow rapid owing rivers in the mountainous terrain So Heracles darnmed the rivers so they d ow through the stables and it cleaned out in one day The first 6 of Heracles labors were in the real world 7 only the skin of the lion and the heads of the hydra were supernatural The other 6 labors take him to the threshold of the supernatural world where he tries to function as a human where only gods can function Aggles of the H esgerides Hesperides means daughters of Evening 7 another example of anthropomorphism with Evening being given human qualities such as the ability of childbirth The daughters of Evening lived on an island in the river Ocean that ows around the earth No one knew where this island was Heracles was sent to get from the Hesperides the golden apples which had been a wedding gift to Hera In the middle of the garden of the Hesperides was the tree with the golden apples Heracles didn t know exactly where the island was so he went to the furthest west that he could get to by land 7 northwest Africa He stopped once he came upon the river Ocean He did not see the island but there he foundm one of the Titans who was not sent down to Tartarus but instead was sent to the comer of the earth to hold the weight of the heavens on his shoulders note it s the weight of the heavens not weight of the earth as commonly portrayed Atlas is a defeated inferior god but still superior to humans Heracles asked Atlas if he knew where the island was to which Atlas replied of course because I am the father of the Hesperides Atlas amp Evening He said he would go to the island and that the daughters would give him their father the apples So Atlas transferred the weight of the heavens onto the shoulders of Heracles This marks the first time that a human was doing the work of a god The Hesperides gave Atlas reluctantly the golden apples But Atlas realized that he enjoyed not having the weight of the heavens upon him so when he got back he told Heracles that he didn t want it back 7 Heracles would have to hold up the heavens Heracles agreed but asked Atlas to take it for just a second so he could put some padding on his shoulders Atlas wasn t the smartest and this sounded OK so he momentarily took back the weight of the heavens 7 and Heracles left with the golden apples Heracles was not only able to do the work of a god but had been able to deceive him The 12111 Labor 7 Cerberus 7the watchdog at the gate of the underworld the fiercest of all dogs with three heads To always be alert the three heads would sleep eat and keep watch all in rotation Heracles had to go down to the world of the dead overpower Cerberus and bring him back Well the underworld was easy to get into 7 that s not why Cerberus was there He was there to keep people in Heracles wrestled him and brought him up to the surface but people were terrified so he had to bring him back When you go down to the world of the dead and come back it s an example of a resurrection myth So while Cerberus was away on the surface the gate was unguarded so the souls of the dead could also get out and come back up He compared this to Jesus raising the souls of the dead So Heracles had done the 12 labors and was free from the guilt The Romans prizes Hercules their name for Heracles They would say Heracles when surprised much as we say Jesus so he was a very important figure in Roman pagan religion Heracles married a second wife Deianira Deianira would be his downfall much like Delilah was to Samson she got the secret of his strength his long hair and gave it to the Pharisees who captured him In an attempt to torture him Samson prayed for strength and took out a temple column killing them all So Heracles who no man could beat fell due his wife Deianira The two were traveling and came to a river Heracles wanted to get her across without getting her soaked so he looked around for a way Nothing A centaur named Nessus approached and offered to carry her across on his back Great So Heracles swam across the river thinking they were right behind him At the other side he turns around and sees that they had not crossed and that Nessus was trying to rape Deianira Heracles red an arrow 7 one of the hydrapoison tipped a1rows 7 at Nessus Nessus was hit and felt the poison working inside him and he knew he was doomed All he could think of was revenge So he told Deianira that her husband s arrow was killing him but that his blood was a magical love charm that she could use if she ever was afraid of losing her husband s love So she collected some ofthe blood and hid it away He had appealed to her fear of losing Heracles love So things go on and Heracles has many more adventures And after one adventure he brings back a concubine 7 a sleepwith partner Typically wives shouldn t have felt threatened since the concubines were strictly for seX and in fact some wives welcomed the diversion But Deianira heard that Heracles was bringing a concubine back and her heart sank 7 she was worried that he would give more than sex to the concubine and in fact give her his attention and love So she remembered the blood and made Heracles a beautiful robe and dyed it with the blood of Nessus She had the robe sent to him and he loved it He was wearing the robe but the poison in the blood was heatactivated so that night as he stood by the fire the poison seeped into his skin and burned him terribly He tried to tear away at it but it was stuck to him like napalm Heracles burned to death in agony from the poison on the robe Zeus his father was unwilling to let Heracles soul go to the underworld so he took his soul to Olympus and set him up as a god Next hero Jason Jason was from the town of Iolcus His uncle was named Pelias Jason s father was crown prince of Iolcus and was supposed to become king but Pelias took over the throne instead Pelias considered Jason to be a threat so Jason s parents hurriedly got Jason out of the country to safety in case Pelias tried to have him killed Twenty years later at around age 20 Jason decides to come back to Iolcus to reclaim his throne On his way he stopped to help an old woman cross a stream Partway across the stream he lost one of his shoes The old woman though was really Hera in disguise so she decided to help him defeat Pelias who Hera felt had not given her the proper respect The fact that Hera decides to help Jason lets us know that Zeus was not his father Pelias had been fated to be killed by a man with one shoe then here comes back Jason with one shoe saying that he wanted the throne Pelias knew that he could not kill Jason since he was a blood relative and he d then have to go into eXile himself So he asked Jason what he would do if he were confronted by the man fated to kill him Jason said I would send him on an adventure to get the golden eece Ifhe s lost at sea it would not be your fault So Pelias did just that 7 sent Jason on an adventure to get the golden eece promising that if Jason brought back the golden eece he could be king The golden eece was a sheepskin 7 many gold miners would stretch a sheepskin eece in a stream so that the wool could gather owing gold pieces The eece was in a country at the far end of the Black Sea over which Jason would have to sail He built a ship 7 the rst Greek ship 7 called the Argg The sailors were called Argonauts Jason recruited 50 men to go along with him 7 he needed so many to row the ship out when leaving and nearing the dock Jason s adventures Phineus was a blind king who had the gift of prophecy He was tormented by H argz39e 7 birdlike women who d y over and snatch his food He was desperate and starving Jason and his Argonauts drove off the harpies so in gratitude Phineus prophesized the dangers of the journey and how to get the eece He had to sail through the Clashing Rocks which no ship had ever sailed through before Phineus has told him to release a dove and if the dove made it through the two huge crushing rocks they should start rowing as fast as they could 7 if the dove was crushed turn around and go home So they release the dove the rocks start to close and they snatched off one tail feather from the dove who was otherwise unharmed So they started rowing 7 the rocks closed and snatched off one board from the back of the boat but otherwise unharmed The curse of the clashing rocks broken they parted and would stay open forever So the Argo gets to Colchis on the eastern shore of the Black Sea where the golden eece was He went to the king but the king would not give him the eece stating it was a national treasure But he gave Jason tasks to perform to see if he could earn it you couldn t just kill or turn away a peaceful visitor as this would garner Zeus wrath Jason was told that he would have to 1 put a yoke on a pair of rebreathing bulls 2 plow a field and plant dragon s teeth and 3 kill the armed men who would spring up from the planted dragon s teeth Well the king of Colchis had a daughter named Medea who was a witch So Hera went to Aphrodite to get Medea to fall in love with Jason in order to have her help him She did First Medea gave Jason an ointment to protect him from the bull s fire Then she gave him advice on fighting the armed men Jason yoked the bulls plowed the eld planted the dragon s teeth and the army of armed men sprung up Jason threw a rock into the middle of them the guy that it hit thought that the guy standing next to him had hit him so he hit him The next guy hit the next guy It became a barroom brawltype fight At the end only 5 of the armed men wounded and beaten were alive and Jason was able to kill them by himself So he d accomplished his tasks but the king still refused to give him the golden eece Jason decided to steal the eece which was hung in atree in a special garden protected by a dragon Medea helped him out by drugging the dragon so that Jason could steal the eece After they got it Jason his men and Medea who had now burned her bridge with the family and town rushed to board the Argo The king s men also rushed to stop them Medea though had brought along her little brother and as they sailed she killed him and cut him to pieces She would throw pieces overboard one at a time The king had to stop at each piece to pick it up 7 a body had to be buried intact for the soul to have a chance to continue 7 so the king lost time each time he had to stop Eventually Jason and the Argo with Medea on board got away On the way back to Iolcus the Argo stopped in Crete and ran into Talos a bronze giant that patrolled the beach Again Medea with her witch knowledge told Jason the secret to victory Talos had a bronze plug in back of one of his heels The Greeks thought that the gods had ichor a clear substance that was a divine version of blood running through their veins So Jason pulled the plug and all of the ichor leaked out killing Talos Jason then returned to face Pelius with the golden eece but Pelius still wouldn t abdicate the throne telling Jason that he d just have to wait until Pelius died Since he was a blood relative Jason couldn t kill him But Medea had a plan She got the daughters of Pelius together and showed them a trick She killed an old sheep cut it up put it in a pot cast a spell and a young ram jumped out She showed them the same trick using Jason s father who hopped out 30 years younger So she asked them if they d like to do this for their own father Pelius They agreed happily So she gave them the ingredients wrote down the spell and gave it to the daughters But naturally she tricked them and the spell did not work for them They had killed their own father Jason thought he d take over now but the townspeople said that Jason and Medea were guilty of the killing and the two were exiled anyway So Jason had to find a king to purify him The King of Corinth did and allowed them to live in Corinth Jason was unhappy 7 he d always assumed he d be a king someday Still he tried to help the king of Corinth and pay him back The king was fond of Jason and since he had no son of his own he told Jason to marry his daughter so that he d later become king Problem 7 Jason was married to Medea and she was not pleased with this concept Medea could not go home 7 she had alienated her family as she left on the Argo so she was stuck Reluctantly she agreed Medea then made a robe for Jason s new bride and coated it with a heatactivated poison like the poison of the hydra Again it burned here into the esh of Jason s bride as she showed the new gift to her father The king tried to help his daughter and together they burned to death in agony Jason went to confront Medea but she was still getting even with him The only chance of a good afterlife was leaving behind good kids She had a dilemma 7 did she hate Jason more or love their own children more She decided she hated him more and stabbed the kids to death in front of him Jason wanted to kill her but she escaped in a dragonpulled chariot Medea went to Athens where she took up with King Aegeus Jason though became a hopeless drunk looking back on his life and how he never became king Drinking on the seashore he sat leaning against the remains of the Argo where it had grounded and a board fell off and killed him Next hero Theseus Now in Athens King Aegeus at an earlier time before Medea The king had no sons to be his heir which was dangerous because people wanted to kill him for the job since it would be up for grabs Aegeus was even threatened by his own brothers So he went to the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi and asked if he d ever have a son The answer Don t undo the wineskin s mouth until you get home OK he didn t get it So traveling back to Athens he stopped for the night at a neighboring kingdom during which he tells the king about his prophecy The neighbor king understood it even though Aegeus did not so the king gets Aegeus drunk and sends his own daughter in to sleep with him knowing from the prophecy that she would get pregnant The next morning Aegeus gured it out and knew he d been tricked He told the girl if you have my daughter don t even bother telling me But if it s a boy raise him without telling him who I am Don t tell him until he can lift a certain large stone that I choose and gets the items out from under it King Aegeus then returned to Athens The girl gave birth to Theseus A problem arose 7 the Greeks only had one name so they d identify themselves by listing their lineage I m Joe son of John grandson of Josh only throwing in the mother s names for clari cation Theseus did not know who his father was he was just Theseus So he was ridiculed for all his life as he grew up and developed a compleX about his father Eventually he became old enough to life the giant rock where he found a pair of sandals and a sword His mother was then able to tell him that his father was Aegeus king of Athens who wanted him to come and claim his birth rite But Theseus had this complex 7 usually fathers give their son permission to become a man through some comingofage rite that Theseus never had So Theseus took the long dangerous route to Athens to have adventures and prove to himself and his father that he was a man 7 On the way he ran into Sinis who lived on the side of the road Sinis would trap people as they went by and tie each of their arms to the tips of two pine trees that he had bent down to the ground and tied there He would tie their arms up one each to a tree then cut the rope that held the trees in place As the trees swung up the person would be ripped apart Theseus overpowered Sinis and reversed it 7 he tied him to the two trees but the rope and Sinis was torn apart He also ran into Procrustes known as The Stretcher Procrustes also lived on the side of the road and had a guest bed for people who d stop by But they had to fit in the bed So he d either stretch them until they fit the bed or if they were taller than the length of the bed he d chop off parts until they fit This is still known as Procrustean Logic 7 starting at the end and thinking your way backwards from there Theseus overpowered Procrustes also and made him fit the bed Theseus was the only hero in Greek myth to voluntarily undertake these adventures Others including Heracles and Jason had the adventures assigned to them Theseus did it to prove himself to both the king and to himself He did not want Aegeus to be obligated to like him Back in Athens King Aegeus had married Medea and they had by now had a couple of sons Theseus didn t just go in and tell his story 7 he simply said that he had business with the king Medea being a witch knew who he was so she told the king that this visitor was trouble and should be killed with it made to look like an accident Aegeus not knowing agreed and Medea planned to poison Theseus that night at dinner Theseus was the guest of honor and showed up wearing his sandals and carrying the sword but his cloak concealed them Being the guest of honor he noticed that he was drinking from a gold cup while all the others had silver The better to poison you with At dinner Greeks did not use forks they ate with their hands and the elite had their food cut to bitesizes for them When the boar was brought from the kitchen it had not been carved so Theseus says allow me takes out his sword and goes to carve the boar King Aegeus recognizes the sword and knocks the cup out of Theseus hand saving him from drinking the poison By the time the king turned around to confront Medea she had ed never to be seen again Life was good in Athens Aegeus had his heir and all was well Then a ship arrived from the island of Crete 7 a ship with black sails A depressed atmosphere overcame Athens and Theseus asked the king what was going on Aegeus told him the king of Crete was named Minos and their most important god Crete being an island was Poseidon Minos wanted to offer Poseidon a bull as a sacri ce but didn t have one suitable So he asked Poseidon to send him a bull to sacri ce to him Poseidon sent him a beautiful perfect bull So perfect that Minos could not bring himselfto kill it so he kept it for himself and sacrificed a lesser bull to Poseidon Not a good idea to anger Poseidon Minos had a wife named Pasighae Poseidon made her fall madly in love with the bull She knew it was wrong but finally she had to satisfy her urge so she went to the village craftsman Daedalus who made a huge hollow cow that she could climb into so that she could mate with the bull It worked the bull mated with Pasiphae and she had a child 7 a minotaur bull of Minos a man s body with a bull head Minos decided he had to hid this creature away so he made Daedalus create a labyrinth in which the minotaur would be kept and hidden away But Minos was still furious with Daedalus for making the hollow cow so he kept him under house arrest Daedalus wanted to leave the island but King Minos had threatened any sailor that gave him passage So Daedalus made wings from feathers and wax for himself and his son Icarus They d escape by ying offthe island So they went to a cliff jumped off and it worked 7 they were ying Daedalus had warned Icarus not to y too low because ifthe wings got wet they d be waterlogged or to y too high because the sun would melt the waX Icarus was having a good time though and kept ying higher Eventually he ew too high the sun s heat melted the waX the wings disintegrated and he crashed into the sea dead Back to the minotaur Athens and Crete had had a minor war after which Athens had to annually send 7 boys and 7 girls from prominent families to be fed to the minotaur who ate human esh It was a lottery 7 no one knew who d be picked so yearly the ship with the black sails came to get the children and a depression overcame Athens When Theseus heard about this he volunteered to go 7he wanted to kill the minotaur himself Aegeus didn t want to lose his son but Theseus wanting to further prove himselfto his father insisted Aegeus then made him promise that if he succeeded he d change the sails from black to white so that the king would know immediately if his son were living or dead So Theseus goes down to Crete Minos daughter Ariadne fell immediately in love with Theseus and wanted to help him defeat the minotaur She gave him one of two things depending on the myth 7 either a string to trail behind him so he could find his way out of the labyrinth or a wreath that lit up to wear around his neck so he could see in the dark Theseus found and killed the minotaur Ariadne though had betrayed her father so she decided to leave with Theseus for Athens They sailed out and stopped for the night along the coast of an island In the morning Theseus left without Ariadne myth says he forgot He also forgot to change the sails So he sails into Athens with the black sails ying his father Aegeus is sitting on the cliff and sees the black sails instead of white ones thinks Theseus is dead and throws himself off the cliff into the sea it s now named the Aegean Sea Theseus is now in power in Athens his father dead Things don t get better He has a son Hippolytus who followed Artemis thinking sex was disgusting Aphrodite gets her revenge by making Theseus wife Phaedra fall in love with Hippolytus Phaedra leaves a note for Theseus that Hippolytus had tried to rape her she kills herself he runs Hippolytus out and Hippolytus is killed by Poseidon Artemis then tells Theseus that he had been tricked and his son was now dead Theseus became so depressed that he left the throne became a drunk and died in exile in poverty Next hero Perseus The king of Argos was Acrisius who had no sons But he did have a daughter named Danae Still there was no clear heir to the throne Acrisius went to the oracle to ask if he d ever have a son The answer was No but your daughter will have a son OK that ll work Acrisius thought But the oracle continued that son will kill you Not OK then So Acrisius tries to beat fate by shutting Danae in an underground bronze chamber with only female servants attending her But Zeus visited her in the form of golden rain and she became pregnant with Perseus She was still in the chamber so Acrisius did not know about the child until one day he was walking near the chamber and heard the laughter of a child He opened the chamber and there was Danae with Perseus She tried to explain about being visited by a god but Acrisius instead believed that one of the servants had allowed a man in So Acrisius had a dilemma7 he wanted to get rid of the child but he couldn t kill it since it was a blood relative So he put the Danae and Perseus in a chest with enough food and water for one day took them to the seashore and set them off sailing This was not considered killing them 7 the Greeks figured the gods would provide for them if they wanted them to live But the chest was seaworthy and washed ashore on an island Danae and Perseus were taken in by a sherman who raised young Perseus The king of the island was attracted to Danae who rejected him repeatedly So the king had a banquet and invited all the young men each of whom having to give him a horse Perseus said that a horse was too easy why not something like a Gorgon head So the king said ne Perseus bring me the head of a Gorgon The Gorgons were three sisters each with wings snakes for hair and so ugly that you d turn to stone if you saw their face The only mortal Gorgon was Medusa Both Hermes and Athena came to Perseus aid to help him behead Medusa Hermes gave him a sword to use and the both gave him advice on how to kill her They told Perseus to visit women named the Graeae gray ones three very old women who were the sisters of the three Gorgon The Graeae were old from the time they were born and between them they had only one eye and one tooth which they d pass around to whichever one needed an eye or a tooth at the time They gured Perseus was up to no good so they refused to tell him where the Gorgon were So he reached out and took their eye They still wouldn t tell him Later as they were eating he took their tooth Now they knew they were helpless and would starve so they reluctantly told him where to nd the Gorgon and where to nd the items he d need The items were a Cap of Invisibility Winged Sandals and a Bag to keep Medusa s head 1n So Perseus goes and nds the Gorgons With his cap and sandals he can y overhead without being seen But he can t look at Medusa or he ll turn to stone So Athena carries a large re ective shield which he looks at the re ection as he cuts her head off After Medusa s head is severed lots of snakes come out as well as Pegasus the winged horse Medusa was pregnant with Pegasus at the time So Perseus had accomplished his task and had the head of Medusa On his way back along the coast Perseus saw a beautiful woman chained to a cliff with a sea monster ravaging the town below and headed toward the woman Her name was Andromeda Perseus asked why she was chained up there and was told that the girl s mother the queen had said that she the queen was more beautiful than even the mermaids Poseidon didn t like this so the mother had to sacri ce her daughter to the sea monster Perseus asked the king that if he saved Andromeda if he could have her hand in marriage The king agreed So Perseus with his cap of invisibility and winged shoes swoops down shows the sea monster Medusa s head and it turns to stone Perseus gets to marry Andromeda As Perseus continues home he comes to the place in northwest Africa where Atlas was holding up the heavens He said hello but Atlas wouldn t even talk to him How rude So Perseus ies back with Medusa s head and Atlas is turned to stone the origin of the Atlas Mountain range Eventually Medusa s blood begins to drip out of the bottom of the bag Where it drips on land snakes came up in the Libyan desert Where it dripped in the water coral formed So Perseus makes it home and tells the king that he s got the head of the Gorgon The king doesn t believe him and says Show me Brilliant move So the king is turned to stone and his brother the sherman who took in Perseus and Danae becomes king Perseus decided to go back to Argos claim his throne from his grandfather Acrisius He still has Medusa s head and unsure what to do with it asks Athena who has him return the head the winged sandals and the cap of invisibility So Perseus and his wife Andromeda go to Argos and the king Acrisius runs away Perseus takes over the throne Later Perseus decides to compete in the discus throw in the Olympic games The playing eld was very narrow and Perseus throw went awry into the crowd and hit a man 7 Acrisius killing him killed by his grandson as fated But Perseus had killed a blood relative albeit accidentally and had to leave the country He found a king to perform the necessary rites and that king later said I ve always like Argos let s switch So Perseus has a new kingdom and rare in myth lived happily ever after The family was the basic unit of society like ngers on a hand You could curse someone s entire family not just the single person to get revenge M was the son of the king of Thebes A revolution occurred and drove the father and son from the kingdom While in exile the father died when Laius was just a young boy Laius was taken in by the king of another kingdom who raised him as his own child This was rare since blood relations held a family together so such adoption was unheard of in ancient worlds When Laius got older he fell in love with one of the king s real daughters She wasn t interested so he raped her The king cursed Laius and all of his descendants Laius returned to Thebes and became king and he married a woman named Jocasta He wanted children but couldn t have any so he asked the Oracle of Apollo for the answer He was told that he would have a son but because of the curse the son would kill him So Laius decided to get rid of the baby by using exposure The idea was to leave the baby in the woods outside the city limits as long as he didn t kill this blood relative it was OK This to Laius was the ideal way to beat fate So he gave his son to a servant who would bring the baby to the woods with his ankles pinned so he wouldn t crawl away The servant though felt sorry for the baby and brought him to Corinth The king and queen kept him and named him Oedipus swollen foo Oedipus grew up very happily in Corinth with the king and queen whom he thought were his parents A drunk man at a party told him that he wasn t really the child of the king and queen When the man sobered up Oedipus asked him to explain but the man denied having said that When Oedipus asked the king and queen they assured him that he was indeed their son Not convinced Oedipus went to the Oracle to nd the truth He was told to avoid his homeland because he was fated to murder his father and marry his mother Greeks believed that love between father and son was the strongest and most important love and that it was forbidden for a mother to sleep with her son Still universally forbidden So these were two of the most heinous crimes the Greeks had When Oedipus heard this fate from the Oracle he forgot all about what the drunk had said He thought the king and queen of Corinth were his parents ithe only parents he knew and the Oracle had told him to avoid his homeland so he couldn t go back to Corinth So Oedipus had to go into exile at least for the rest of his parent s lives He decided to go to Thebes a city he d never set foot in ito the extent of his knowledge As is usually the case the steps taken to beat fate usually cause the fate to come true As Oedipus walked toward Thebes the chariot of a wealthy man came up on the road behind him The driver yelled for Oedipus to move but he being stubborn did not Tension grew and eventually the chariot pulled off the road to pass him but as it went by the man in the chariot hit Oedipus on his head with a staff Oedipus furious pulled the man out of the chariot and killed him on the side of the road The man in the chariot was Laius his father Oedipus had fulfilled the first part of the oracle although no one knew When Oedipus got to Thebes there was a monster at the city gates not letting anyone in or out It had the body of a lion and the head of a woman ithe Sphinx Greek for the strangler It would ask one who approached a question and if they answered it they were allowed to pass Ifnot they were strangled Oedipus approached and the Sphinx asked him What has four legs in the morning two legs at noon and three legs in the evening Oedipus answered a man Four legs as an infant two as an adult and three 2 legs and a cane late in life The Sphinx was disgusted that he got it right so she threw herself off of a cliff The people of Thebes were grateful to Oedipus and made him a hero and since they had the problem of their king recently being killed on the road by a gang of thieves according to the driver the only witness they had no king and he had left no heirs Since Oedipus had been raised as a prince they made him king of Thebes As king Oedipus inherited all of the old king Laius power property and the queen Jocasta He was young she was older both were at their sexual peak so they got married and had children This makes the children Oedipus sons and daughters as well as brothers and sisters But more importantly his marriage to Jocasta fulfilled the second part of the oracle 7 he had now killed his father and married his mother and neither of them nor anyone else knew As the years passed Oedipus had thought that he had beaten the fate of the Oracle since he had never gone back to Corinth and thought he had not killed his father and married his mother Still if even one person beat fate it would have been horrible for human race signifying that they could not depend on their gods to know the future A plague fell over Thebes and plagues were always thought to be sent by the gods Oedipus as king of Thebes had to nd out why the gods were angry and had sent a plague so he sent a servant to the Oracle to nd out They were told Apollo is angry because the killer of the former king lives in the city unpunished So Oedipus began an investigation to nd the killer and thus get rid of the plague Oedipus himself questioned the only witness the old driver who stuck to his story about a gang of thieves killing the king Oedipus asked for details 7 where did it happen what was the scene He knew the gang of thieves could be a lie and as the old driver told the tale Oedipus recalled killing the man on the side of the road and got a sinking feeling wondering if he were the killer At this point a messenger from Corinth told Oedipus that the king of Corinth had died in bed of old age Oedipus grieved for the loss of who he thought was his father but was relieved thinking that since the king had died in bed that Oedipus had beaten the fate the Oracle had told him With the king dead the people of Corinth wanted Oedipus to come back and assume the throne but he said he couldn t that he was cursed and could not return while his mother was alive The messenger then told Oedipus that he was not the child of the king and queen of Corinth 7 that he had been found in a forest that separated Corinth and Thebes and had been brought to the king and queen of Corinth When Oedipus asked the messenger how he knew this the messenger replied that it was he who had found him in the woods Oedipus was horri ed 7the oracle might have been true after all so he now had to nd out who his real parents were So he questioned the messenger about how he had been found The messenger said that a slave came out of those woods wearing the royal seal of Thebes and left the baby So Oedipus found the old slave in Thebes and asked him who his parents were The slave did not want to tell but to avoid torture answered that the parents were Laius and Jocasta So now Oedipus knew that the fate was true He went looking for J ocasta but she had gotten wind of it all and had hung herself Oedipus took the body down took the pins out of her robe and stabbed his own eyes He staggered out and admitted his 2 crimes killing dad and loving mom and said that he would now wander in exile for the rest of his life Oedipus did have kids though with J ocasta The sons wanted nothing to do with him but his daughter Antigone helped him in exile Oedipus did though die in exile punished for suffering a bad fate paying for the crime of Laius raping the king s daughter So Antigone went with Oedipus into exile to help him until his death His two sons Eteocles and Polynices refused to have anything to do with him so Oedipus cursed them before he left The two brothers Eteocles and Polynices came into an agreement that they d rule in alternate years 7 one acting as king for a year while the other was in exile then they d switch roles annually Eteocles went rst becoming king while Polynices went into exile At the end of the rst year Eteocles refused to give up the throne When Polynices heard of this he raised up an army of mercenaries and attacked the city Thebes A civil war took place even though civil war was an offense to the gods since hit had blood relatives killing each other During the battle the two brothers met up with each other on the battle eld and fought in individual combat Both ended up wounded badly and eventually died from the wounds With both dead the my of Polynices who were paid mercenaries simply left while the army of Thebes went back to the city Creon was the next to rule Thebes following their deaths Creon was Jocasta s brother and was the only remaining blood relative who could assume the throne He tried to settle things after the civil war by instituting marshal law and ruling with an iron st The first law Creon passed offended the gods themselves 7 he declared that Eteocles would be given proper burial in the city at public expense but said that Polynices would be left out on the battlefield to rot To the Greeks having no proper burial meant suffering for 100 years after death so it was taken seriously The only person bothered by this though was Antigone She wanted to see that Polynices her brother got a proper burial Eteocles had already been buried at public expense One night Antigone sneaked out covered Polynices with dirt and said the religious rites of burial then went home The guards that were guarding the body to make sure no one buried it against King Creon s orders had been sleeping In the morning they woke to find the body buried and had to go tell Creon Creon gave them a broom and told them to unbury it immediately The next night Antigone tried to bury Polynices again but was this time caught by the guards and brought before Creon Creon was shocked 7 here was his own niece breaking his laws When he asked her why she replied that it was her religious duty and divine law trumped any human law he could institute Creon angry condemned her to death But since she was a blood relative he couldn t kill her outright So he sentenced her to be buried alive in a rock tomb with enough food and water for one day The tomb was then sealed However Antigone was engaged to Creon s son who went to Creon to argue for her freedom Creon wouldn t listen to him so the son stormed out Next the town prophet came to Creon and explained how his actions would anger the gods and nally he convinced Creon that he was wrong So Creon agrees to release Antigone and he and his men go to the tomb When they arrive they see that the tomb had already been opened Looking in Creon saw his own son crying at the feet of Antigone who had hanged herself rather than suffer the death of starvation When the son saw Creon standing there he walked right past him out of the tomb buried the handle of his sword in the ground and fell on the sword impaling himself Creon then went back to the palace and is told that his wife had heard of the deaths of her son and of Antigone and had hanged herself So overall Oedipus and Jocasta were innocent victims of the curse placed on Laius But the rest Eteocles Polynices Creon s son and even Antigone had a hand in their own destructions as the curse continued Mythology 7 Notes 4 Tantalus was a human who partied with the gods which was not unheard of and he was favored by Zeus Tantalus had a son named Pelops Greeks thought that the gods did not eat and drink the same things they did 7 the gods ate re ned foods namely ambrosz39a and drank nectar and would not eat regular food Tantalus didn t believe that gods only ate re ned foods so he tried to test it He killed Pelops his son chopped him up into bite sized pieces and fed him to the gods It didn t work 7 the gods noticed immediately and punished him by sending him down to Tartarus where he ll forever be hungry and thirsty Tantalus stands in a stream whose waters recede just out of reach when he tries to take a drink and just above his head is a fruit tree but the winds blow its branches just out of reach when he tries to reach up So Tantalus is forever teased or tantalized Most humans go to the same underworld when they die but if you offend the gods such as Tantalus did you may get sent to Tartarus Another example is Sisyphus who is punished by having to try to push a rock uphill for eternity He can push it to the point where the hill goes straight vertical but the boulder rolls back down again Sisyphus tried to cheat death by instructing his wife not to perform the proper burial rites when he died So when he died he went to talk to Hades saying that his goodfornothing wife wouldn t perform the rites and asked Hades to let him go back up and talk to her to convince her Hades agrees Sisyphus goes back up and lives for many more years When he dies again later though Hades punishes the deception by sending him down to Tartarus to push the rock The gods realized that Pelops Tantalus son had been killed before he had been fated to die so they brought him back to life He fell in love with H iggodamia whose father was a king Any suitor for the king s daughter had to win a chariot race against the king in order to win her hand in marriage The contestant got a 5 minute head start but if the king caught up to them he d throw a spear through their back Thirteen men had tried before Pelops and the king had all 13 of their heads mounted on the wall in the palace Pelops went to Myrtilus the driver of the king s chariot and bribed him to sabotage the chariot so that Pelops would win the race Myrtilus put a carved piece of wax that resembled the lynch pin in its place so that the wheel would fall off when the wax heated up and melted As they were in pursuit of Pelops the wax began to melt 7 Myrtilus knowing what was happening jumped out of the chariot The wheel fell off and the king was killed in the crash Pelops with Hippodamia in his chariot won the race and turned around to go back to the kingdom At the scene of the crash they picked up Myrtilus and continued on their way The journey though was too long back to the kingdom so they made camp for the night There are two versions of what happened next he won t test us on the differences 7 In version A Pelops sees Myrtilus trying to rape Hippodamia and pushing him off a high cliff But the cliff was so high that on the way down Myrtilus had time to curse Pelops and his whole family Version B has Pelops promising Myrtilus that he can sleep with Hippodamia in exchange for sabotaging the chariot but Pelops uses that as an excuse to throw Myrtilus off the cliff Again he curses Pelops family on the way down So in either version the end result is the same with the curse being cast So Pelops married Hippodamia and went back to her home kingdom which he becomes king of since their king had been killed in the race They live a long great life because this particular curse doesn t start working until the next generation Pelops and Hippodamia had two sons iAtreus and Thyestes The two sons quarrel over some other different kingdom and go to the Oracle to see who should rule it Their response was that the kingdom should go to the son of Pelops who comes into possession of a ram with golden eece Easy enough because Pan had given Atreus a ram with golden eece so it was Atreus that was set to become king of that kingdom However the night before Atreus coronation Thyestes slept with the wife of Atreus and convinced her to give him the ram So the next morning Atreus walks up to find that it s Thyestes who has possession of the ram with the golden eece and Thyestes is crowned king His brother Atreus was furious and was driven into exile In Greece adultery was a capital offense since it was always uncertain who a child s father was In cases of adultery whether it was the wife or daughter you could kill the man who committed the crime Even though Thyestes had been crowned king Atreus returned to the kingdom One day the sun rose in the west and set in the east The kingdom priest was asked about this and said that Zeus was angry because Thyestes had committed adultery with his brother s wife It seems odd that Zeus the big playboy would be angry about adultery But Zeus is married to Hera who is the goddess of marriage and humans committing adultery is therefore an offense to Hera and Zeus didn t want to hear about it from her So Zeus felt it was vital that Thyestes be punished for his adultery So Atreus comes back he becomes king and now Thyestes is sent into exile After a while Atreus now king decides to get even with Thyestes for seducing his wife So he sends a message to Thyestes inviting him to return to the kingdom to share the administrative duties Thyestes and his family receive the message and return Upon their return Atreus invites Thyestes to a banquet in his honor at the palace Recall that Greeks ate with their hands and food was in bitesized portions During the meal Atreus brings out a special barbecue sauce for Thyestes to try and he loves it After Thyestes eats his fill Atreus has one more platter brought out and when the lid is lifted there are the heads of Thyestes own sons He has eaten them and dipped the food in their blood Thyestes goes into exile again vowing revenge But Thyestes feels that he needs a son in order to get his revenge There was no law 7 the family was the central unit of society so when a family member was killed by another family it was handled between the families no police though either another killing or a monetary payment Thyestes wife is too old to have children so Thyestes commits incest with his daughter to have a son who becomes named Aegisthus Thyestes dies in exile Atreus is murdered by Aegisthus so Thyestes does get his revenge Through their acts though both Atreus and Thyestes deserved their awful fates Atreus though did have two sons of his own 7Agamemnon and M enelaus who become important in the Trojan War Elsewhere a human woman named Leda is walking by a pond She s married but her husband is never named At the pond she sees a beautiful swan walking her way It comes closer and nally rubs gently against her leg It then walks in front of her spreads its wings and rapes her It was Zeus in disguise So Zeus and Leda have two daughters from the incident fraternal twins named Helen and Clytemnestra As the girls are grown Leda s human husband has to a1range marriages for his daughters This was difficult to do for Helen because she was absolutely the most beautiful woman in the world and every king and prince in Greece wanted to marry her Helen is never described so the mystique of her beauty is able to remain Helen s father had a problem though 7 if there were 100 kings who wanted to marry her he d anger 99 of them by selecting the other one So he made all the kings swear to abide by his decision with no repercussions and also made them promise that none would try to carry Helen off 7 and if someone else did they d all fight to bring her back So his two daughters were married 7 to the two sons of Atreus Agamemnon married Clytemnestra and his brother Menelaus married the beautiful Helen Eventually someone did carry Helen off and all of the kings and princes got together to bring her back and this was the start of the Trojan War The Greeks all gathered in a coastal town with Agamemnon as their leader and waited for the winds to change so that they could sail to Troy But this time the winds did not change The village priest said that AItemis was angry at Agamemnon because he had killed a deer that was sacred to her so Agamemnon was told that he d have to sacrifice his own daughter I thgem39a Agamemnon knew that his wife Clytemnestra wouldn t go for it so he instead told her that Iphigenia was going to be married to Achilles the greatest warrior in the land Iphigenia her wedding dress and hope chest are all sent to the coast to meet up with the Greek camp and to marry Achilles When she gets there she notices that no one will make eye contact with her but figures it s a local custom When the wedding day comes she sees the sacrificial alter which is normal but did not see any animal to be sacrificed even though the priest stood there with his knife She also noticed that her husbandtobe Achilles was nowhere around She realized then that she was going to be the sacrifice She screams for her father Agamemnon to stop this but he pulls his robe up to his eyes and turns away letting it happen The priest not being told to stop sacrifices Iphigenia Even though it s his daughter being killed he s not punished for killing a blood relative since the gods called for the sacrifice The winds change and the army sails for Troy Clytemnestra is furious at Agamemnon for sacrificing their daughter and becomes his bitter enemy She invites Aegisthus who had murdered Agamemnon s father Atreus to live at the palace with her while Agamemnon was away at the Trojan War Together they plot Agamemnon s death After the war Agamemnon comes home unknowing and Clytemnestra invites him to take a hot bath after his journey He gets into the tub and she throws a net over him and hacks him to death with an axe Agamemnon and Clytemnestra had a son though named Orestes who was out of town when his father was murdered by his mother Orestes goes to the Oracle to ask what to do The Oracle of Apollo tells him that he must avenge the murder of his father But that means killing a blood relative his mother Still he s told he must avenge the murder So Orestes kills both his mother and her lover Aegisthus and is driven mad by the gods for killing a blood relative Apollo and the gods then got together to have a trial for Orestes to decide what to do about it The jury ties 6 to 6 Athena is serving asjudge since the trial is being held in Athens and votes a acquit Orestes because the most important relationship to Greeks was the fatherson relationship so killing his mother because she killed his father violated that relationship So Orestes is set free is no longer made crazy and the curse on the family is broken For the rst time though a neutral homicide court was established instead of letting families settle murders with revenge or payment After that trial odd numbered juries were used to avoid a tie and in important cases large juries 501 members were used to prevent bribery M and the Trojan War 7 most details come from Homer 3 Iliad people are still not sure if it actually took place Heinrich Schliemann devoted his life to excavating and found the actual city of Troy The Trojan War represents the end of the period of Greek Mythology Thetis was a beautiful goddess and Zeus wanted to make love to her but Thetis was fated to give birth to a son who would be more powerful than his father Zeus knew of this fate but did not know which goddess it had been bestowed upon So he couldn t make love to any goddess for fear of creating a son who could overpower him This obviously frustrated his favorite pastime Finally he finds out that it is the fate of Thetis so he decides to marry her off to a mortal named Peleus Not to be confused with Jason s evil uncle who demanded the golden eece That was Pelias For this wedding between Peleus and Thetis everyone gets an invitation except the goddess of M So Strife hears about the wedding and learns that she s the only one not invited When the wedding comes there is a big feast and because of Strife a golden apple ies into the room thrown rolls along the oor and comes to rest against the leg of a chair A goddess picks it up and sees a note attached that says It s for the most beautiful and says oh it must be for me A nearby goddess hears this and says that no it must be for her if it s for the most beautiful Soon every goddess claims it Most relinquish the claim but three goddesses would not relinquish 7 Hera Aphrodite and Athena The three goddesses look to Zeus to settle it but he knows he s in a predicament Hera is his wife Athena is his daughter and Aphrodite really is the most beautiful So Zeus went to a man named Paris a prince of the kingdom of M to get him to judge a beauty contest with the winner getting the golden apple All three of the goddesses try to bribe him 7 Hera says she ll make him king over all of the earth Athena promises that he ll never leave the battle eld in defeat and Aphrodite says that she ll give him the most beautiful woman in the world as his bride He then tells them that he can t tell who s most beautiful with all of those clothes on so they all get naked so that he can judge Paris gives the golden apple to Aphrodite as the most beautiful making powerful enemies in Hera and Athena who now hate him all Trojans and want to destroy the city of Troy Since Paris chose Aphrodite as most beautiful he s supposed to get the most beautiful woman in the world as his wife 7 but that s Helen and she s already married to Menelaus So Aphrodite makes Helen fall in love with Paris and she runs off with him to Troy Helen s stepfather calls in everyone to go to bring Helen back as they had agreed to do when he had to choose her husband Most agreed except forAchilles and Odysseus Achilles was the son of Peleus and Thetis and was indeed more powerful than his father To try to protect him Thetis took Achilles down to the underworld and baptized him in the river Styx But she had to hold on to him somehow so she held him by the heel 7 his only weakness Achilles was also special because he had a choice oftwo fates which no one else had the ability to choose He could either have a short glorious life or a long boring life Thetis tried to protect him from joining the invasion group going to Troy by hiding him on an obscure island living there with their king and having Achilles dress like one of the king s daughters The other warriors looked for Achilles and when they got to this island they noticed the rather butch daughter of the king They decided to try to trick him to find out the truth They set out two chests 7 one covered with lace silk and frilly things and the other with the shiny metal of swords and weaponry Guys like shiny objects so Achilles gravitated to the shiny chest while all of the other daughters went to the silky chest One of the soldiers banged his sword loudly against his shield 7 the daughters cowered while Achilles in disguise quickly grabbed a sword and shield of his own He had been discovered and was taken to join the warriors going to Troy The other reluctant warrior Odysseus pretended to be crazy when the men came to get him to go to Troy He hooked up his oxen and started plowing the beach To see if he was truly crazy one man took Odysseus newborn son and put him in the path of the plow Odysseus knew he had to do something and he steered around the baby showing that he was not crazy after all So the army sets sail for Troy with Agamemnon as their leader even though it was his little brother Menelaus wife Helen who they were out to retrieve None of the men were legally bound to go on the expedition 7 only bound by their oath from years before It was indeed a confederate army When they saw the tall thick walls of Troy they decided to siege the city Priam was the king of Troy and H ecuba was queen Years earlier when pregnant Hecuba had had a dream that she gave birth to a burning torch that would burn down their city The priest said it meant that she d have a child that would cause the city to be destroyed When the baby Paris was born they tried to get rid of him through exposure But a bear found him in the woods and nursed him until he was found by shepherds At age 18 the shepherds gave him the blanket he was found in with the royal seal of Troy and told him how he had been found Paris went back to Troy confronted King Priam who recognized him as his son and acknowledged him as the prince of Troy Priam had 50 sons among them Paris and one named Hector Hector was the greatest warrior in Troy and was married to Andromache During the siege the Greek warriors camped outside of the walls of Troy used up their supplies quickly so they would raid nearby towns for food supplies loot slaves usually women and armor Since the soldier s were a confederate army that s how they were paid 7 the loot and slaves would be divided up between them In one village Agamemnon took a woman the daughter of the town priest as his slave and refused to give her back even after her father had offered ransom The father went to the oracle and prayed to Apollo who sent a plague onto the Greek a1my Agamemnon later asked why the plague was upon them and was told to send the woman back to her father and to not accept the ransom money But he was given this message during assembly with everyone listening which presented a problem Greek society was motivated by shame 7 with Agamemnon being the leader of the expedition it would be shameful for him to be the only one without a female slave So he said that he would send the woman back but that someone else would have to give up their slave as well so he wouldn t be the only one This angered Achilles 7 he declared that it was he that had captured that woman in the first place and that Agamemnon didn t deserve her anyway Agamemnon got angry at this challenge tempers rose until finally Achilles drew his sword and was about to behead Agamemnon At this point seen only to Achilles Athena grabbed Achilles hair and told him not to do it Achilles released Agamemnon and left off to his tent to sulk Themz39s is to Greeks morally correct behavior Examples he gave in class were of soldiers in Vietnam launching an attack on a boat told it was loaded with Viet Cong ammunition and destroying it killing all aboard It was however a boat of an innocent fishing family Their behavior was just 7 following orders thinking it was a ship of war but the soldiers were still troubled morally for the outcome The other example was a Vietnamese baby with hand grenades wrapped around its waist and a string leading into the bushes 7 a booby trap His troop was about to come upon the baby and all be blown up so he decided he must shoot the baby causing the grenades to detonate before his men were upon it He saved the lives of the men the baby was going to die anyway 7 but still this is a troubling moral dilemma and an example of themis being out of whack with a situation Achilles felt that Agamemnon had violated themis as well 7 he had ordered the men into battle did not go himself then took the prize away the slave woman from the men that had gone into battle To Achilles themis had been turned upside down Achilles went to his mother the goddess Thetis and asked her to see that the Greeks paid for what they had done 7 he wanted the Greeks to start losing the war until Agamemnon apologized to him Thetis went to Zeus who recognizes the themis and agreed The Greeks started losing the war and were being pushed back from the city of Troy back toward the seashore The Trojans realized that Achilles the greatest Greek warrior was not longer ghting and Hector and the Trojans attacked and pushed the Greeks back further The Greeks soldiers went to Agamemnon and persuaded him to get Achilles back Agamemnon had a message sent to Achilles stating that he would apologize as well as offering many gifts Achilles though refused Now to the Greeks the outcome of the war was the moral responsibility of Achilles not Agamemnon since Achilles had refused to return Hector and the Trojans continued to slaughter the Greeks and managed to set fire to a couple of the Greek ships This was crucial 7 without the ships that had brought them the Greeks could not get home The soldiers went back to Achilles who said he didn t care if the others were dying since it was his fate to die at Troy anyway Achilles best friend was named Patroclus and he came up with an idea Patroclus would return to battle in Achilles wellknown armor causing the Trojans to withdraw and thereby saving the ships Achilles agreed but told Patroclus to stay away from the city walls and especially away from Hector It was for Patroclus own safety but also because Achilles wanted to kill Hector himself So the Trojans started to retreat at the sight of Achilles Patroclus was a decent warrior himself and was fighting well dressed as Achilles Adrenaline took over though and he got closer and closer to the walls of Troy until finally he ended up face to face with Hector In his excitement he squared off with Hector who killed him quickly and took his armor the armor of Achilles as a prize Achilles was overwhelmed with sadness over the death of Patroclus and finally sees the pain that his temper tantrum had caused the Greek army He then goes to his mother Thetis for new armor and returned to battle He begins pushing the Trojan army back until they all retreat to within the city walls 7 all except for one Hector Priam and Hecuba are looking down from atop the walls pleading for Hector to come into the city Hecuba even exposes her breast that upon which he had suckled and asked her son to come within the walls Hector stayed though and the city walls closed with him on the outside Once alone out there he realized what he had done and started to run Achilles chased him around the city walls three times before Hector realized it was pointless and stopped to fight Achilles At one point the two sides were going to end the war with a dual between Paris and Menelaus since it was Paris that had stolen Helen the wife of Menelaus The winning side would keep Helen the losers would go home The gods however would not let this happen Aphrodite who had been given the golden apple by Paris stepped in and saved him at the last second So now with Achilles and Hector face to face Zeus put the fates of each on each side of a scale Hector s fate sinks down toward the underworld Zeus then pulls all of the gods and goddesses out of the battle with the exception of Athena Athena then disguises herself as Hector s brother who convinces Hector to throw his spear at Achilles The spear hits Achilles shield and merely bounces off Hector realizes that he has been duped Achilles throws his own spear and it pierces Hector s shield and impales him killing him Achilles then took the body of Hector and drove spikes through his ankles tied them to his chariot and drove around the walls of the city of Troy dragging the body and yelling at the people looking down at him from atop the walls This went on for 12 days but the body did not rot because Hector had been favored by the gods Finally one night King Priam himself walked out of the city walls through the Greek camp and into the tent of Achilles There he found Achilles drinking wine sitting on a couch above Hector s body so that no one could take it without his knowing Priam said I ve come to get the body of my son to give him proper burial Achilles said no Priam said I will put my lips to the hand of the man who has murdered my children kissed Achilles hand 7 but Achilles still said no Priam then said Think of how your own father would feel if you had been killed here and were denied proper buria Achilles thought of Peleus his own father lonely old and wasting away abandoned by his etemallyyoung wife Thetis and began to weep The thought of his own father suffering convinced Achilles to give the body of Hector to Priam who gave it a proper burial Achilles did die at Troy as fated He was killed by an a1row from Paris that struck him in the heel his only weakness Arrows were considered by Greeks to be a cowardly weapon 7 not manly as were swords in handtohand combat on the battlefield Sarpedon was a son of Zeus who fought on the side of the Trojans When battling in an individual dual Zeus took the fates of each man and put them on his scales The fate of Sarpedon his son sunk toward the underworld 7 he was fated to die Zeus was tempted to change his son s fate but Hera told him that if he did every other god and goddess would demand the same of him for each of their own favorites in the war Zeus thought about it realized the consequence and allowed his son Sarpedon to die After Achilles was killed by Paris arrow a big ght broke out over the body The Greeks wanted it for proper burial while the Trojans wanted it in order to abuse it like Achilles had done to Hector s body The Greeks got the body thanks to a soldier named Am who was after Achilles the best Greek warrior The body of Achilles was given proper burial but a contest was started to determine who would get Achilles armor It was between Ajax and Odysseus and they put their cases for the armor forth in assembly Greeks respected two things 7 fighting well in battle and speaking well in assembly Ajax was a great warrior but was somewhat dumb and could not speak well in assembly Odysseus on the other hand spoke eloquently but it was Ajax after all who had recovered Achilles body The contest was deemed atie To break the tie the Greeks brought in Trojan captains who had been captured and asked them which of the men had given them the most grief All said Odysseus and he was awarded the armor Ajax in anger walked outside stuck the handle of his sword in the ground and threw himself on it committing suicide With Achilles and Ajax dead and Hector and Paris later killed by an arrow also dead both sides had lost their best ghters With their best ghters dead Odysseus gives the Greeks a new strategy to win 7the Trojan Horse The Trojans looked out one morning and saw the Greek camps empty the ships gone a huge wooden horse and one Greek guy who they captured He informed them that the Greeks had sailed back to Greece to make a sacrifice to Athena after which they would be able to come back and take over the city of Troy The wooden horse was a gift to Athena 7 they had made it large so that the Trojans could not take it because if they took it into the city the Greeks would never be able to reclaim it Many Trojans were excited but some were skeptical One priest said it was a trick threw a spear at the horse hit it and heard a strange clanging inside Before anyone could question it two snakes came up from the sea and killed him and his two sons The Trojans thought that meant that the priest had been wrong since the gods must have sent the snakes They tore down part of the city wall the horse was that big and dragged it into the city They then closed the wall back and did something they hadn t done in the years of siege 7they partied All of the Trojans got drunk and passed out and during the night the belly of the horse opened ropes fell out and a number of Greeks climbed down to the ground They opened the city gates and let in the Greek army who had been hiding and had simply hid the ships They slaughtered the drunk Trojan army and the city of Troy was captured Priam was the king of Troy and he went to a temple and hugged the alter in an attempt to save himself It did not work 7 the Greeks simply went into the temple and unceremoniously killed him Euripides wrote a play detailing the females called Trojan Women Hecuba the queen of Troy was given to Odysseus as a slave to carry home Andromache the wife of Hector was given to another Greek unnamed to carry home as his slave Her 5year old son was deemed to dangerous to live being the son of Hector because he might later seek revenge The Greeks carried him to the top of a tall tower in Troy and threw him off killing him Agamemnon was given as a slave Cassandra who had been given the gift of prophecy by Apollo if she would sleep with him When she still refused he made it so that no one would believe her prophecy She and Agamemnon went back to Greece where Clytemnestra was waiting with her plot to kill Agamemnon in the tub for sacrificing their daughter Cassandra warned him not to go into the palace and not to get into the tub but he did not believe her He went in and was murdered This was very frustrating to Cassandra 7 the Greeks were very big into frustration punishment Cassandra then told those around her that she might as well go in because she was going to be killed too No one believed her she went into the palace and was murdered Menelaus survived the war and took Helen home with him All of the Trojan woman had told Menelaus to just kill her because it was her fault that all of this had happened and that their city was destroyed and besides Helen had run off on him anyway Menelaus was convinced to kill her 7 until he took one look at her He decided to put off killing her until they were on the ship then until they had gotten back home and nally did away with the idea of killing her altogether She had said that it was Aphrodite who had made her run off the two of them reconciled and lived happily Even with being the cause of the Trojan War Helen suffered no consequences Aeneas was the one survivor of Troy who had escaped with his life His story is called the Aeneid He wandered around for a while after the war and later founded a city in Italy His descendants founded the city of Rome and Romans including Julius Caesar himself believed themselves to descended from Aeneas It took Odysseus an additional ten years to return home from Troy The story was told in Homer s Odyssey which means the story of Odysseus Odysseus and his men were from the Greek city of Ithaca where his wife Peneloge was waiting for him to return from the war There were many adventures on the way back While they were returning after the war they stopped at a town for supplies and were attacked by the inhabitants who thought they were pirates Bad time to attack them 7 they had been at war for ten years and were battlehardened and in top condition They slaughtered the townspeople and looted the town There was one house however that remained untouched It was inhabited by a priest of Apollo and Odysseus remembering the trouble that Agarnemnon had gone through when he stole a priest s daughter stood guard outside the house and insisted that it remained safe In gratitude he priest gave Odysseus 12 bigjars ofwine They sailed again came to the island of the Lotus Eaters 7 people who ate the fruit of the lotus Anyone who ate the fruit of the lotus forgot about all else except for eating more lotus 7 could have been an opium plant Some of Odysseus men had eaten lotus and would not go back to the ships so he physically dragged them and sailed away The next stop was the island where the Cyclogs lived 7 a race of oneeyed giants Polyghemus was a cyclops and was the son of Poseidon When Odysseus and his crew landed he took only 12 men with him to look for food recalling what had happened with the men who ate the lotus They came to an inhabited cave walked in and helped themselves to some food The owner of the cave was Polyphemus who let his sheep in walked in and rolled a giant boulder over to close up the cave opening 7 it was his front door He saw the men in his cave and asked who they were and what they wanted Odysseus said they were looking for food When he mentioned food Polyphemus realized that he was hungry picked up two of the men and ate them He then went to bed For breakfast he found two more of the men and ate them He then rolled the boulder out of the way let his sheep out and rolled it back trapping the men inside When he got home that night he ate two more men Odysseus though had brought some of the wine the priest had given him and offered some to Polyphemus He said he had never had wine tried it and liked it So Odysseus kept lling his glass They started talking and Polyphemus asked him his name 7 Odysseus lied and said Uttis which in Greek means nobody don t need spelling of Uttis Polyphemus was drunk and didn t realize the meaning of the name they drank more and Polyphemus told Odysseus I like you I ll eat you last After Polyphemus passed out drunk Odysseus and his men took a long pointy pole put its tip in the fire to make it red hot and all together rammed it though the single eye of Polyphemus He roared in pain so loud that all of the other Cyclopes heard it and ran to the door of his cave They did not enter but asked what was the matter Polyphemus replied Uttis has blinded me OK So nobody blinded him So they all went home The next morning Polyphemus realized that his sheep had to go out so he found the door rolled the boulder out of the way and felt each sheep as it passed to make sure the men were not escaping But they had tied the sheep together in threes and each group had a man tied to the bottom Odysseus had saved the biggest ram for himself dug his hands into the wool and rode out on the bottom of that ram They made their way to the ship and immediately started rowing to get away Polyphemus heard the sound of the rowing and started throwing boulders toward the noise Odysseus taunted him told him it was too late and ended by yelling out and letting Polyphemus know his real name Mistake Polyphemus prayed to his father Poseidon that Odysseus would never get home and that if he was fated to make it home that he would arrive late lonely and to a house of trouble Poseidon then became the enemy of Odysseus The next stop was the island of Aeolus the god of the winds Odysseus and his men got food and provisions there As a gift Aeolus gave Odysseus a leather bag with all of the winds and told him how to release the wind that would blow them straight back to Ithaca Odysseus used the bag and that wind to sail them home but as they were in sight of Ithaca Odysseus fell asleep The men thought that there must be something in that bag since Odysseus never put it down Could be gold They took it opened it and let out a howling storm that blew them straight back to Aeolus Odysseus went back to Aeolus to ask his help but Aeolus replied that the gods must be angry at Odysseus and refused to help any further The next stop was the land of the Laestrygonians a band of cannibals don t need spelling The Laestrygonians saw the ships coming into the harbor thought ooh dinner and started throwing boulders off the cliffs onto the ships They sunk all but one 7 Odysseus ship 7 and all the rest were lost The next stop was the island where Circe a witch lived Here Odysseus stayed with the ship and sent a crew of men to explore the island for food They go to the house of Circe who feeds them drugged food and turns them all into pigs but still with their human consciousness the worst fate One man did not eat the food though and he escaped and ran back to the ship Odysseus then goes alone to rescue them and runs into Hermes on the way who gives him the antidote for the pig poison Odysseus gets to Circe eats the food and nothing happens She looks at him confused and he draws his sword puts the point to her throat and demands that she turns his men back to humans She does A witches power is knowledge of forces and since that didn t work Circe tried to seduce Odysseus It worked for about a year then Odysseus decided it was time to get home First though Circe told him he had to go to the underworld to consult the prophet Tiresias to learn details that would help him get home Odysseus gets to the entrance to the underworld and digs a pit He kills a goat drains its blood and its milk into the pit and invites the souls of the dead to drink This gives them the strength to speak One souls is Odysseus dead mother who had died while he was at Troy He tried to hug her but his arms passed through He also meets the soul of Achilles and asks him what death is like Achilles tells him that he d rather be the slave of the lowest man on earth than be king of everything down in the underworld Odysseus tells him that his son has become a mighty warrior and this makes Achilles smile 7 the only joy in the underworld is knowing that you ve left good children Next soul is Agamemnon who still has the axe scars from getting killed in the tub Agamemnon is very bitter at his wife for murdering him The soul of Ajax comes along Ajax had killed himself after losing the armor of Achilles and refused to speak to Odysseus These show that even in death you don t escape the troubles of your life Finally Tiresius comes along He gives Odysseus advice after which Odysseus leaves and sails back to Circe then leaves for home The first danger encountered were the Sirens a group of birdlike women who sang beautiful songs They lived on an island and their songs would lure in sailors who would crash on the rocks and drown Odysseus took beeswax and stopped up the ears of his men and had them tie him to the mast of the ship In this way he could hear their beautiful song but the men could not and would continue to sail Odysseus heard the song screamed for them to get closer but they did not hear him and sailed on The next danger was Scylla who had wolf heads around her waist to which she would feed sailors who got too close and Charybdis which was a giant whirlpool that would pull ships down and sink them They came to a pass 7 Scylla on one side and Charybdis on the other Rock and a hard place Odysseus had to choose which to sail close to Well the ship and its fifty men would be lost to Charybdis while only six would be fed to the wolves So he sailed closer to Scylla lost six men and continued on the journey home Circe had also warned Odysseus about the island of the Cattle of the Sun God She had warned him not to eat any of the cattle so after landing on the island Odysseus foraged for nuts and fruits and went to bed His men despite the warming did kill and eat some of the cattle The Sun God complained to Zeus So after Odysseus and his men set sail from the island Zeus struck their ship with a lightning bolt The ship sank and only Odysseus survived clinging to a board He washed up on the island of Calypso a beautiful goddess She quickly fell in love with Odysseus and they often had sex She offered him the gift of eternal life and eternal youth 7but he refused Odysseus was in love with his wife Penelope and all Calypso had to offer was sex without love no conversation afterward But he was stranded and stayed on the island for seven years forced to have sex with the beautiful goddess But he would sit on the beach all day and pray to Zeus for freedom Finally after 7 years Zeus told Calypso that she d have to let him go So Odysseus built a raft and was able to sail from the island But Poseidon was still angry due to Polyphemus curse and wrecked the raft Odysseus washed up this time on the Isle of Phaeacz39a He was unclean unshaven and filthy and was discovered by the king s daughter Nausicaa and her friends They ran off but Nausicaa decided to help him so she took him to the palace where he was cleaned up and given clothes Also a banquet was being held at the palace that evening and he d be able to meet the king After dinner a singer came in with a lyre and sang songs about the Trojan War Hearing the tales of his friends who had been lost in the war Odysseus began to cry The king saw his tears and wondered how this man could be moved so by these stories that by this time everyone knew He wondered if this guy had been in the war The king ran down all of the heroes of the Trojan War and their fates 7 Achilles Agamemnon Ajax Patroclus 7 and all could be accounted for except for Odysseus Finally he asks Are you Odysseus Odysseus answers yes and the king gladly informs him that he ll put him on a ship for Ithaca in the morning He does and Odysseus wakes up in the morning on the beach having been dropped off on Ithaca At this point the curse of Polyphemus has come true 7 Odysseus can make it home but he s delayed returns home alone and on someone else s ship But the curse also says that he ll return home to a house in trouble Due to the curse Odysseus decides not to go straight to the palace He has after all been gone for 20 years and most of the powerful families have been pressing Penelope to remarry so that Ithaca could have a new king They would not accept Odysseus son as king because of his youth and also because his father had not been around to see that he had passed those rites into manhood Penelope though did not want to remarry until she knew for certain whether Odysseus was alive or dead She put them off by saying that her fatherin law was old and dying and that she wanted to weave a funeral robe for him After the robe was completed then she would select a new husband So she would weave the robe all during the day but at night would secretly unravel her work prolonging the project Finally though one of her hands let her secret out and the suitors demanded that she remarry right now It then came out that Odysseus had returned Odysseus though gured it would be suicide for him to just return to the palace since all of these men were gathered there as suitors to Penelope wanting to be the next king So he went to his shepherd s house and met his son there His son having been so young when Odysseus left it took some convincing but nally he realized that this man was his father Together the three of them came up with a plan The son went back to the palace rst then Odysseus came disguised as a beggar In Greece if you had the means you had to show hospitality to a beggar else face the wrath of Zeus so Odysseus knew that he d be allowed into the palace unsuspected In front of the palace though he was met by his old dog who had been waiting for his return for 20 years Odysseus feared that the dog would give his identity away but the dog became so excited that he died on the spot So Odysseus made it into the palace and stood against the wall waiting for table scraps from Penelope s suitors who for years had been eating his food and drinking his wine Penelope forced into selecting a new husband announced that she d hold a contest and the winner would have her hand in marriage She would marry the man who could string Odysseus bow and shoot an a1row though 12 axes This is referred to as the contest of M 7 these double axes had a loop at their top and 12 would be lined up 7the arrow would have to travel through all 12 loops The rst man couldn t bend the bow enough to get the string on Neither could the next nor the next All the men around 100 of them failed They claimed that it was a trick much like she had used with weaving the robe that nobody could do what she asked The beggar in the comer spoke up Let me try They though sure The beggar grabbed the bow and easily strung it and quickly red an arrow through the loop of the twelve axes They were stunned The beggar threw off his disguise and when they saw it was Odysseus they started running for the doors all of which had been locked shut Odysseus started ring arrows and killing them 7 they had no weapons because Odysseus son had cleared them all out and the 12 axes were bound to the oor Odysseus slaughtered them all Now there were two problems First Odysseus had left 20 years ago with 12 ships of 50 men each 7 a crew of 600 and had returned alone Then he gets home and slaughters another hundred of men from the top families The townspeople were very angry and were ready to kill Odysseus and his whole family but Athena appeared to them and told them to stop 7 it was fated to happen this way The townspeople then turned and went home and Odysseus again ruled Ithaca Odysseus then tells a servant to inform Penelope that her husband is nally home but she wasn t convinced it was him She asked him to move their bed into the room across the hall so that they could make love there He replied that s impossible the palace was built around a tree and one of the bedposts was a part of the tree 7 it could not be moved This was something that only the two of them knew so she was now convinced that her husband Odysseus had returned They made love then told stories of their past 20 years She told him how she had fooled the suitors by weaving the robe and of the contest of axes he told her about the Cyclops the lotuseaters going down to the underworld and sort of glossed over Circe and Calypso But they had sex and they had love 7 the combination was complete


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