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Hebrew Prophets

by: Rupert Davis

Hebrew Prophets REL 3104

Rupert Davis
GPA 3.75

C. Isbell

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C. Isbell
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rupert Davis on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 3104 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Isbell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/223080/rel-3104-louisiana-state-university in Religious Studies at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Pre Israelite quotProphecyquot 10122013 45400 PM ISRAEL IS NORTH UDAH IS SOUTH JERUSALEM IS IN UDAH When Solomon died between 926 and 922 BCE the ten northern tribes refused to submit to his son Rehoboam and revolted From this point on there would be two kingdoms of Hebrews in the north Israel and in the south udah The Israelites formed their capital in the city of Samaria and the udaeans kept their capital in Jerusalem These kingdoms remained separate states for over two hundred years Topics Egypt CanaanSyria Prophecy Mesopotamia Readings 1 Kings 22 Baal and his consortsister Asherah Baal39s prophets at Mt Carmel vs one prophet onHWH Baal is the chiefgod of canaan but it is also a general term for quota godquot Mount Carmel Ahab and ezebel last member ofthe purge Zedekiah last king ofudah before the Babylonian exile 0 Fall of Zedekiah Fall ofudah Nebuchadnezzar king of Chaldean defeated udah destroyed the temple of Solomon Ue39bHebrew term for Prophet Egyptian religious figure in charge of animal sacrifices CherhebEgyptian religious figure in charge oftemples that would bring back deceased gods to defend Egypt Hemuneterthe gods39 servant oracle interprets dreams Thutmose IV Pharaoh during a period of Peace oseph son ofacob king of dreams Cupbearer masqeh Baker 396pheh Egyptian court quotmagiciansquot King Cheops Khufu and the magician narrative of five micacle performed by 1 revealed the number of rooms reattached ehads of animals wrestled with lions 2 3 predicts looming end of dynasty Dedji Thoth Rededjet 4th dynasty 26th century BCE 12th dynasty 20th century BCE Hyksos era Khnum KhnumKhufu god protected by khufu The Admonitions of Ipuwera 12th century copy ofa middle kingdom composition that criticizes social concepts of Egyptian society Old Kingdom 27th 24th centuries BCE Nefertiskilled speaker priestscribe ofgoddess Bastet Bastet Egypt39s lover and defender 0 Lady of Flame 0 Eye of Ra Snefru Amenemhet 0 These prophets were neither ecstatic nor charismatic instead they emphasized conservative social values that pharaoh expected ofthe people 0 Draw upon literary traditions The Story of Idrimi King ofAlalakha town on the border ofthe Hittite Kingdom Idrimi had a dream ofa 7year exile he endured among the Habiru people outlaws He studied nature to convince the Habiru that the god of his country ADAD was more powerful than theirs Habiru citizens who have been exiled to the fringes of society and live as outlaws in canaan ADAD The Journey of WenAmunEgyptian official sent to Byblos to get lumber for a ceremonial barge with no army to protect him only an oracle Amon at Karnaka temple BYBLOS AHIYAH prophet who predicts 1st king of breakaway kingdom in Israel Zakir SteIe the first mention ofthe Israelites outside the bible IluWer Hadad the Storm God of Syria Aleppo King of Hamat and Luash Be39elshamaynBaal TERMS FOR PROPHETS Hazinprophetic title H zehvisionary Oracles delivered messages in response to a petition from the king one such gods will protect you when many kings attack Literary form was derived from and followed a standard method of expressing prophetic inspiration Tell Deir 39Alla 8th century origin Balaam infamous religious figure who tried to curse the gods quota visionary of the gods sedyn one who hears the voice 0fg0d refers tothe angel who gave Balaam his visions Balaam gave messages to o Balak the King of Moab 0 Mursilis II o Kantuzilis man of god usually refers to prophets of YHWH Old Babylonian Empire ca 19001600 BCE Bdr priests who study 0 a specific design to appear in drops of oil that had been mixed into water 0 patterns of smoke that arose from burning incense 0 some specific arrangement ofthe entrails of an animal 0 the movement and interrelationship of the stars MARIa major town on the Euphrates river Herbert Huffmonlisted five characteristics of prophetic texts 1 A communication from the divine world from a messenger or mediator to a third party 2 Some form of quotinspirationquot derived from ecstatic frenzy dreams or any other type of inner illuminationquot 3 A message that does not require a technical specialist to interpret its meaning 4 A message that is usually unsolicited 5 A message that exhorts to action or admonishes Divinationexamination of animal livers heaviest organ therefore thought to be most important 1 apiluapiltu answerer a term not normally given to a prophet it includes oracles 1 Kings 22 RamotGilead Please seek derash rst the word of YHWH 225 Micayehu ben YimlahAhab king from Samaria 2assinnu cult functionary A n nu n itJm lnanna speaks f rom a state of ecstasy 3m u m u tu ecstatic mefn t to storm implies someone is deformed o IehitnabbeHebrew to act like a prophet implies craziness a Elijah b Amos Amaziah the priest who defended King Jeroboam II 710 c One of the more famous incidents in the career of Isaiah depicts him as setting up a meeting with King Ahaz in a very public place to hear his opinion about the SyroIsraelite war 73 4nab Akkadian for navi most common word for prophet means He announcesquot Code of Hammurabi EnumaElish When did the profession of quotProphetquot Become a legitimate office in Israel Almost exactly when the first king was chosen 11th 10th century BC Samuel the Prophet chose king Saul whose first act was to legitimize prophets and make it illegal to kill them a minority did not want a king so they compromised to have a king AND a prophet whose function is to criticize the king and his decisions Loudly when the kings end Ezra is prophet and decided they should have no more prophets without kings just the Torah Biblical Terminology 10122013 45400 PM Hebrew Terms 1 eved YHWH 2 r eh 3 ho zeh 4 3911 ha elo h1 m 5 ndvi Readings Numbers 11 I Kings 18 1 Samuel 101011 Numbers 11 Topics SORCERY AND DIVINATION COMPARISON OF BIBLICAL TERMS COMPARISON OF MARI amp BIBLICAL PROPHETS Interpreter melitz 0 Isaiah 4327 Genesis 4223 0 Isaiah 4327 describes a prophet who has transgressed does not use any normal words for prophet instead uses the words for interpreter quotwatchmanquot tzopheh o the prophet is responsible for warning the people not for what they do 0 Isaiah 5610 Jerem iah 617 Ezek ie I 31 7 337 8 quotmessengerquot mal akh o Haggai 113 M alachi11 Isaiah 4426 2 Ch ron icles 361 516 o All the prophets are messengers Job 4323 0 Warner translator Terms 39eved YHWH the servant of YHWHquot first title of prophets originally used for Moses Servant also means slave r6 eh to seequot a person who can see things others cannot h zeh a vision EishaEIohim man of God 2 C1 most frequent word used for prophets Often refers to Elisha once to David A person must have two qualities to be EishaElohim a perform miracles and b deliver a message from God n vi most frequent word to refer to a prophet but also describes prophets ofba39al or prophets that have fallen r ab the spirit of God means wind 0 The hand of39Adonai YHWH fell on me Hz 81 o The divine r ahlifted me up Hz 83 0 As He spoke to me the r ahentered into me and set me upon my feet and I heard what was being spoken to me Hz 22 0 Now it was that the word of YHWH came to me Ier 14 Ion 11 passim 0 Then the r ab rested on them Num 1126 0 The r ab of39Adonai YHWH was upon mequot Isa 611 0 Then the r ab of YHWH clothed Gideon Idg 634 etc acting like a prophet 0 not a compliment means acting crazy 0 1 Samuel 101011 0 Numbers 11 moses reported this conversation to the elders and voted for some 70 to stand around the tent Eldad and Medad Would that all people of YHWH were prophets that YHWH would place His r ab upon them 1129 Gilgal Saul39s conquest story Saul was to go here and wait for Samuel terebinth Tabor Gibeah a town with a Philistine garrison o 1 Links the behavior of Saul with that of the 70 elders from the time of Moses 0 2 Includes people who are bothered by the strange behavior of a man they thought they knew o 3 Must not be totally negative because did proceed to become king 0 1 Connection between music and acting like a prophet o 2 No words are spokenin this incident o 3 The men who are acting like prophets are not incapacitated physically and are capable of walking along while singing and playing musical instruments 4 Their behavior is distinctive enough to be identified as prophetic 5 There is at least a hint of disapproval in the question about the band whom Saul an aristocrat joins in prophetic behavior God as creator of good and evil able to deceive 1 Samuel 1810 the next day an evil spirit came from God and gave him false prophecies Naioth in Ramah 1 Kings 18 Elijah and the prophets of Baal and Asherah on Mount Carmel o The deity who responds with re 1hatone is God 1824 0 wild hopping around loud praying and selfmutilation o theruah of God overpowered people including the assassins who didn39t believe and kept them from killing Ecstasy and Prophecy Ieremiah 1414 Ieremiah 2916 Ezekiel 1317 Hosea 97 2 Kings 18 amp Zechariah 134 1 Kings 203543 Zechariah 136 Isaiah 203 o 1 Ecstasy not equated with divine revelation not the substanceof biblical prophecy o 2 while the preparatory state of ecstasy may be selfinduced the actual revelation that follows maynot be so induced o 2 Kings 31516 Elisha asked for music to set the mood for prophecy Illustrates the selfinduced ecstasy Elisha King Mesha of Moab King Ahab of Israel gtehoram King Yehoshaphat oqudah OOOO o 3 The ecstatic trance can at times serve as a method by which God Himself deliberately deceives its recipients false prophets not liars but those who have been tricked by God to announce false prophecies Sources of Fake prophecy forbidden in Israel by God Note that God wouldn39t have bothered to forbid it if it wasn39t a problem among the people who were in uenced by their Canaanite neighbors o MAGICdeemed to be ineffectual because God is in control of all things Trying to change His will would be bad SORCERYpunishable by death but popular in the area to counteract black magic DIVINATIONbeliefthat notice ofthe future is imprinted in natural phenomenon CASTING LOTSnot a sin because God determines where the lots will fall remember the apostles cast lots to determine who would replace Judas hydromancy o leom an cy o inom an cy hepatoscopycommon in Mesopotamia Use of a sacrificed sheep39s liver to divine ifthe gods were favorably disposed to plans such as battles o Teraphimsmall figurines of gods that were used for good luck and protection 0 Necromancyattempting to communicate with spirits ofthe dead 0 In 1 Samuel 28 Saul looks for a medium and gets in a shit ton oftrouble with Samuel Divination false and its practitioners liars Enemies of Israel like Balaam and foreigners Canaanites Philistines Egyptians Babylonians used divination Israel had available a source of divine truth without parallel o This is why divination was wrong it put a different source of truth above God39s ability and discretion to give truth 0 Also Israel39s refusal to practice these things should be a mark oftheir distinction from others The meaning of these three words changed between the story taking place and being written down so the editor felt the need to add an explanation for the reader h zeh r6 eh Visionary seer 1 Samuel 9 navi prophetspokesman 1 The Mari prophet delivers a message from the gods only to the king and we possess no text describing a message delivered directly to the people 2 The messages given at Mari do not make social or ethical judgments or demands upon the king or the populace 3 The Mari king is free to reject the message of the prophets as is the king of Israel or Iudah as we will see The authenticity of the message can be challenged as well But in Mari the word of the prophet could be submitted to diviners who would seek to interpret various omens that could verify or falsify the word of the prophet 4 Divination was officially forbidden in Israel despite the fact that it continued to be practiced in some quarters Divination of various kinds at Mari were openly practiced and viewed as legitimate means of discerning information from the divine


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