RELIGIONS OF WORLD
RELIGIONS OF WORLD REL 1000
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rupert Davis on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1000 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Yadlapati in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/223082/rel-1000-louisiana-state-university in Religious Studies at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 10 Islam 4212010 73800 PM Islam c To submit to God submission Muslim o One who submits to God Monotheism Allah Muhammad o Seal of Prophets last and final prophet o 5 major prophets Noah Jesus Abraham Muhammad Time line 570632 0 610 Recite Night of Power 0 620 Persecution increases Night Journey Quraysh ruling oligarchy in Mecca o 622 Hijrah Migration from Mecca to Medina Calendar starts 0 630 Victory over Mecca Rededicated Ka bah to God 0 632 Death PreIslamic Arabia o Tribalism o Loyalty to family clan and tribe o Polytheism o Trade 0 In the middle of trade route 0 Different people with different cultures and ideas o Raiding AlJahiliya o Refers to all of the time before Islam is taught o Time of ignorance Religious Reform o No God but God 0 Monotheism o Between Hijrah and death o Was a political leader as well as prophet o Leads to Social Reform O O O O O O Equality Compassion Orphans and widows Elevated rights of women Forbade female infanticide Criticized greed Chapter 10 Islam 4212010 73800 PM 5 Pillars of Faith o Religion 9 ethics regulate life of Muslim o Shahadah belief and witness 0 There is no God but God and Muhammed is His messenger Absolute monotheism Tawhid devine unity of oneness o Muhammed vehicle for God s revelation o Muhammed eminent role model through life example in Hadith one of the primary sources for religious law in Islam o Salaat 5 daily prayers o Chanted call to prayer includes Shahadah Qibla direction to Mecca is marked by Mihrab in mosque Ritual ablution remove shoes Can pray alone of in group anywhere Imam prayer leader Friday noon mosque service Niyya intention o Allahu Akbar o Zakat obligatory almsgiving 25 of wealth 0 Purification reminder that one s wealth is a gift from God 0 Paid during Ramadan o Other voluntary almsgiving sadaqah o Sawm Ramadan fasting o Purifies the body o Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca o 6th pillar jihad striving struggle to realize God s will 0 Greater inner individual exertion to overcome ego o Lesser external peaceful missionary defensive armed struggle 0 Be better person help community fix neighborhood etc o Prominent Themes 0 Islam 9 Imam 9 Ihsan Surrender to God 9 faith 9 excellence faith in deed o Orthopraxy gt orthodoxy Suspicion of theological debate Religion ritual patterning of life under God s lordship O O O O O O Jihad continuous effor required a Worship God as though you see Him Chapter 10 Islam 4212010 73800 PM SunniShi a Split Sunnah tradition o 85 of Muslims o Abu Bakr Aisha Aisha 9 Muhammed s wife 0 Community consensus Picked person who they though would best lead the community 0 Caliphs Quran Hadith Legal school Scholarly interpretation 0 Great cultural variety 0 Many reform movements emerged o Partisans of Ali Wanted to pick someone who was from Muhammed s family 0 15 of Muslims Ali Fatima Fatima 9 Muhammed s daughter 0 680 Massacre of Karbala Ali s son Hussein This is when the split is evident for the Shi ites Fondness devotion to Muhammed s family 121mams spiritual leaders or 7 or 5 First was Ali 0 Martyrdom underdog consciousness O O O Orthodox Rightly Guided Caliphs Must know first four caliphs names Abu Bakr 632634 0 Preserved unity of Arabia Umar 634644 0 Most successful rule established many practices and institutions of Islamic society Uthman 644656 0 Criticized for nepotism murdered o Authoritative version of Qur an Ali 656661 0 Civil war criticized by Aisha for not dealing harshly enough with Uthman s murderers 0 Accepted arbitration murdered by group who saw both sides to deviate from earlier norms of Islam Growth of Islam Beyond Arabia o Umayyad Dynasty 661750 0 Damascus RomanSyrian influence 0 Hereditary kingship Abbasid Dynasty 7501258 0 Baghdad Persian influence 0 Golden Age of Islamic Civilization 750950 Strong centralized government prosperity and cultural flourishing Harun alRashid 786809 Translation of Aristotle recovery of math geometry astronomy from Alexandria translated manuscripts from Sanskrit Greek Latin Syriac Coptic and Persian into Arabic Medicine anatomy disease Ibn Sina Avicenna father of modern medicine 0 Ulama religious scholars grow in power 0 Gates of Ijtihad closed o 711 Islamic forced enter Spain 732 Halted at Battle of Tours o Umayyad emir and caliphs 0 Southern Spain 0 Cultural revival creativity 0 Mutual toleration among Muslims Jews and Christians Dhimmis protected people of the Book o Ottoman Empire 14531921 0 Constantinople Istanbul o Sultans over vast empire 0 Architecture poetry Sufism thrives o Safavids reestablish Persian states Shiite state basis of modern Iran 14991924 c Mughal rule in India o 18th century on Serious decline of power and prosperity of sultanates Chapter 10 Islam 4212010 73800 PM Shariah path of God o Ideal system not an achieved realize system c Developed as result of historic conditions prevailing during Islam s three formative centuries 0 Turn the law in 8th9th centuries to limit autonomy of rulers and standardize the law o Includes religious duties matter of ethics and religious law o Shariah meant only to regulate one s external actions not inner spirituality o Islamic law includes Shariah God s law the fiqh human understanding interpretation and jurisprudence o Sources of Jurisprudence Fiqh o Quran divinely revealed translations considered invalid o Hadith text that records Sunnah the Prophet s customs Isnad chain of transmission Three reliable isnads 9 sound hadith o Qiyas use of analogy Used for both Quran and Hadith Not translation 0 Ijma Juridical consensus Sunni not Shiite Based on the idea tat the community would never agree on an error Consensus of religious scholars could create binding decisions of religious law Determines how the other three will be used powerful force for conformity Human interpretation has often appropriated local custom as Islamic law Taqlid imitation or blind acceptance ofjuridical precedent Ijtihad independent reasoning by a legal expert mufti to issue a legal ruling fatwa that could then be used by judges and litigants to be accepted or rejected by the community Option when the Quran and Hadith were silent on an issue and if analogy and consensus had failed to deliver a solution Outlawed by the traditionalist Sunni Ulama 10th century 0 O Sufism Never closed for Shiites Ulama or Ayatollahs are all Mujtahids ie interpreted of law greater autonomy than Sunni ulama o 57 Legal Schools 4 Sunni 3 Shiite Way of devotion mystical core of Islam Uses stories poetry art rituals dance movements prayer meditation 0 Rumi s poetry saints from other tradition erotic love poetry men and wome Aim is elimination of all veils between individual and God Response to growing materialism and wealth Emphasized interior path not explicit asceticism Missionary success of devotional practices 13th century Sufi brotherhoods become mass movement Allegorical symbolic interpretation in addition to literal meaning Themes remembrance of God dhikr love and service to God s creation selfreform Chapter 10 Islam 4212010 73800 PM Quran Response to Women Equality complementarity men and women equally responsible for adhering to 5 pillars Forbids female infanticide allows women to work earn money own property right to own dowry financial maintenance from husbands Marriage 0 Contract written negotiated dissolved 0 Divorce allowed but restrictions on husband s repudiation of wife 0 Limit on polygamy no more than four wives equal treatment very rare in practice seen as desirable in certain cases after war Inheritance rights 2 female witnesses 1 male Veiling and seclusion applied originally to Muhammed s wives later extended under Uthman s rule to all women 0 Hijab Several different interpretation of Quran 3359 lower gaze protect private parts don t show adornment draw veil over bosom Interpretations n Be modest a Cover Hair a Cover everything but face and hands a Cover everything but eyes Different apparel Hijab bourqa abaya chador All are interpretations rely on traditions of commentary Changing interpretations of Qur anic revelation what is eternal universal unchanging vs what was contextual response appropriate for 7th century audience Status of women in Islam vs Women s experiences in Muslim world Varies widely historicalcultural predominance of patriarchy predominantly male interpreters male leaders and male rulers Chapter 10 Islam 4212010 73800 PM Modern Challenges o Political economic problems in Mideast 0 Political turmoil after breakup of Ottoman Empire 0 Effects of colonialism No industrial revolution loss of resources and political and social order East India Company Suez Canal BP Resentment against west discontent with loss of tradition o IsraeliPalestinian conflict 9 pseudounifier for Arabs o Challenge of secularism creating political institutions independent of religion 0 Religious leaders an religious revitalization movements becoming political Khomeini Muslim Brotherhood o Crisis of religious authority Bin Laden Wahhabism Taliban Modern History of IranUS c 19411979 Mohammed Reza Shad Pahlavi o 1951 Mohammed Mossadegh democratically elected prime minister nationalizes oil industry o 1953 Operation Ajax US and British coup 0 To maintain foreign oil access and prevent Soviet influence c 19781979 Islamic Revolution 0 Protests against proUS abusive and extravagant Shah o Khomeini returns from exile 0 Students seize US embassy hostage c 19801988 IraqIran war up to 1 million Iranian deaths Recent History of Afghanistan c 19791989 Soviets invade Afghanistan initially to assist pro Communist government against rebels o 1 million deal 4 million disable or wounded 5 million refugees 2 million displace o US British and Saudi governments training and arm freedom fighters against Soviets employ jihad language o Taliban take over in civil war aftermath o Osama bin Laden mobilizes and unites various Islamist groups 0 19881991 Origins of alQaeda Saudi dissidents o 1996 Welcomed in Talibanled Afghanistan o 1998 Issues fatwa religious duty to kill Americans or pro America No traditional legal authority Rejected authority of contemporary ulama Questions of Reza Aslan s Essay o What is Aslan s thesis o What does Aslan identify as the necessary heart of democracy o List the components of Islamic democracy o What are the necessary components of an Islamic Reformation according to Asian o Explain the title Slouching Toward Medina
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