RELIGIONS OF WORLD
RELIGIONS OF WORLD REL 1000
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rupert Davis on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1000 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Yadlapati in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/223082/rel-1000-louisiana-state-university in Religious Studies at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
11409 Religious Literacy o Secular humanism the idea that the world is becoming less religious 0 Religion is important people are becoming more religious and secularism is not a real problem Things these days usually political but almost everything is side by side with religion War and all political people usually say 39God is on our side and such 1 Name the Four Gospels 2 Name a sacred teXt of Hinduism bhagvandgita 3 What is the name of the holy book ofIslam 4 Where according to the Christian Bible was Jesus born 5 President George W Bush made reference to the Iericho road in his inaugural address which biblical story was he alluding to 6 What is the first five books of the Christian old testament Hebrew scriptures 7 What is the Golden Rule 8 39God helps those who helps themselves is this in the bible And if so where 9 39Blessed are the poored spirit for theirs is the kingdom of god List the 10 commandments Name the four noble truths of Buddhism 12 What are the seven sacraments of Catholicism 13 The first amendment says two things regarding religion in two separate clauses What are the two religious clauses of the first amendment 14 What is Ramadan And in what religion is it celebrated Iewish 15 AdamEve Match the biblical story to the biblical story HH HO Matthew Mark Luke Iohn Betas Bramanas laws of manu karma sutra gita Adfa Bethlaham To the good Samaritan story Ienisus eXidus laviticus numbers duderonimy Do onto others as you would have them do unto you No No where Yes found in the beatitudes ofjesus sserman on the mound 0 12 possible answers I am the lord You should have no other gods before me You shall not make for yourself a graven image You shall not take the name oflord in vai Adfa Honor your father and mother You shall not kill or murder You shall not commit adultery HQWNQWFWNH oo19911gtww 9 You shall not steal 10 You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor 11 Shall not covit your neibors wide 12 Shall not covit your neighbors goods 11 suffering 12 baptism ucarus or mass reconcialation confirmation marriage holy orders anointing of the sick 13 first amendment says congress shall make no law of religion or prohibiting No establishment clause and free exercise clause 14 Ramadan is a muslim holiday observed by fasting 15 Adam and eve garden of Eden 16 Moses parting of red sea 17 Noah olive branch 18 Jesus road to Damascus and garden ofGethsemane 19 Abraham binding ofIsaac 20 Serpent garden of eden 11609 What is Religion Belief Tradition Community Cultural values 0 Ethics Higher power Ritual Daily practice TeXt script Hierarchyinstitution Historical origindevelopment Afterlife Politics power authority order Symbols Myths Fashion Sacred time Sacred space Artifacts Iconic figures Authority figures 12109 Indloa Sindhu o Indus 0 Hindu o Hindustan o Hinduism 0 Means the religions of India specifically those people who lived in India and were not Christian or Muslim Hindu Family Act said that the religion of Hinduism eXtends to all of those who belong to one of the 39hindudemoninations To anyone else who is in the territory and does not declare themselves to be a christian jew muslim or parsi you can be undeclared and be hindu Dharma 0 Doing ones duty fulfilling all of those obligations that an individual is required to fulfill Defined by your place in society religion possibly race political role Vedas O O Sruti that which was heard revealed knowledge or scripture Teth RG Sama Yajur Atharva Samhitas at the core of each of those 4 books are the samhitas they went with historical rituals songs or hymns I Bramanas blow by blow instructions that are meant to serve as a manual to anyone trying to recreate the hymn I Aranyakas compositions for the forest people who are religious and philosophical and move to the forest to live a pure life life ofa hermit Upanishads the people living in the forest came up with and passed down ideas to a later generation who later recorded it o Sanatana Dharma the eternal laws 12609 0 Reincarnation o Dharma do things that are right because it is right 0 Eternal and unchanging always wrong to murder 0 The other is specific to your position in society Layers of obligation that are given to you based upon your gender age 4 stages place in society I CastesSocial Class with religious significance is now illegal o Priests recognized as the most pure furthest along from eliminating their Dharma and escaping reincarnation Politicians and Warriors the people who govern you you want them to be further along then you are in eliminating Dharma Common People Bulk of the people doctor carpenter any craftsmen any skillset used to make money you fall in this category 00 Menial Porter at a hotel carrying bags carry stuff or move things no real skill Outcast those who don t fit in to the cast system handle death waste and other things of that nature for a living are outcast recognize them as dirty people who handle meat are also in this category people who make tennis shoes because they are made ofleather I 4 Stages oflife 3 paths of Hinduism Student Age 812 during this stage you should dedicate yourself to reading religious scriptures and learn the basics of Hinduism Common people usually had their children learning traits of a skill rather then religious obedient to everyone House Holder After 12 finished your studies and taken a spouse make kids and get a job to hold down your family obedient to all of those older then you but a leader to your children Forest Dweller Grandfatherly stage you begin to withdraw from life move away from the hustle of the city spend less time working when you disconnect from the physical world and focus on religious matters instead still have social obligations Sannyasi Someone who renounces the world of physical things material world day to day things achieve some sort ofpeace serenity and work towards seperation from reincarnation disconnected from social obligations 0 Way ofAction Doing your dharma doing what is right doing the proper religious rituals at the right time 0 Way of Knowledge sharp contrasts to the way ofaction Unity the understanding of unity especially we as individuals are one with Brahman at one with the universal immortal infinite and only real reality we are united with it 0 Way of Devotion Bhakti I Monotheism behind every manifestation of God there is a purer way oflooking at it all the Gods are really expressions of the same god same thing only associating that all of the other gods are just representations of one god which is the purest representation of a god I Henotheism recognition that many gods exist but I choose one to be mine to adore and devote myself to I Pantheism belief that god is all he is around and inside all things Way of knowledge o Gods Polytheism recognizes the serperate existence of multiple gods or goddesses Shiva also known as the auspicious one the destroyer which is not to say that shiva is a dark god quite the opposite shiva is simultaneously threatening and a great warrior while kind and forgiving was there at the creation of the universe but was not the creator so powerful that he can destroy entire amries at will he can defend you against anything physical or spirutual when the world is destroyed shiva will stand and laughing and dancing the perfect ascetic loving after denying his wife for 1000 years he went to her and made love to her for 1000 years a Lingam is a representation of shivas penis Vishnu the Preserver the universe is maintained from moment to moment was there when the world was created sooner or later the world will be sucked down and recreated it doesn t happen now because he doesn t allow it the preserver often associated with the sun because of life maintains the world by the proper Dharma has been incarnated into a physical body avatar generally people agree that Vishnu has taken or will take 10 reincarnation first one was a fish as a fish he saved Manu laws of manu 7th is usually recognized as Rama hero of the ramiah 9th some traditions believe it was Buddha and others say it was Krishna 10th will be Kalky incarnation that is yet to come and will be the final manifestation ofVishnu who will come to restore Dharma at the end of the world Shakti does not refer to a particular person or one deity is roughly the feminine power or simply THE goddess not A goddess also called Devi which is the generic term for goddess according to devotees of Shakti there is one power and that power is a female divine not a male divine As such that feminine divine power has several forms many of the goddesses of Hinduism are in fact the same deity the highest supreme power as Shakti Those in Eastern India and Western India have different views on Shakti some people believe there are different parts of Shakti o Durga the active power that controls the natural world she controls everything from the wind blowing to the forces of physics and gravity to the forces of fate and things that control our destiny 12 0 Kali known for having darker skin and wearing a mini skirt made out of many arms often has a clever she s called the Dark Mother this does not mean she is evil she is all that is powerful and fearful about woman not able to be control she is open in her sexuality has sex in the op en with many partners she only wears a skirt nothing else which is in violation in Hinduism fearsome to her enemies whoever opposed her angered her or disrespected her died in the end and to those who respect and warship her get her protection Laksmi Vishnu s wife ampParavati Shiva s wife two distinct goddesses and have different stories but they do overlap in areas they are the perfect wife they are the ideal woman the take care of the home and heart they are mothers they are the goddesses of the domestic sphere home life Sarasvati Brahma Is Brahman with a face the deity Others 809 Hinduism has sometimes been called the religion of 330000000 gods no one has actually sat down and counted so it may not be an exaggeration there are many reasons that there are this many this is because any religion being practiced in India was called Hindu different villages although next to each other may have different practices that could be called different religions but they were all called Hindu therefore many gods had become part of Hinduism Ganesha the son of Shiva and Paravati this is the elephant headed God that the west likes to throw around this is because people in the West found this as ridiculous and therefore they throw it around coconut is his favorite offering Om symbol of om it is actually a graphic representation of the sound of om it means exactly that the sound om the sound is recited before and after recitation of religious texts and before and after prayer Most people will agree that this sound is the most sacred sound but why is the question some believe that it is the representation of the ultimate reality we may not know what that reality is but om is the sound of it others believe that it is the sound of creation when the universe was created and will be destroyed the sound om was there and will be there Aum is how it is spelt from the sound A is the world as it is now and the m is the world as you perceive it but what comes between is something you will never understand or experience Om contains within it the seed of true knowledge Yoga is a physical and mental discipline by which you are yoked to a God yoke is a harness and you harness yourself to a god or to a good purpose there is a list of things you shouldn t do and a list of things you should do Raja o Hatha o Manu the primordial man of hinduisn the first man who was saved by a fish in a great ood by a giant fish the fish was Vishnu hes like the Noah for Hinduism he wrote down laws for religious beliefs he was either governed or directed or maybe did it on his own Kind oflike the ten commandments Laws of Manu is a list of Laws They really are not that important to Hindu s but since they look familiar to things in other religions westerners focused more on it includes that castes system gender roles four stages of life 2209 Buddhism 0 4 Noble Truths o Suffering 0 Also called the Noble 8fold path Right Views Right Resolve o Resolve to do nonviolent actions to not hurt any living creature but instead perpetuate love to all living creatures to think about and respect all living creatures Right Speech 0 When you speak it should be moral should be dictated by conscious you shouldn t lie slander mislead use abusive language when you choose to communicate you should only use it to promote other creatures that promotes life health and happiness Right Conduct 0 The things we do should be moral those actions we take Right Livelihood 0 Don t take a job or a life path that takes a immoral job take a job that has Buddhist values a job that promotes health life other creatures and education a Buddhist should not be an assassin Right Effort 0 Considered to be a mental discapline must have dedication to doing what is right you know its enough when it works ifyou are doing the right thing then you have the proper dedication to that path ifyou achieve enlightenment you had enough if you don t you didn t Right Mindfulness Right concentration 0 When you sit down to do the action to achieve enlightenment you have to do so with the right concentration you have to have the right degree of 0 2409 concentration right degree of effort and concentrate on the right thing Karma Spiritual Gravity the energy that keeps you bound in a cycle of reincarnation I Samsara the cycle of reincarnation as a cycle for death and something as a prison for the soul I Anatman Self opposition to Brahman o 5 Skandhas 5 elements ofa human being that make up an individual on all layers 0 Ground of belief and who this I character is your physical body Your senses and feelings all tell you something about the world you experience around you feelings that you feel happiness sadness Ideations categories that you use to make sense of everything you know that despite what is coming into your head you know that its different things and that its not one big mass together there is space that allows you make sense of the world in 3D Mental Formations tendencies for you to behave in certain ways your likes and dislikes Consciousness an awareness of any or all of the other elements 0 O O 0 Nirvana Harry Nirvana nirvana without something left over makes regular nirvana with something left over full realization of enlightenment which no living being can do 0 Buddhism Gods O O O Amida Maitreya Also known as Buddha the fat bald man with his legs crossed has not came yet will come when the religion has been passed down and corrupted so much that it needs help he is large because in the olden days large people are generally happy and cheerful The large earlobes means that he is someone with wisdom Bodhisattva highly developed spiritual beings who have not reached enlightenment yet they are at the highest degree of near enlightenment sometimes they are called arhats or worthy ones it is a being who is on the path to enlightenment at somepoint they took a vow that one day they will become a Buddha and someday reach enlightenment but not yet they will not reach it until they help every other being reach enlightenment the vow is called the bodhisattva o Scriptures They will always be good they will do what is right and not do what is wrong They have also perfected patients They have perfected wisdom deep inside of all aspects of reality Abiding peace serenity to be calm at mind Joyous effort their joy is in doing what is right and they always do what is right so they are always happy 0 Tripitaka The 3 baskets each one has a specific purpose 0 Thera Vinaya Pitaka Discipline basket or basket of discipline All of the writings that relate to the life end and governments ofa community ofmonks and nuns and how to be a monk and nun and how to run a monastery or all of the ways of the Sangha The only people who read this basket are monks and nuns it s the rules for them Sutra Pitaka the discourse basket 0 The conversations the lectures the dialogues between Buddha and others the teachings of Siddhartha and those people who were there when he was teaching and what people had to say after he died Most of the time he did not lecture he carried on conversations with people to teach Abhidharma Pitaka the further discourse basket 0 The additional conversation basket these are the philosophical minded re ections on what he said and on every other matter under the sun anything written by a Buddhist thinker could have been included and was Sects Schools Variations vada also called Hinayana the smaller vehicle Focused upon the Sangha it believes that being a monk or a nun is the best way of doing it they do not believe in new material there is the Tripitaka and nothing that is written afterwards no new teachings or rituals the way they understand Buddha is the historical way Supporting the local monastery is the most important thing you can do as a non monk or nun o Mahayana the younger innovative brother of Theravada Translates as the said T greater vehicle the better path to get to enlightenment and heravada is the lesser path Most subgroups and most divergence between groups in Mahayana they are open to new beliefs and practices and they recognize other scriptures as important and inside 2609 Mahayana different groups can believe in completely different scriptures Laity Lay Person someone who is not a religious professional not a priest a monk a nun a preacher everyone else is a Laity No matter who you are or what you do you can make advancements in this lifetime to reach enlightenment 3 Bodies of the Buddha Mahayana believes that when he reached enlightenment o The appearance body the body that came to earth and walked around and talked to people and picked up things The Body of Bliss a spiritual body that eXists in a higher realm of existence in this paradise realm he rules over the realm called Buddharealm there s one for all of the Buddhas The Dharma Body the understanding of the Buddha as the underlying essence of the universe when you reach enlightenment you will be too Upaya it means skillful meansstrategy that it takes to get you to the desired end even if it contradicts Buddhist tradition 0 Scripts School 0 Mahayana 0 000 2909 Merit Transfer as you increase merit you decrease your karma Mahayana says that merit can be transferred from one individual to another Pure Land land or realm ruled over by Amitabha Amitabha ifyou spend your life in devotion to them your karma will be so low that your neXt reincarnation will be in the Pure Land that Amitabha rules over Siddha people who have Sidhe which means achievement they ve achieved something special these are more then human beings they were born human but due to their enlightenment they have gained awesome abilities they are not Buddhist Mandala Mantra Tantra Tantrick Sex tradition within tibeten Buddhism no individual act thought desire or craving that is enherintly evil the problem is becoming attached with that satisfying of the need 0 Dali Lama 0 Was the political and religious leader of Tibet the position was created and was not originally part of the religion He was the leader of the region he was put in charge of he is said to be a reincarnation of the bodisafva one who is so close to reincarnation that he is on a higher level but he wants to help man kind therefore he stays here to help us cross over 0 Zen Buddhism also called Zazen or Chan 0 Only got started at about 5 20 of the common era the founder of this new form of Buddhism is Bodhidarma I Mahayana mixed with Taoism from China and created what we now call Zen I Koans riddles with no logical or rational answer 0 Satori kensho a peak of experience moment of clarity intuition complete joy a o The gateless gate 48 riddles or stories that are supposed to teach you how to overcome a certain thing 21309 Confucianism 0 Li rituals religious practices you do over and over again 0 5 Relationships 0 Father obedience you owe your father with love and respect for what they have done and as they get older you have to honor their wishes and be behind them in all of their decisions 0 The ElderYounger between an old person and a younger person they have an accumulated vault of knowledge and will offer their knowledge to you by advice 0 Husband has the duty to give the wife what she wants and what she needs and ultimately the husband has the final say so in finance and family matters but he should take his wife s wishes Sibling the older sibling has the duty to take care of the younger sibling and the younger sibling has a duty to not make it annoying or too hard 0 RulerKing o Mandate of Heaven like a contract not actually a physical thing its an idea but it is real contract between the government body China and the heavens above them the mandate goes to whoever deserves it and whoever is the most worthy to rule this means whoever is in power must have the mandate the power that eXists because heaven says it does 0 The Negative Golden Rule do not do unto others as you would not do unto you 0 Golden rule is do to others as you would want others to do to you 0 Other Elements 0 O The ancestor Cult recognized that the human being has two souls one soul when you die goes and the other stays with the body and possibly becomes a ghost Cult of Heaven includes a lot about the 39world all rituals that involve a particular spiritual being or god falls under this any offering or something of the such made to all the gods 0 5 Agents School 21609 Toaism o Origins came from ideas was not really originally a religion or anything 0 O O O Came from root word called Toa quotthe way Laotzu Toa teChing the book of the way or its power can also be about its virtue ZhuangZi many of the ideas are found in this later book however most people don t read the book and just practice ideas found in the book Ziron naturalness a thing just being itself something doesn t have to try to be something it is natural to it fungshwai comes from this allowing it to be natural Wuwei Wunian according to this idea to really be natural we have to overcome social expectations and contraints not do what is expected ofyou by society Religion 1000 Introduction 1202010 24000 PM Dr Yadlapati o myadlapsuedu o Syllabus on Moodle Academic Study of Religion o 200 years old 0 Started during the Enlightenment o Comparative and historical 0 Ordering of religions o 20th Century 0 PhenomenologicalTheology Self description of religion Little evaluation done or explanations given Ways Religions Make Appearances o Prayer meditation or group worship o Quiet or loud o Sacred Objects o Sacred images symbols and stories o Sacred Places Religions have similar patterns and similar meanings o However all have unique traditions Each Religions Has o Belief System o Rules Ritual Practices Commitment Deity 0 Text Symbols Worship 0 Prayers 0 Dance and movements Hierarchy o Clothing
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