RELIGIONS OF WORLD
RELIGIONS OF WORLD REL 1000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikayla Cole on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1000 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Yadlapati in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/223082/rel-1000-louisiana-state-university in Religious Studies at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 8 Judaism 352010 83500 PM Misconceptions o Not religion that is practiced in the Old Testament o Seeing Judaism as obsessed with law Biblical Judaism o Patriarchs Abraham Isaac and Jacob 0 Abraham 19001700 BCE 0 Moses 1250 BCE 1St Temple 950586 BCE 0 During rule of Solomon 0 Destroyed in 586 Exile 586515 BCE o Babylonian Exile 2nd Temple 515 BCE70 CE Rabbinic Judaism 70 CE present Rabbinic 70600 CE Medieval 6001800 CE o Modern Reform 1800present Polytheism o Early cultures look to many different gods for answers and order to chaotic world o Gods have limited and special powers limited to their region o Monotheism roots begin in Canaan Abraham o Began life as a polytheistic following Canaan beliefs 0 Believed other gods existed but devoted himself to one god o Traditionally the first monotheist o Still participated fire sacrifices o Stressed relationship between god and human beings o Asked to sacrifice his son Common in the era Jacob o Last patriarch o Renamed Israel after struggling with angel all night 0 When the god does not tell Jacob his name Jacob commits himself to the new god o Represents people struggle with god because of the love for each other o Liberated Jewish people from Egyptian slavery after 400 years c First time god is called Yahweh o Not the friendly god of Abraham and Jacob 0 Released 10 plagues on Egypt 0 Israelites are released 0 God is now a liberating god who loves humans o Israelites still have trouble releasing from god because the new god does not want to have a personal relationship 0 No sculptures pictures or idols 0 2nd Commandment o God is mysterious and overwhelming Prophets Exile o If our god is true and theirs is fault how could we go conquered o Punishment 0 Controls everything not just our tribe or our era o After exile is when Judaism is officially monotheism Chapter 8 Judaism 352010 83500 PM Babylonian Exile 586530 BCE o Starts after temple is destroyed in 586 BCE 0 People question why this happened 0 No more self rule political capital 0 Lose religious home Place to worship o Aftermath o Reinterpret everything about their religion New patterns of worship no more sacrifice a Prayer and study a Synagogue n Minyan 10 adult males Faith a How to make since of action a God punished his people for not just worshiping him a Unfaithfulness will be punished Turn to text n Things written down soon after this period a Torah 430 BCE New ideas a Evil o Satan n Distant future redemption o Goal is something to work for in the linear timeline 2nd Temple Period 515 BCE70 CE o Judea vs Diaspora 0 Only a small group of people return to Judea Many people have already settled down 0 Diaspora influenced by other cultures Greek Hellenism o Temple priesthood o Hereditary priesthood Becomes very powerful o Compiling Tanakh 200 BCE 0 Rest of Hebrew Bible 0 Torah 430 BCE o Hellenization o Clash between traditional and Hellenized Jews o Maccabean Revolt o Hasmonean Dynasty 16463 BCE Last period of Jewish self rule until Israel 0 Romans take over after Apocalypticism n End of the world is coming Messianic hopes n Belief that someone would come to liberate them o Political savior Three Sects n Sadducees o Priests and rich people o Conservative faction n Pharisees o Liberal priests in favor of applying Torah to certain circumstances a Essenes o Priests who live in communes o Focused on ritual purity o Qumran sect o The Dead Sea Scrolls Chapter 8 Judaism 352010 83500 PM Two main sects o Rabbinic 0 Biggest following o Kaballah o Mysticism Goal direct experience with god 0 Luria teacher whose teachings are most well known 0 Tikkun Olam repairing the world Community service o Both influenced the following leaders Baal Shem Tov 17001760 BCE Ukraine o Takes mystical teachings simplifies them and makes them approachable o Devotional movement o Populist 0 Interpretation that doesn t require learning and only devotion 0 Popular for poor people Hasidism path of ecstatic piety 0 Highest goal Devekut Clinging to God Worship God in ordinary acts o Loving God instead of learning God 0 Different from Rabbinic Judaism o Tzaddick teacher 0 Rebbe community leader 0 Ordained spiritual guide Moses Mendelssohn 17291786 BCE Germany c Part of intellectual elite o Tutored because Jews weren t allowed in universities o Was able to talk and relate to both communities o Haskalah 0 Ideas encouraged to Jews Jewish enlightenment Secular education n Speak in German a German History o Assimilation 0 Integrating Jewish culture into German society o Separation of church and state 0 Dominant culture was Christian and Jews were restricted from many things o Challenged to make a case for Judaism o Comes up with Judaism being more tolerant no conversion 0 Torah rules are obligatory to Jews only 0 Explains Judaism to Germans using morality and for Jewish civil rights Separation of church and state and integration of Jews into society 18001825 Napoleon o Every place he conquers he emancipates Jewish people 1850 s Reform o Jewish people granted civil rights in different areas at different times Chapter 8 Judaism 352010 83500 PM Orthopraxy gt orthodoxy Jew Observer of commandments o No abstract affirmation of faith o One performs halakhah and through it affirms Jewish values and ideals Values of Religious Practices o Recognition of God s presence 0 Religious attentiveness to all life as divine gifts o Sanctification of human life a holy life set apart 0 All actions should remind us that life is not meant to be profane and meaningless but sacred o Human responsibility to manifest divine characteristics in world 0 Medieval view God can initiate messianic era and restore Israel only when all Israel is full observant of halakhah Shabbat o Time out from everyday world that sanctifies the whole week 0 Enjoined to make a joyous special set apart o Creation of beautiful temple in time o Eternity gt worldly time 0 Recall beginning of creation and contemplate its fulfillment to come in messianic era o Sabbath is welcomed to bid farewell Havdalah o Lighting candles blessing time of leisure and joy not solemnity o Challah o Blessing the children 0 White o Shabbat Shalom o Synagogue service Torah reading Ritual Practices of Jewish Identity o Bris circumcision as external sign of covenant o Bar mitzvah bat mitzvah o Sabbath o Daily prayer three times a day t fillin talit o Mezuzah scripture by door o Niddah monthly offlimits o Mikva ritual purification o Kosher 0 Ultimate meaning of these practices setting part 0 A holy life is not one s own but belongs to God High Holy Days Days of Awe o Rosh Hashanah 0 New year 0 Blowing of shofar 100 times 0 Somber selfscrutiny acts of repentance o Apples dipped in honey hopes for good and sweet year c Yom Kippur 0 Day of Atonement 0 Most sacred day of year 0 Prayer strct fasting seeking God s forgiveness considering one s obligations and how to life better 0 Private inner reflection Other Holidays o Sukkot 0 Harvest celebration o Shelters booths 0 Sleep outdoors in temporary shelter or sukkah o Reminder of human vulnerability dependence on God o Simhat Torah 0 Cycle of Torah Reading o Hanukkah 0 8 day festival of lights 0 9 branched menorah o Purim 0 Reading Book of Esther parties costumes o Pesach Passover 0 Themes Slavery and freedom Four cups of wine Seder plate Focus on children Contemporary spiritual interpretations
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