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by: Mikayla Cole


Mikayla Cole
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C. Kooi

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C. Kooi
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikayla Cole on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 4011 at Louisiana State University taught by C. Kooi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/223088/rel-4011-louisiana-state-university in Religious Studies at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
10132013 80500 PM Late Medieval Spirituality confraternities religious brotherhoods developed in 14005 associations of people who were linked geographicaly or professionaly they would celebrate the sacraments and engage in acts of devotion together like organizing processions on holy days mysticism a direct and very personal encounter with the divine believe that revelation comes from these encounters describe their experiences as losing themselves Joan of Arc France 14505 claimed mystical visions affectivepiety piety that has a strong emotional aspect to it outpouring of emotion was often considered a measure of devotion Beguines 1200 grow in the 13005 women who organized themselves into religious communities they don39t take vows but they act like nuns they lived in communities called beguinages a cheaper alternative to joining a convent Modern Devotion Brethren of the Common Life a movement that began among clergy out of a desire to be more devout Geert Groote 13401384 heerthghroatapreached that Christians should be more devout and believed that the best way was to do this through a common life more people who lived in communities and worked and worshipped together but didn39t take vows in the way monastics do The Imitation of Christ 1440 one of the most important works of piety written in the era all the reformers were familiar with it and it was influential Thomas a Kempis author emphasized private prayer inner renewal and living a life like christ Excerpts in A Reformation Reader staarting page 4 Great period of churchbuilding 14005 Growth in desire of the leity for more religious expression Renaissance mediumaevum humanist term for middle age Revival of the quotGolden Agequot from the Rise of Greek citystates about 500 BC to fall of Rome about 500 AD began in Italy in the late 13005 humanists were after a reappreciation of classical learning became advocates for learning Classical Greek and Latin Christian Humanists humanism moved north by the late 14005 and became a flourishing international movement christian humanists were a subset of the new movement who were interested in how humanism could improvereform Christianity considered the first three centuries of Christianity to be the quotGolden Agequot scholasticism borrowed heavily from Aristotle but later became speculative theological abstraction put forth by scholastic theologians The Vulgate the Church39s standard Latin translation of the Bible the humanists found it to be an inferior Latin translation They attack the lackadaisical clergy excessive superstition and veneration of saints and relics reformazio some of the first to take advantage of the new printing press and this helped their movement enormously Humanists to Know Thomas More 147811535 Utopia Johannes Reuchlin 14551522 royklin Juan Luis Vives 14921517 Jacques Lefevred39Etable 14551536 Francisco de Cisneros 14371537 He was the Bishop of highest ranking Clergyman in Spain an inquisitor founded the university of Alcala a center for Biblical study Polyglot Bible Hebrew Greek and Aramaic or Syriac translations all next to each other produced in Alcala Rudolf Agricola 14441485 German scholar who lived in Italy supported himself as an organist encouraged the idea of Germanic people having a classical past from their location within the Roman Empire Desiderius Erasmus 14661536 most famous of the Christian Humanists celebrity author because of his shameless self promotion his sharp criticisms of the church and Christianity his scholarship his relentless correspondence with everyone and his exploitation of the printing press and his desire for a simpler faith scholarship criticisms devotion he was the illegitimate child of a priest then orphaned at a young age and handed over to a monastic community He wrote phiosophia Christi Greek New Testament and The Praise of Foly He was an ordained priest and monk but left and wriggled out of his obligations 10132013 80500 PM Desiderius Erasmus In Praise ofFoly Indulgences 95 Thesis 95 propositions criticizing the selling indulgences circulating points for dispute in an intellectual town was not radical Indulgences appeared around the 11th century as motivation for crusaders to fight the turks selling them began when the papacy moved to and was cut off from its sources of income in Italy MartinLuther found the selling of indulgences to be crass and not scripturay based an abuse of the sacrament of penance posed his questions as what if the lay people ask he hand wrote them to circulate but they get printed by someone and then are all over Germany in two weeks this brought his other works into high demand and emboldened him to expand his criticisms of the wealth amp corruption of the church he criticizes the idea of the infallibility of the papacy based on his study of scripture idea of the Priesthood of all Believers saxony soteriology justification by faith Romans 117 soa fide soa scriptura soa gratia 95 Theses 1517 Diet of Worms 1521 Peasants39 War 15241525 Confession of Augsburg 15 Evangelical proposes that the only sacraments be kept are the ones that are in the Bible baptism and communion last supper Luther Germany has a history of peasant rebellions mostly to do with economic rights o This is why the idea of quotChristian Liberationquot was so appealing o The Lutheran camp became very adept at proreform propaganda and using the printing press c It took the church a while to catch up to the propaganda Peasants War 1524 Large peasant rebellion breaks out in Germany note Germany is not a country but a geographic term Became known as the Peasants War different from other revolts because it was more widespread and organized They attacked landlords and made demands using Luther39s words style of request They wanted Feudal Law to be replaced with what they called quotGodly Lawquot they wanted the landlords to be more humble towards tenants Luther is horrified by this manipulation of his ideas He does not support or encourage what he calls quotanarchistsquot He responded by writing a pamphlet called quotAgainst the Murdering Thieving Hordes of Peasantsquot Huldrych Zwingli 14841531 Swiss priest involved in Swiss Reformation The area was a loose confederation of small city states and Cantons now referred to as the Old Swiss Confederation the citystate of Zurich was largest the canton considered itself in charge Geography of switzerland protects it from invasion have successfully fought off the Hapsburgs didn39t get involved in 30years war because everyone needed Swiss mercenaries intercanton wars called Wars of Kappel Basal had several printing houses center of learning and printing Zwingli vingli abibliocentric preacher in Zurich in February 1522 5 prominent citizens who supported Zwingli ate sausage in the square during Lent then Zwingli preached quotOn the freedom of choice in the selection of foodquot he argues that quotif it isn39t in the Bible it shouldn39t be in the churchquot even more than Luther to the point that he doesn39t want music or decoration in the church no incense bells they have ministers not priests who dress normally very austere o can only sing the Psalms Luther Vs Zwingli o disagree on communion o nasty pamphlet war Zwingli is the only reformer who dies in battle he was cut up burned and his ashes were scattered because the Catholic forces who killed him thought that the Protestants would want relics of him Except they wouldn39t because the point was that they didn39t want relics The Radical Reformation Schleitheim Confession 1527 believer39s baptism JakobHutter 15001536 Gelassenheit Handpick Niclaes 15021580 Family of Love David Joris 15011556 the Baptist Movement was not a large group of people but widespread Switzerland Germany Bohemia Netherlands occasionally England All believed Baptism was for adults why it was quotvoluntaryquot or believers39 baptism anabaptists or quotrebaptismquot were the first generation of baptists who had been baptized in the church as a child and decided to have voluntary baptism the Radicals Anabaptists orchestrate a coup in Munster insinuating themselves in the government and claiming that the end of the world is coming and Munster is the New Jerusalem John of Leiden o the leader of the city He claims to receive revelations o abolishes money and private property strict division of labor in Munster legalized polygamy and married 15 women o had spies to make sure the populace is doing what they39re supposed o only lasts about 2 years c the city is besieged by armies led by the Catholic Bishop of Munster o city of Munster hall the cages where they hung the Anabaptist leaders are still there 10132013 80500 PM Calvin 15091564 Note large Presbyterian population in South Korea Two themes humanism amp exile Calvin was French sent to Paris to be a Priest then to be a lawyer but he loved studying the classics and he immersed himself in humanism he tends towards an intellectualized christianity and stresses an informed faith in his theology he believes it is most important to quotknow Godquot and know the word of God In 15 he rejected the Catholic Church and converted to Protestantism He referred to his conversion as God quotsubdued my heart and made it teachablequot Martin Bucer 14911551 0 believed the protestants were best united tried to find the good in everyone39s theology 0 he creates a safe haven in Strasbourg for protestant leaders in exile 0 Calvin goes to this place when he is exiled from France Guillaume Farel 14891565 c Calvin meets this guy in Strasbourg he convinces Calvin to go to Geneva and preach the gospel there o they go and try to induce reform there because the Genevan government agreed to turn Protestant but Calvin and Farel had trouble because they wanted autonomy to reform but the govt wanted some control o the sticking point was that Calvin and Farel wanted the power to excommunicate quotunrepentant sinnersquot but the govt wanted to retain that power for themselves o over this the Genevangovt kicks Calvin and Farel out of the city so they go back to strasbourg Calvin39s institutions o ecclesiastical ordinances 1541 o consistory o diaconate o Calvin and the govt started exercising a strict moral code over the citizens of Geneva By the 16th century Geneva has become the center of the Reformation not many differences between Zwingli39s and Calvin39s theologies Calvinism was the most successful of the reformations both in geography and number of converts The Lutheran reformation is mostly confined to the Germanspeaking lands and Scandinavia it doesn39t become international the way Reformed Protestantism does Calvin The Institutes of the Christian Religion Calvin39s book that gives his complete theology Luther never writes such a totality book Opening LinequotThe entire sum of our wisdom that is true The knowledge of God and of ourselvesquot No mention in this opening of love salvation or Jesus Calvin is a humanist and a scholar and what is most important to him is knowledge and wisdom He does note the difference distinct difference between the divine and the human in this sentence Predestination o God decided before He even created the world who would be saved and who would be damned o why does God do this Calvin39s only answer is quotIt pleased God to do thisquot o It is just a manifestation of God39s total and divine power humans can do nothing o it should make us grateful bacause we ALL should be condemned Ecclesiology most important part to Calvin the theology of the church how it is organized what it does what it is for he creates a simple vision of what the Church should be that turns out to be very effective and exportable First the church is the communion of saints those elected to salvation the souls of christians both living and dead 0 the church39s purpose is to bring order to the christian39s life it provides refuge as well as a weapon 0 tocalvin sin is chaos excess it is anything that is disorder 0 The church helps people in the process of sancti cation o everyone is called to his place in church and society so that the church can provide you with the tools to lead a godly life Calvin s Ecclesiology The church has two MV functions instruction the church preaches and interprets the word of God to believers discipline helps people live godly lives Community of saints should help people in their sanctification Zwingli and Zurich civil government is ordained by God to maintain discipline law and order a truly responsible civil government will bring order to civilization quotit would be better for us to be wild beasts living in the forest than to live without govtquot The government has a responsibility to the church He should protect the church and the christian magistrate should promote proper teaching the church and state39s powers should be complementary insists that the govt the prince or city council should not interfere with the internal life of the church the church should be separate and autonomous Calvin does not want the state and church to be combined because he had trouble in Geneva with getting power to excommunicate people Luther on the other hand thought they should be completely integrated the magistrates would be paid by the state Calvin was wary because he wanted the church to be able to develop even in places where the church and state could be at odds his home country of France where the king was not sympathetic to the reformation Calvin emphasized the calling or vocation He said that God has called everyone to his place Basically he sanctifies every day work and life If he believed that states were ordained by god but some were not sympathetic to the church why did he want to make the church able to go there anyway by being separate Calvin hopes that the self evident truth of the church will persuade the authorities to support it This basically lead France the Netherlands and Scotland to erupt into religious civil war Infamous case of the Consistory39s discipline Michael Servetus first understood the oxygenation of blood in the lungs wrote a book denying the trinity of God This got him in trouble with ALL the churches and fled to France under a pseudonym but the Catholic inquisition caught arrested and tortured him He escaped and fled to Geneva why no one liked him there either He got arrested and they burned him at the stake for being a heretic 8 terms choose 4 Explain definitionbiography as well as importance to the reformation 2 essays choose 1 Bring a blue book


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