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This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Brittany McArthur on Friday December 5, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to Crim3410 at a university taught by Dr. Bellair in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 266 views.
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Date Created: 12/05/14
911 Criminology Notes One f21ct of crime Wolfgang did his research in Philadelphia PAon exam Roughly 6 accounted for 70 of aggravated assault Chronic 6 brought up very differently different traits than the adolescent offender Kids who were arrested once Were never arrested again they stopped Life course persistent offender the 6 Adolescentlimited offender those who are arrested once and stop A2e crime theorV People commit less crime as they age Look at arrest data because We can see the age of offender Property offending is carried out by teenagers peak age 1617 Huge increase in the probability of arrest Might be because children go off to middle school and it s a major break children have more independence and responsibility They usually start pushing back against their parents Wanting more independence and parents start giving around that age Peer pressure is another major reason Moffit argues that children are forced into juvenile status but their bodies are like adults and therefore they push limits to assume and engage in adult like behaviors that are prohibited for their age Structure of our society makes this happen and therefore We shouldn t overreact to it Sex trends fund21mental UCR data shows more pronounced data then the selfreports Self report data has smaller differences because criminology is too much ignoring the offending of females More serious sources of crime data sharper divisions Notes 1014 Social Reaction Labeling Theory Basic Precepts behaviors that are considered criminal are highly subjective crime is de ned by those in power not only are acts labeled so are people positive labels can improve sef image and social standing negative labels can stigmatize and reduce sef image Looking Glass self Cooley A process through which our sef concept is in uenced by the way we think other people see us Re ected appraisals a process by which we re ect on the appraisals of family school and friends causing us to reappraise who we are in a way that is more in line with other appraisals Consequences of labeling negative labels may permanently harm the target pubic denunciation plays an important role in the labeling process condemnation is often carried out via quotceremoniesquot in which the individuals identity is officially transformed quotreidenti cation ceremoniesquot such as a competency hearing a trial juvenile processing successfu degradation ceremonies transactions that produce irreversible permanent labels SeH4abeHng negativey labeled individuals will become increasingly committed to deviant career abeed persons turn to others who are similarly stigmatized abeed kids and adults may internalize negative labels and begin acting in concordance with those labels Economic Structure and Crime Socia structure theory the view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime The key to understanding the root cause of crime can be found in the nation39s socioeconomic makeup If people choose their behavior why are poor kids more likely to choose delinquency and crime than non poor kids US citizens live in a stratified society Strati ed society people grouped according to economic or social class characterized by the unequal distribution of wealth power and prestige poverty is strongly associated with crime and violence quotPoverty is at the root of crimequot Socia class segment of the population whose members are at a relatively similar economic level and who share attitudes values norms and an identi able lifestyle poverty affects 46 million Americans Poverty stands at 23000 or less for a family of 4 Top 1 holds 35 of private wealth Top 20 holds 85 of private wealth 15 of Americans are considered to be poor Poor have little to no wealth of a house car investments etc Poverty trends among children very consequential minority groups and after adjustment for receipt of non cash bene ts Socia security has drastically decreased poverty among elderly Children are most likely to be living in poverty beyond other Americans Poverty rates are much higher among blacks then Hispanics and then white way below Backs have a 5050 chance of growing up in poverty as a child in comparison to whites
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