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by: Javonte Swift


Javonte Swift
GPA 3.84

P. Kolniak

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P. Kolniak
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Javonte Swift on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1201 at Louisiana State University taught by P. Kolniak in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/223097/chem-1201-louisiana-state-university in Chemistry at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
REMINDERS for CHEM 1201 GROUP FINAL EXAM Time 12302230 PM 7 Date Wed Dec 8 Place for Dr Kolniak Sec 07 Coates 143 1 STUDY related problems from exams especiallv the problems missed on the exams amp notes 2 STUDY material emphasized in review 3 Be on TimeEarly 4 Bring IDdrivers license CALCULATOR 2 pencils large scantron Review Notes for CHEM 1201 IT IS AFINAL IT IS COMPREHENSIVE YOU HAVE TO STUDY Reasons why students bomb the nal 1 Only study the night before 2 Go out the night before 3 They need to bring up their grade in another class and study less for chem 4 Made A s on all their exams I don t need to study An example not an isolated case An A student needed only to make a 63 on the nal to keep their A butthey needed to bring up their grade in another class Wella er the final was curved they earned a 55 and made a B in the course Therefore IT IS AFINAL IT IS COMPREHENSIVE YOU HAVE TO STUDY There are always 3 or 4 questions that you may wonder what the Heck Don t worry about those there is usually a 34 question curve So worry about the rest 36 Best suggestion is to study YOUR exams then look at some old finals Chapter 1 Sig Figs s 7 zeros in front don t count 0012 is two sig g s Mult amp Div answer depends on the number of Sigs Density mass gv01ume ml or cm3 1000m 1 m 1000g 1 kg Other Units of conversion 1 km 7 1 x 103 m 1 pm 1x103912m 1fm 1x103915m Chapter 2 gt Isotope Problem Atomic Z number of protons Mass A protons neutrons neutrons big 7 little gt Molecular vs Ionic compounds recognize 7 all nonmetals vs metal nonmetal gt Naming compounds molecular compounds get greek pre xes gt Know Common ions Some common acids acetic CH3 COOH Carbonic H2 C03 Ionic compounds know the most common ions periate extra 0 acids per fie acid 2 fate point of reference acids fie acid 3 iite remove O acids ious acid 4 hypoiite remove another 0 acids hypo ious acid S02 is sulfate HZSO4 is sulfuric acid ClO39 hypochlorite HClO is hypochlorous acid Transition metals with multiple oxidation states get roman numerals Naming compounds wit hydrogen HCOg hydrogen carbonate ion etc Chapter 3 gt Given the names of the reactantscomplete the reaction and Balance 7 Goes back to naming above need same number of elements on both sides of the equation don t forget to multiply coef cients and subscript s in a formula EX 2NaNO3 means 2 Na s and 2 N s and 6 O s gt Mass to moles or moles to mass iUse MM gt MoleAvogadro 1 mole of something 602 X 1023 something and gramsMNI mol The number of molecules mol of substanceAvog Number molecules per mol The number of atoms mol of substanceAvog Number molecules per mol gtkNumber of atoms per molecule gt Limiting Reagent Problem more work Determine moles of reactants divide moles of reactant by its coefficient 7 the smallest number wins it s the limiting reagent The moles of limiting reagent times the coef cient of the product gives moles of product then moles of product times the molar mass of product gives you the grams of product Multiply on the way up DIVIde on the to determine the grams way down to of product using Clet fmme the stoichiometry 11m1t1ng reagent Chapter 4 gt Electrolytes STRONG soluble salt or strong acidstrong base SA HCl HBr HI HClO4 H2804 HN03 SB LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH WEAK weak acid or weak base I Weak acids can be organic in nature Usually of the form CxHyOZ underscored proton gets donated I Weak bases can be organic in nature and usually include nitrogen because of the lone pairs in the form of CxHyNZ NonElectrolyte molecular compound gt Molarity is the moles of solute per liter of solution molesLiter Det Ml Be able to calculate M from grams amp volume or other combination Remember the rearrangement of units for molarity M mol L gt Dilution is taking a small quantity aliquot of a concentrated solution and adding solvent to it to obtain a new solution Be able to calculate unknown given three variables Mconcxvcrmc Mdilxvdil Titration Problem Introduce Molarity M molL Rem rearr Formula a M molL or LM mol or L molM Use the general relationship 1 Need moles of titrant LM mol convert ml to L 2 Use stoich To nd moles of unk Coef of sought l I Coef of I Moles of titr ant 3 Find grams of unk Use MM 4 Ifasked for gL then its gramsvolume of solution L gt Metathesis Rxn s given solubility table Given names of reactants complete the rxn Molecular Equation Reaction to which all species are written as molecules Complete Ionic Equation Reaction in which aqueous species are broken into their constituent cations and anions Solids liquids and gases will NOT be broken apart and remain as molecules Net Ionic Equation Reaction in which only the species actively involved in the reaction are listed Spectator ions ions which appear on both the reactant and product side of a balanced equation are cancelled and do not appear in the net ionic equation Ex Given you react potassium iodide with lead II nitrate complete and balance etc etc Exam ple KIaQ t PbN03 Mail a Molecular equation 2 KIaq PbNO32aq a PbIzs 2 KNO3 aq Complete Ionic Equation 2 KIaq 2I39aq Pb2aq 2 N0339aq e Pb12s 2 Kaq 2N0339aq Remember those common ions Net Ionic Equation 2 I39aq Pb2aq PbI2s gt MV problem with stoich Mlv1 M 2 Stoich molly z which gives MIVI moll then M1 mollVl Chapter 6 gt c Xv rememeber A is o en given in nm s and c has units of m conversion 1 m 109nm gt E hv where v has units s39l Hz gt Quantum Numbers nsize l 2 3 l shape 01 2 nl lltn m1 orientation 0 0 1 m5 spin l2 or 712 EX 1 3 I 2 m l is allowed where 11 4 I 4 ml l is not allowed EX Which size and shape of an orbital is represented by the quantum numbers 11 4 and 1 2 Ans 4d Electron Con guration Long Short Orbital Use trend in periodic table EX What is the long form electronic con guration for O Ans ls22s22p4 Molecular Orbital Diagram BOXE S ll from the lowest energy level rst once the half lled then begin to pair spin updown until that shape is lled then move on Chapter 7 gt Ionization energy Amount of energy required to remove one mole of electrons from an element in the gas phase knowTrend is gtT and follows trend for increasing effective nuclear charge By group metals ltnometals that is A1ltBr Chapter 8 gt VV Chapt gt LE WIS STRUCTURES Practice Sum up all the valence electrons divide by two gives you the pairs connect outer atoms to central atoms satisfy the octet rule for the outer atoms except for hydrogen any le over electron pairs goes on the central atom If the central atom needs an octet then borrow creating a multiple bond MUSTHAVEANOCTETOR IT SA VIOLATION Violations odd electrons more or less than octet Resonance structures structure s satisfy the octet rule only difference is in the placement of electron pairs Key is formal charge assignment low value most EN neg formal charge er9 Geometry Know electron domain includes bonds amp lone pairs molecular geometries include bonding positions Remember multiple bonds count as a single domain Know Bonding angles Polarity Be able to predict whether a molecule is polar or not A molecule is polar if diatomic 2 different atoms more than two atoms per molecule One of the outer atoms is different or for nonplanar or linear molecules there is a lone pair on the central atom Also by shape bent pyramidal tshaped seesaw square pyramid the result of having lone pairs are polar Hydrid Orbitals same hybrid orbitals number of domains electron domain geometry Ex sp3 requires 4 domains bc 1 3 orbitals 4 hyb and tetrahedral wbondangle 109 5 Chapter 10 Ideal Gas Laws Know how to convert amp proper units VVVV PV nRT KNOW K 273 C IGE w stoichiometry P1V1n1T1 Psznsz Partial Pressures P1 XlPt moles gMM gt Rms u gas with the lowest MM is the fastest Rms is Temp dependant lower the T lower the rms Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces gt strongest IMF Associated Weaker forces Examples gt Know phase diagrams and how to interpret themphase changes Chapter 13 gt Like dissolves like Polar solvents like polar solutes present in smaller amounts The more CH s you add to a polar molecule it becomes less and less polar The more OH groups you add to a molecule the more soluble it is in a polar solvent like H20 The more a like the more they like H20 likes molecules with OH groups more than molecules with SH Colligative property represents a change in freezingboiling point of a solution ATF or ATE Ex Salt water antifreeze solution ethylene glycol amp water


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