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by: Malcolm Glover


Malcolm Glover
GPA 3.85

J. Hopkins

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J. Hopkins
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Malcolm Glover on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1201 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Hopkins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/223102/chem-1201-louisiana-state-university in Chemistry at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
9512 Si Chemistry 1201 Dr Hopkins Phillip Bellan Leader Wednesday3zoo4z30 PM Williams 201 Office Hour Thursday 1030130 PM Allen 39 Thursday500630 PM Williams 202 Good Accuracy Good Precision Both IIIII L A J ClaSSlflEdLlIUILIIE u L hetero a Ricepudding b Seawater c Magnesium d Gasoline Conversions 1 62 Fto Ctollt 221670CtooFtook 139ltarry out the Following Operations and express with correct Significant Figures 1 12osso9os 2 257219789 3 6211ooiosol 4 00577753 ax I iN zaDuquG mmwmqrmisr Significant Figures WNP P PF N Accuracy depends on measurement All nonzero digits are significant 0 1278 6 4 sig figs Zeros after a nonzero and before the decimal and the decimal isn t shown are not significant 0 1000 6 1 sig fig 0 1000 is the same as 1 x 103 Zeros sandwiched between a nonzero and a decimal point are significant 0 1000 6 4 sig figs 0 1278 and 1278 Have the same number of sig figs 4 Zeros in between nonzeros are significant 0 10001 6 5 sig figs Zeros to the RIG HT of the decimal point are significant when after a nonzero 0 100010 6 6 sig figs 0 Means that a more accurate device was used to measure Zeros before a nonzero number are NOT significant 0 Scale factor 0 0001 6 1 sig fig 0 0001 1x 10393 and has 1 sig fig 0 However 00010 10 x 10 3 and has 2 sig figs Numbers in scientific notation have as many sig figs as there are numbers in the prefix o 1247 x 10576 4 sig figs Conversion factors and other constants have infinite sig figs 0 A dozen is 12 not 121 or 13 o 7 days in a week 0 EXACT figures Number of sig figs are proportional to the ACCURACY of the measuring device 120 g 2 sig figs 78347 kJ 5 1021 mi 4 001 cm 1 00010 cm 2 8450x 10341 4 12 inft infinite 1200 g 4 Multiplication and Division 0 Number of sig figs in the answer is equal to the variable with the least sig figs 0 Area nr2 r 54 cm 0 31415954cm2 O 916088 cm2 92 cm2 I Since 54 2 sig figs Addition and Subtraction O 0000 0 Round answer to least significant DIGIT 123 1001 6 least sig figs 34337 0003 135 70 Final answer 1357 The number of sig figs can change in addition and subtraction O O 121 120 001 1 9 10 Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions 0 Properties of Aqueous Solutions 0 Solution when a chemical is dissolved into a liquid 0 Solvent majority material usually the liquid 0 Solute minority material usually the chemical being dissolved o Ionic Compounds in Water 0 When ionic compounds are dissolved in water I Ions separate I Ions become surrounded by water molecules 0 For example KZS s 9 2K aq SZ aq I In water the ions in KZS separate from each other I Hydration sphere when each ion is surrounded by a sphere of water molecules I The solution can conduct electricity since the ions have a charge I Strong electrolyte KZS aq implies that K and Sz ions have separated 0 Molecular Compounds in Water 0 Molecular compounds don t break up in water Nonelectrolytes don t create ions Very poor electrical conductivity sugar C12H22011I Methanol CH30H o Ethyl alcohol CH3CHZOH 0 Strong Weak and nonElectrolytes O O O O 0 Strong Weak and nonelectrolytes describes the electrical conductance of the solution 0 Nonelectrolytes I Typically molecular compounds I Doesn t conduct electricity well I Material dissolves but doesn t create ions 0 Strong Electrolytes I Ionic compounds that fully dissolve and completely ionize I Produce ions that carry charge I Salts Strong Acids I Strong Bases I Conduct electricity very well 0 Weak Electrolytes I Ionic materials that are highly soluble but only partially ionize I Weak acids I Weak bases I Only a fraction ofa percent dissociate to ions making a solution with a low concentration of ions I Poor conductor but better than a nonelectrolyte o Solubility Rules 0 Salts require energy to ionize in water 0 Some energy is released when ions become solvated surrounded by water molecules Soluble r I Insoluble r I Li Na K Rb None OH Li Na K Rb NH4 Ca2Sr2 Ba2 NH4 N03 CIO4 None 02 Li Na K Rb NH4 Sr2 Ba2 Acetate C2H302 None C0323 PO42 Li Na K Rb C Br I AgPb2 CuHg22 SZ Li Na K Rb NH4 Ca2Sr2 Ba2 042 CaZ Sr2 BaZ Pb2 Net onic Equations 0 Applies when a precipitate is formed from two aqueous solutions that are mixed together 0 AgNO3 aq NaCl aq 9AgCl s NaNO3 aq 0 quotsolution 1 quotsolution 2 quotprecipitate quotspectator ions 0 Only shows what changes chemically Types of solution reactions 0 Exchange reactions I ons are exchanged o AcidBase Neutralization Reaction I Acid Base Salt Water Types of Solutions l39 same 39 39 39 39 u I o O I Salt dissolved in water 0 Heterogeneous solution varies from point to point in a solution I Riverlake water fish and crap all up in it Concentration Molatrity o Molarity M Moles solute mol total volume L o M1V1 MZVZ o VolumeA MolA XmolAtoYmol B mol 39 MolarityB Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms 0 Light as a Wave 0 Electromagnetic wave Oscillates in the electric field in one plane and the magnetic field the perpendicular plane I C vA C is the speed for light 3 x 108 ms I A is the wavelength I v is the frequency 0 Quantum Effects 0 Only certain quantized energies are possible in an atom 0 Energy is usually released in the form of light from a solid 0 Light as a particle o E hv o H 663 x 10 341s Planck s constant 0 Wave Particle Duality DeBroglie said particles have wave properties with a wavelength equal to the O momentum of the particle o A h mv o m mass in kg 0 v velocity in ms 0 Davisson Germeer Experiment 0 Proved particles have wave properties by observing the interference pattern when particles are scattered from a Cu solid 0 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 0 Certain qualities can t be measured simultaneously I Position and momentum I Time and energy 0 The more accurate one is measured the more uncertain the other is o E RH n2 I RH 218 x 1048 Rydberg Constant for Hydrogen I n energy level 0 E hv hcA 0 E2 E1 quotRHnzu 39 quotRH 2 0 Energy levels of Hydrogen o N 1 is the lowest energy level or ground state 0 Higher energy levels gt1 are excited states 0 N N is no energy 0 Modern Quantum Theory Electrons are described using the equation llJ that treats the electron as a wave The Schrodinger equation is used to solve for the physical properties of the electron ts impossible to know the motion of electrons in an atom 000 W has no real significance but W2 is the probability of finding an electron in a certain region of space o Energies are quantized o N l m and ms describe each electron Electron Orbitals o No fixed orbitals just areas of highlow probability of finding an electron o Orbital a map in space of the high probability of finding an electron Name Determines Orientation o momentum I L 0 s orbital sphere I L 1 p orbital infinity sign I L 2 d orbital clover I L 3 forbital o Orientation in space I M determines the orbitals orientation in space I Along x y or z axis 0 Energy Levels and Shells I As n gets larger the size and energy of the orbital increases I As n gets larger there are more possible suborbital shapes 0 Electron Spin I Relativistic effect I Think like clockwise vs counterclockwise o Nodes regions of probability along a radius in an orbital from the nucleus that go to zero Electron Screening 0 1s electron orbital screens some of the effects of the nucleus from the 2s and 2p orbitals 0 Such that the 2s and 2p orbitals don t feel as much of a pull from the nucleus as the 1s orbital would PauliExclusion Principle 0 Each electron has a unique set of quantum numbers Hund s Rule 0 Electron fill one per orbital with the same spin until all of the orbitals are half filled Valence electrons highest energy electrons in an atom outer most electrons Chapter 7 Periodic Properties Effective Nuclea r Cha rge 0 Net electron nucleus attraction O


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