PRINC OF MANAGEMENT
PRINC OF MANAGEMENT MGT 3200
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Patience Langosh II
verified elite notetaker
Dr. Luz Littel
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Business, management
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fabiola Bogan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 3200 at Louisiana State University taught by M. Krenn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/223121/mgt-3200-louisiana-state-university in Business, management at Louisiana State University.
Reviews for PRINC OF MANAGEMENT
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/15
Management 3200 Exam 1 Chapter 1 Management is Getting work done through others Efficiency getting work done with a minimum of effort waste or expense 0 About optimizing Effectiveness accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives 0 Can be effective without being efficient easier From the latin word Mams An action concept and social concept 0 Tangible and intangible resourcesintangibe patents The Four Functions of Management 1 Planning 2 Organizing 3 Leading 4 Controlling Planning 0 determining organizational goals and a means for achieving them Organizing o deciding where decisions will be made who will do what jobs and tasks and who will work for whom in the company Leading o inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals Controlling o monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when progress isn t being made Different Kinds of Managers Top Managers 0 CEO COO CFO CIO Responsible for overall direction of the organization Responsible for creating a context for change Develop employees commitment to and ownership of company performance Create a positive organizational culture through language and action 0000 Responsible for monitoring the business environment 0 Narcissistic managerssigns to look for Middle Managers 0 Plant manager regional manager divisional manager 0 Set objectives consistent with top management s goals 0 Implement subunit strategies for achieving objectives 0 Plan and allocate resources to meet objectives 0 Coordinate and link groups departments and divisions 0 Monitor and manage subunits and individual managers 0 First Line Managers 0 Office manager shift supervisor department manager 0 Train and supervise the performance of nonmanagerial employees 0 Teach entrylevel employees how to do their jobs 0 Encourage monitor and reward employees performance 0 Make detailed schedules and operating plans 0 Team Leaders 0 Facilitate team activities toward accomplishing a goal 0 Help team members plan and schedule work learn to solve problems and work effectively with each other 0 Manage internal and external relationships Mintzberg s Managerial Roles o Interpersonal Roles o Figurehead 0 Leader 0 Liaison o Informational Roles 0 Monitor 0 Disseminator o Spokesperson o Decisional Roles o Entrepreneur o Disturbance Handler 0 Resource Allocator o Negotiator Interpersonal Roles o Figurehead o managers perform ceremonial duties 0 Leader 0 managers motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organizational objectives 0 Liaison o managers deal with people outside their units Informational Roles 0 Monitor o managers scan their environment for information and receive unsolicited information o Disseminator o managers share information with subordinates and others in the company 0 Holds meetings 0 Spokesperson o managers share information with people outside of the company Decisional Roles o Entrepreneur o managers adapt themselves their subordinates and their units to change 0 Disturbance handler o managers respond to problems so severe that they demand immediate action 0 Resource allocator o managers decide who will get what resources and in what amounts 0 Negotiator o managers negotiate schedules projects goals outcomes resources and employee raises 0 Usually a conflict between people in production and people in marketing main problem production never really changes and marketing is always changing Therefore there is the need of a negotiator 0 Main concern in production efficiencyreally trying to maximize resource use 0 1 Organization level 2 Type of organization 3 Size of organization small business is 98 in US and about 500 people 4 Culture of the organizationconcepts frameworks theories 0 Of the 10 roles disseminator roles are less important in larger organizations Spokes people and resource allocation are more important in smaller organizations 0 Intrapreneurs manages projects within the business What Companies Look For 0 Technical skills O r I and 39 C required to get the job done 0 more important in 15 level management and goes down the higher the management position is 0 Human skills 0 ability to work well with others 0 constant and important in all managers 0 Conceptual skills 0 ability to see the organization as a whole to recognize how the company fits into its external environment o more important in top managers 0 Motivation to manage 0 an assessment of how motivated employees are to interact with superiors participate in competitive situations behave assertively with others tell others what to do reward good behavior punish poor behavior perform actions that are highly visible to others and handle and organize administrative tasks 0 Look at the graph on the slide Mistakes Managers Make 0 1 Insensitive to others abrasive intimidating bullying style 0 2 Cold aloof arrogant o 3 Betray trust 0 4 Overly ambitious thinking of next job playing politics 0 5 Specific performance problems with the business 0 6 Overmanaging unable to delegate or build a team 0 7 Unable to staff effectively 0 8 Unable to think strategically o 9 Unable to adapt to boss with different style 0 10 Overdependent on advocate or mentor The Transition To 39 39 The First Year 0 Initially managers believed their job was to exercise formal authority and manage tasks 0 After 6 months 0 Managers were surprised by pace and workload o Realized subordinates wanted help solving problems they couldn t solve 0 After 1 year 0 Realized that people management is most important 0 Look at the chart with the stages to management on the slide Competitive Advantage Through People 0 What separates topperforming companies from competitors is how they treat their workforces 0 Companies that invest in their people create longlasting competitive advantages that are difficult for other companies to duplicate 0 Managers influence customer satisfaction through employee satisfaction 0 Look at the chart on Management practices on the slide Chapter 2 Why We Need Managers Today 0 During the Industrial Revolution 0 Availability of power enabled lowpaid unskilled labor to replace highpaid skilled artisans 0 Job carried out in large formal organizations rather than fields homes or small shops Scientific Management 0 The thorough study and testing of different work methods to identify the best most efficient ways to complete a job Frederick W Tavlor s Principles of Scientific Mana ement 0 First 0 Develop a science for each element of a man s work which replaces the old ruleof thumb method Second 0 Scientifically select and then train teach and develop the workman whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could Third o Heartily cooperate with the men so as to ensure all of the work being done is in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed Fourth 0 There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen The management take over all the work for which they are better fitted than the workmen while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men Alienation of workers they do not know the outcome of their work Taylor said there was one best way to do things e was a golf player Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 0 Motion study 0 breaking each task or job into separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive 0 Motion study typically yielded production increases of 25 to 300 percent Henry Gantt o Gantt Chart 0 visually indicates what tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a project 0 One of the first to recommend that companies train and develop workers 0 1 quotA scientific investigation in detail of each piece of work and the determination of the best method and the shortest time in which the work can be done o 2 quotA teacher capable of teaching the best method and the shortest timequot o 3 llReward for both teacher and pupil when the latter is successfulquot 0 Look at the Gantt Chart for starting construction on a new headquarters on the slide Bureaucratic Management Max Weber 0 Bureaucracy quotthe exercise of control on the basis of knowledge 0 people led by virtue of rationallegal authority 0 Classical Management 0 He meant for a formal highly structured organization of a company 0 Rationallegal authority no charisma not about how well you did in the past it focuses on the power you have now and in the future The maximization of Bureaucracy 0 Look at the Elements of Bureaucratic Organizations on the slide quot39 39 39 39 39 39 Henri Favol llThe success of an enterprise generally depends much more on the administrative ability of its leaders than on their technical abilityquot French Published a book in 1916 2 Important points he made 0 1 Management can be perceived and defined as a practice financing acct operations Management can also be defined as functions and control plan organized control 0 2 14 Principles of Management Only receive orders from 1 boss I Look at the 14 principles on the slide Constructive Conflict Marv Parker Follett 0 Conflict llthe appearance of difference difference of opinions of interests 0 Integrative conflict resolution 0 have both parties indicate their preferences and then work together to find an alternative that meets the needs of both 0 Neoclassical Management 0 Emphasis on the management functions and on structure of organizations and a focus on organization comfort and o Said power is very horizontally distributed in an organization Mary Parker Follett o On constructive conflict 0 quotAs conflict difference is here in this world as we cannot avoid it we should I think use it to work for us Instead of condemning it we should set it to work for usquot On power 0 l39It seems to me that whereas power usually means powerover the power of some person or group over some other person or group it is possible to develop the conception of powerwith a jointly developed power a coactive not a coercive powerquot On the giving of orders 0 quotAn advantage of not exacting blind obedience of discussing your instructions with your subordinates is that if there is any resentment any comeback you get it out into the open and when it is in the open you can deal with itquot On authority 0 llAuthority should go with knowledge and experience that is where obedience is due no matter whether it is up the line or downquot On leadership 0 l39Of the greatest importance is the ability to grasp a total situation Out of a welter of facts experience desires aims the leader must find the unifying thread He must see a whole not a mere kaleidoscope of pieces The higher up you go the more ability you have to have of this kindquot On coordination o l39The most important thing to remember about unity is that there is no such thing There is only unifying You cannot get unity and expect it to last a day or five minutes Every man in a business should be taking part in a certain process and that process is unifyingquot On control 0 l39Central control is coming more and more to mean the corelation of many controls rather than a superimposed controlquot quot and quot of Authoritv Chester Barnard Organization llsystem of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two more persons The extent to which people willingly cooperate in an organization depends on how workers perceive executive authority and whether they re willing to accept it 1938Wrote a book on His contribution was that he said that there was a break in scientific management and phil 0 Authority does not only come from 0 Organization of hierarchy the higher up you are the more power you have 0 The sum of acceptancewhere you do not question the orders you get from organization from higher authorities I Different from the scientific theory of management I Sum ofacceptance in scientific management would be somewhere in the middle of the hierarchy chart A more narrow sum of acceptance a CEO gives you an order you do it wo question Zone of Indifference 0 People will be indifferent to managerial directives if they 0 are understood 0 are consistent with organization s purpose 0 are compatible with people s personal interests 0 can actually be carried out by those people 0 Barnard s theory on management Not scientific o The more you understand the orders the broader the sum of acceptance is o In the end it is the worker who gives orders Horizontal Hawthorne Studies Elton Mayo 0 Human factors related to work were found to be more important than physical conditions or design of work 0 Workers not just extensions of machines and financial incentives weren t necessarily the most important for motivating workers Managers better understood effect of group social interactions employee satisfaction and attitudes on individual and group performance Hawthorne studies really focused on the importance of the human factors in an organization The physical conditions of the work place has less of an impact then the human relations 0 Ex dimming the lights in a sewing machine factory The work should have changed but it did not bc the women all came together socially bc they were all in the same boat and still got the work done Systems Management 0 System 0 a set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole 0 Subsystems 0 smaller systems within a larger system 0 Synergy 0 occurs when two or more subsystems working together can produce more than they can working apart 0 39 g 39 C W 39 The W 39 are a little more realistic Systems management Systems 0 Closed systems 0 can function without interacting with their environments 0 Open Systems 0 interact with their environments and depend on them for survival 0 Look at the Systems View of Organizations picture on the slide 0 AG are linked to this environment 0 Linking the organization to the environment Contingency Management 0 There are no universal management theories the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers or organizations are facing at a particular time o Contingency means it all depends 0 There is no one best way or universal way to do the work itjust all depends Chapter 3 Environmental Change 0 The rate at which a company s general and specific environments change 0 Stable 0 slow rate of change 0 Dynamic 0 fast rate of change Punctuated Eguilibrium Theory 0 Look at the slide Environmental Complexity 0 Simple o few environmental factors that affect organizations 0 Complex 0 many environmental factors that affect organizations Resource Scarcity o The abundance or shortage of critical resources in an organization s external environment 0 Different between uncertainty and risk You can calculate the outcome of risk 39Change quot 39 39C 39 39 and Resource Scarcity 0 Look at the chart on the slide General Environment 0 General environment 0 the economy and the technological sociocultural and politicallegal trends that indirectly affect all organizations 0 Specific environment 0 unique to a firm s industry 0 directly affects the way its conducts daily business 0 Look at the picture on the slide Economy 0 A growing economy provides a favorable environment for business growth 0 Business confidence indices show how confident managers are about future business growth Sociocultural Component 0 Demographic characteristics general behavior attitudes and beliefs of people in a particular society Technological Component 0 Technology 0 an umbrella term for the knowledge tools and techniques used to transform inputs into outputs Changes in technology can help companies provide better products or produce their products more efficiently Focus on 2 types of change 0 1 Product technological change ex smart phones 2 Process technological change ex just in time process Creative destruction a firm can very easily through improvements can destroy their own products Political Le al Com onent The legislation regulations and court decisions that govern and regulate business behavior 0 Many managers are unaware of the potential legal risks associated with traditional managerial decisions like recruiting hiring and firing employees Specific Environment 0 Customers o Competitors o Suppliers 0 Industry regulations 0 Advocacy groups 0 The groups and relationships between the things listed all stake holders 0 The group that you really have to pay attention to and concerned with Customer Component 0 Reactive customer monitoring 0 Identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur 0 Proactive customer monitoring 0 Identifying and addressing customer needs trends and issues before they occur Competitor Component 0 Competitors 0 companies in the same industry that sell similar products or services 0 Competitive analysis 0 a process of monitoring the competition that involves identifying competition anticipating their moves and determining their strengths and weaknesses Supplier Component 0 Suppliers 0 companies that provide material human financial and informational resources to other companies 0 Supplier dependence vs Buyer dependence 0 2 terms 0 1 Supplier dependence 39 Ex Coke industry There was only 1 supplier in the beginning They realized they had a good bargaining position with c then with pepsi Coke could reduce dependence uncertainty with the supplier by buying thembackward immigration I If coke only had 1 buyer they could buy them forward immigration 0 2 Buyer dependence Behaviors Opportunistic behavior 0 when one party benefits at the expense of another 0 Relationship behavior 0 focuses on establishing a mutually beneficial longterm relationship between buyers and sellers Industry Regulation Component 0 Regulations and rules that govern the practices and procedures of specific industries businesses and professions Federal quot 39 v Agencies and f 0 Consumer Product Safety Commission 0 Department of Labor 0 Environmental Protection Agency 0 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 0 Federal Communications Commission 0 Federal Reserve System 0 Federal Trade Commission 0 Food and Drug Administration 0 National Labor Relations Board 0 Occupational Safety and Health Administration 0 Securities and Exchange Commission Advocacy Groups 0 Concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries businesses and professions 0 Public communication 0 Media advocacy 0 Product boycott Environmental Scanning 0 Searching the environment for important events or issues that might affect an organization 0 Managers scan the environment to reduce uncertainty 0 Organizational strategies affect environmental scanning 0 Environmental scanning contributes to organizational performance Interpreting Environmental Factors 0 Threat or opportunity 0 Threat I managers typically take steps to protect the company from further harm o Opportunity I managers consider strategic alternatives for taking advantage of those events to improve performance 0 Look at the Acting on Threats and Opportunities Cognitive Maps on the slide 0 Left side opportunities and threats 0 Right side internal strengths Creation and 39 39 39 off 39 39 39 Cultures 0 Primary source of organizational culture is the company founder 0 Organizational culture is sustained by 0 organizationalstories o organizational heroes 0 Look at the Three Levels of Organizational Culture on the slide Changing Organizational Cultures o Behavioral addition 0 Behavioral substitution 0 Change visible artifacts o Hiring people with values and beliefs consistent with desired culture Chapter 4 Workplace Deviance 0 Ethical behavior 0 conforms to a society s accepted principles of right and wrong 0 Workplace deviance o unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right and wrong 0 Look at the Types of Workplace Deviance slide WhoI WhatI and Why 0 Who 0 nearly all companies nonprofits partnerships labor unions unincorporated organizations incorporated organizations pension funds trusts joint stock companies 0 What 0 offenses defined by federal laws invasion of privacy price fixing fraud theft embezzlement etc 0 Why 0 The purpose of the guidelines is not just to punish companies after violations but to encourage companies to prevent violations before they happen 0 Look at the Compliance programs pie chart The 7 Steps on the slides Influences on Ethical Decision Making 0 Ethical intensity 0 Moraldevelopment 0 Ethical principles Ethical Intensiy o The degree of concern people have about an ethical issue 0 Magnitude of consequences 0 Social consensus 0 Probability of effect 0 Temporal immediacy 0 Proximity of effect 0 Concentration of effect 0 Look at Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Development slide 0 3 Phases of Moral Development Principles of Ethical Decision Making 0 Principle of longterm self interest 0 Principle of personal virtue o Principle of religious injunctions o Principle of government requirements 0 Principle of utilitarian benefits 0 Principle of individual rights 0 Principle of distributive justice 0 Explains why people arrive at ethical decisions Selecting and Hiring Ethical Employees 0 Overt integrity tests 0 Personalitybased integrity tests Codes of Ethics 0 A company must communicate its code inside and outside the company 0 Management must develop practical ethical standards and procedures specific to the company s line of business Obiectives of Ethics Training 0 Develop employees awareness of ethics 0 Achieve credibility with employees 0 Teach employees a practical model of ethical decision making Ethical Climate 0 Organizational culture is key to fostering ethical decision making 0 Management needs to be active in and committed to the ethics program To Whom Are P For What Are f Encourage managers and employees to report ethical violations whistlebIowing Sociallv quot 39L39 Shareholder model 0 the only social responsibility that businesses have is to maximize profits Stakeholder model 0 management s most important responsibility is not just maximizing profits but the firm s ong termsurvival Stakehoder perspective owner manager Owners do not manager LLC Il Model of Corporate Social quot 39Lii People or groups who are interested in and affected by the organization s actions 0 Primary stakeholders I Shareholders customers bc they help the managers pay the bills 0 Secondary stakeholders Look at the Stakeholder Model of Corporate Social Responsibility picture on the slide Sociallv quot 39L39 Economic responsibility Legal responsibility Ethical responsibility Discretionary responsibility to Demand for Social quot 39Lm I SocIaI responsiveness a company s strategy for r g to r concerning economic ega ethical or discretionary responsibility Look at Socia Responsiveness Strategies side Social Responsibilities and Economic Performance There is no tradeoff between being socially responsible and economic performance It usually does pay to be socially responsible There is no guarantee that socially responsible companies will be profitable
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'