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D. Whitman

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D. Whitman
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fabiola Bogan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 4420 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Whitman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/223125/mgt-4420-louisiana-state-university in Business, management at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
4420 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 12 Motivation Across Cultures Motivation is a psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives Motivation s Two Underlying Assumptions 0 The Universalist Assumption I Motivation process is universal all people are motivated to pursue goals they value 0 Process is universal 0 Culture influences specific content and goals pursued 0 Motivation differs across cultures 0 The Assumption of Content and Process I Content Theories of Motivation 0 Theories that explain work motivation in terms of what arouses energizes or initiates employee behavior 0 Three Theories Maslow s theory I Rests on a number ofassumptions o Lowerlevel needs must be satisfied before higherlevel needs become motivators o A need that is satisfied no longer motivates o More ways to satisfy higherlevel than there are ways to satisfy lowerlevel needs Herzberg s TwoFactor Theory of Motivation I A theory that identifies two sets of factors that influence job satisfaction I Motivators Job content factors such as achievement U quot quot quot39 39 and the work itself Only when motivators are present will there be satisfaction Hygiene Factors Jobcontext factors such as salary interpersonal relations technical supervision working conditions and company policies and administration f hygiene factors aren t taken care of there will be dissatisfaction Achievement Motivation Theory I Profile of high achievers 0 They like situations in which they take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems o Tend to be moderate risktakers rather than high or low risktakers 0 Want concrete feedback on performance 0 Often tend to be loners and not team players I How to Develop High Need for Achievement 0 Obtain feedback on performance and use information to channel efforts into areas where success is likely o Emulate people who are successful achievers 0 Develop internal desire for success and chaHenges o Daydream in positive terms by picturing self as successful in pursuit of important objectives I Achievement motivation theory must be modified to meet specific needs of local culture 0 Culture of many countries doesn t support high achievement 0 Anglo cultures and those rewarding entrepreneurial effort do support achievement motivation and their human resources should probably be managed accordingly Process Theories of Motivation Theories that explain work motivation by how employee behavior is initiated redirected and halted 1 Equ ity Theory When people perceive they are treated equitably it will have a positive effect on their job satisfaction If people believe they aren t being treated fairly especially relative to relevant others they will be dissatisfied leading to negative effect on job performance they will attempt to restore equity While considerable support for theory in Western world support is mixed on an international basis Examples I Israeli kibbutz production unit everyone treated same but managers reported lower satisfaction levels than workers I Managers perceived contributions greater than other groups in kibbutz and felt undercompensated for value and effort I Employees in Asia and Middle East often readily accept inequitable treatment in order to preserve group harmony Japanese men and women and in Latin America typically receive different pay for doing same work due to years of cultural conditioning women may not feel treated inequitany 2 Goal Setting Focuses on how individuals set goals and respond to them and the overall impact of this process on motivation Specific areas given attention in this theory Level of participation in goal setting Goal difficulty Goal specificity mpo rta nce of objective Timely feedback to progress toward goals Goal setting theory continually refined and developed over time unlike some of the other theories Considerable research evidence showing employees perform extremely well when assigned specific and challenging goals in which they have a hand in setting Most studies have been conducted in US few in other cultures Examples I Norwegian employees shunned participation and preferred to have union representative work with management to determine work goals Individual participation in goal setting was inconsistent with prevailing Norwegian philosophy of participation through union rep I In US employee participation in goal setting is motivational no value for Norwegian employees in this study 3 Expectancy Theory Process theory that postulates that motivation is influenced by a person s belief that I Effort will lead to performance I Performance will lead to specific outcomes I Outcomes will be of value to the individual I High performance followed by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction Examples 0 Applied Motivation I Job Design 0 Quality I Eden some support for it while studying workers in an Israeli kibbutz I Matsui and colleagues found it could be successfully applied in Japan I Theory could be culturebound theory is based on employees having considerable control over their environment which does not exist in many cultures of worklife QWL is not the same throughout world Assemblyline workers in Japan work at a rapid pace for hours and have little control over their work activities Assemblyline workers in Sweden work at more relaxed pace and have great deal of control over work activities US assemblyline workers typically work somewhere in between at a pace less demanding than Japan s but more structured than Sweden s QWL may be directly related to culture of the country 0 Sociotechnical Job Designs Objective of these designs to integrate new technology into workplace so workers accept and use it to increase overall productivity I New technology often requires people learn new methods and in some cases work faster I Employee resistance is common Some firms introduced sociotechnical designs for better blending of personnel and technology without sacrificing efficiency I Work Centrality 0 Importance of work in an individual s life can provide important insights into how to motivate human resources in different cultures 0 Work C Japan has highest level of work centrality Israel has moderately high levels US and Belgium have average levels Netherlands and Germany have moderately low levels Britain has low levels entrality and Value of Work Work an important part of people s lives in US and Japan Americans and Japanese work long hours because cost of living is high Most Japanese managers expected salaried employees who aren t paid extra to stay late at work overtime has become a requirement of the job Recent evidence Japanese workers may do far less work in business day than outsiders would suspect Impact of overwork on physical condition of Japanese workers I Onethird of workingage population suffers from chronic fatigue 0 Japanese prime minister s office found majority of those surveyed complained of 0 Chronic exhaustion o Emotional stress 0 Abusive conditions in workplace I Karoshi quotoverwork or lljob burnoutquot is now recognized as a real social problem I Rewards 0 Managers everywhere use rewards to motivate personnel 0 Significant differences exist between reward systems that work best in one country and those that are most effective in another 0 Many cultures base compensation on group membership 0 Workers in many countries motivated by things other than financial rewards 0 Financial incentive systems vary in range Individual incentivebased pay systems in which workers paid directly for output Systems in which employees earn individual bonuses based on organizational performance goals 0 Use of financial incentives to motivate employees is very common In countries with high individualism When companies attempt to link compensation to performance Chapter 13 Leadership Across Cultures Leadership the process of influencing people to direct their efforts toward the achievement of some particular goal e Mznzgzvrlzzdzv lez table 134 Perceived unverences Managers vs Laa ers a Can rm Take cam vn pram v s on Du quotUna vigm n 5m necessirv 0 Marc m an Leader Harbor Wm chalaclen mcs arms you e new hmilo meam Gum Iocogmxmn rcr gm walk n Iguer us An doc n mnkuu rm on I cuwenes Earn Impact through nclians w slnndnldx um Mm mm Du mu nam mugs r FuundztmnsufLezdergmpkesezrch u aneser 2ndZthusuphmz backgruund u Leadersnpaen Aulh Thzovvx Amznz erwnu cuemun andthrezts ur puntsnrnent urten Ame nzgerwhu b behevesthzt penp e are bzsmzHy zzy andthzt arenecesszrytug hemtuwurk hevesthztunderth gntcundttmnspeupxenut meow un y wtu wurk hard but wtu seek ncrezsed respunstbmty and cthengE meuyz Amznzgerwhu behevesthzt wurkers and are mathsled by teamwurk and pzmmpzte mmznzgemen shzrmg accumphshment 212nm Part zvmrs and SME znan us t seek uppunumt estu respunstbmty e at wurkcentered behzvmr destgned tn ensure task use at wurkcentered behzvmr cuup ed wttn prutectwe ernduyee centered cuncern at catnwurk urtzsk centered and penp e centered zppr chestuezdmgsuburdmztes u Twubzacxezdersnpben PersunRe ztmns TaskPrududmn my a ngm un 51 13 11 39 39 1 hulmulllm mm I an main 1 39u39mu mampmimmm m rmm lt HE39SEl Tm Hawkerk rulirhjnmrc j 4 cumin Io miwmnjemw V Innis n a amtRama quot1919111 an Egg 1 cumm w subs m army ka ll g llui awn E mgm viuue 2m pint 3ij In at bamna muahqa n Inn arizl oup fl Cnnnm far Wlfimnimlhlm m l i l I L 35 39 Wu micagala ownfarm 1 fan39s wee zi macaw3 1m say rail 4 the 39 mm 39nrlh 931 m 1 sandman li39u39l l l J l l i s v 1 f y gr I I I HanW S Latoqlnn ul minimum allun if i 3 1h 33quot l J 7 r r 9 39wu39lw WD quot1 H such a ww rst anan l m szznlnm HEW H Imamquot mm hnrthh mm xc In a 39 Iquot l 0 mmmum an r l l S 3 I y a 3 E 5 0w vi 5111 6me fat pvndudinn uui Emsm Jimach III39gtquotIvluhru Bu marvltrr Jun 0 x 1 July 12 u by nvnJJmm 3 V uulun r m uvvaucIYFaLaim 39 Af 39J LI J j 11 pmsupervisionquot low on task low on people Does not get involved in task or people of the group Absenteeism l9 Msupervisionquot low on task high on people Focuses on maintaining and strengthening the group Creates a warm friendly sympathetic environment where tensions are reduced 39 Iand suggestions welcomed u 99 PMsupervisionquot high on task high on people While pressure to complete tasks is prevalent supervisors still offer encouragement and support Correlates with Participative Leadership 91 llPsupervision high on task low on people Subordinates are compared to other groups and if they are behind they are pressured to catch up Wo rkcentered Autocratic Leadership style Leadership in the International Context 0 The role of level size and age on European managers attitudes toward leadership I Higher level managers tend to express more democratic values than lowerlevel managers I Company size tends to influence the degree of participativeautocratic attitudes I Younger managers were more likely to have democratic values in leadership and initiative information sharing and objectives 0 European Leadership Practices Conclusion I Most European managers tend to reflect more participative and democratic attitudes I Organizational level company size and age greatly influence attitudes toward leadership I Many young people from the study are now middleagedEuropean managers who are highly likely to be more participative than their older counterparts of the 1960s and 1970s 0 Japanese I Japan is well known for its paternalistic approach to leadership I Japanese culture promotes a high safety or security need which is present among home countrybased employees as well as MNC expatriates I Japanese managers have much greater belief in the capacity of subordinates for leadership and initiative than do managers in most other countries Only managers in AngloAmerican countries had stronger feelings in this area 0 Japanese vs American I Except for internal control large US firms tend to be more democratic than small ones profile is quite different in Japan I Younger US managers express more democratic attitudes than their older counterparts on all four leadership dimensions I Japanese and US managers have different philosophies of managing people Ouchi s Theory 2 combines Japanese and US assumptions and approaches I How senior managers process information and learn 0 Variety ampli cation Japanese executives are taught and tend to use variety amplificationthe creation of uncertainty and the analysis of many alternatives regarding future action Variety reduction US executives tend to use variety reduction limiting uncertainty and focusing action on a limited number of alternatives 0 Leadership in China I The llNew Generation group scored significantly higher on individualism than did the current and older generation groups I They also scored significantly lower than the other two groups on collectivism and Confucianism I These values appear to reflect the period of relative openness and freedom often called the llSocial Reform Eraquot in which these new managers grew up They have had greater exposure to Western societal influences may result in leadership styles similar to those of Western managers 0 Leadership in the Middle East There may be much greater similarity between Middle Eastern leadership styles and those of Western countries Western management practices are evident in the Arabian Gulf region due to close business ties between the West and this oilrich area as well as the increasing educational attainment often in Western universities of Middle Eastern managers Organizational culture level of technology level of education and management responsibility were good predictors of decisionmaking styles in the United Arab Emirates There is a tendency toward participative leadership styles among young Arab middle managers as well as among highly educated managers ofall ages 0 Other Developing Countries Managerial attitudes in India are similar to AngloAmericans toward capacity for leadership and initiative participation and internal control but different in sharing information and objectives Leadership styles in Peru may be much closer to those in the United States than previously assumed Developing countries may be moving toward a more participative leadership style Transformational Transactional Charismatic o Transformational leaders source ofcharisma enjoy admiration of followers Idealized influence Enhance pride loyalty and confidence in their people align followers by providing common purpose or vision that the latter willingly accept Inspirational motivation Extremely effective in articulating vision mission beliefs in clearcut ways Intellectual stimulation able to get followers to question old paradigms and accept new views of world Individualized consideration able to diagnose and elevate needs of each follower in way that furthers each one s development 0 Transactional leaders Individuals who exchange rewards for effort and performance on a llsomething for something basis 0 Charismatic leaders Leaders who inspire and motivate employees through their charismatic traits and abilities 0 Four other types of leadership are less effective than transformational Contingent Reward clarifies what needs to be done provides psychic and material rewards to those who comply Active ManagementbyException monitors follower performance and takes corrective action when deviations from standards occur Passive ManagementbyException intervenes in situations onlywhen standards are met LaissezFaire avoids 39 dLLElellg le pull lUlllLy lul lulluwel dLLlull One ofthe keys to successful global leadership is knowingwhat style and behaviorworks best in a given culture and adapting appropriately O In affective cultures such as the United States leaders tend to exhibit their emotions o In neutral cultures such as Japan and China leaders do not tend to show their emotions a 91343 Leadership Tips for Doing Business in Affective and Neutral Cultures When Managing or Being Managed in Affective Cultures Npumrl Culiuras Avoid a dcrachcd ambiguous zlan coal demeanor A id warm excessive Or enthusiastic buhavinrs because rlris will be interpreted as negative behavior 39 39 a lack of parsanal co ro over one39s 9 ed as inconsistent with one39s high status Extensively prepare the things y then siick lenaciuusly 0 nd nut Whasl l work and enthusiasm all being directed into which project c you are able to appreciate the vigor and comlmlmeni they have for illese sirens have in do and the ISSl on less e p pie be emolional wiilroui personally becoming Lock rpr cues regarding wllEIher people are pleased pr Infirnidatcd or sacrum by thclr behavior angry and men amplify lflalr impol lr lnce 39 N 39 d from Fons T I Charles 1 Riding the Waves of Culture Understanding Diversity in Global Business 2nd ed New York MCGr WJ llllr I993r pp 90 82 Authentic Leadership Authentic leaders defined by an all encompassing package oftraits styles behaviors and credits 0 4 Distinct Characteristics 1 do not fake actions true to selves do not adhere to external expectations 2 driven from internalforces not external rewards 3 unique and guide based on personal beliefs not others39 orders 4 act based on individual passion and values 0 Authentic leadership similarto traditional leadership but has higher awareness authentic 39 39 create a usual 39 39 39 L gs 39 quot CrossCultural Leadership 0 Six Insights from the GLOBE Study I Value Based captures ability of leaders to inspire motivate encourage high performance outcomes from others based on foundation of core values Teamoriented emphasis on effective team buildingand implementation of common goal amongteam members Participative extent to which leaders involve others in decisions and decision implementation Humaneoriented comprises supportive and considerate leadership Selfpro status e Chapter 14 Human Resource Se 0 HostCo Inpatria Autonomous independent and individualistic leadership behaviors tective ensures safety and security of individual and group through nhancement and facesaving lection and Development Across Cultures Sources of Human Resources MNCs can use four basic sources for filling overseas positions HomeCountry Nationals Expatriates Expatriate managers are citizens of the country where the multinational corporation is headquartered Sometimes called headquarters nationals Most common reason for using homecountry nationals expatriates is to get the overseas operation under way untry Nationals Local managers hired by the MNC They are familiar with the culture They know the language They are less expensive than homecountry personnel Hiring them is good public relations ThirdCountry Nationals Managers who are citizens of countries other than the country in which the MNC is headquartered or the one in which the managers are assigned to work by the MNC These people have the necessary expertise for the job te Individuals from a host country or a thirdcountry national who are S assigned to work in the home country The use of inpatriates recognizes the need for diversity at the home office Use of inpats helps MNCs better develop their global core competencies MNCs can subcontract or outsource to take advantage of lower human resource costs and increase flexibility seteptmn Cntenz tut trtemetmnet Asstgnment Mangers Adaptability Education Independence Knowledge oflocal Selfreliance mg 5 Motivation pkgsteam emotional heatth l Supportofspousw Lh drm Age Leadership I Expenence sttttetettw edeptepte e wetkexpeneneeswttheuttutesuthetthenunesuwn ptemuusuvets Knu eestteve geuttutetgn te g n ge R enttmmtgtetmnpeekgmunduthentege t channenzed b sociocultusz and psychological adjustmentsinclu I e mg eumtuneptethetthettwutk scan be met ctherge e aergepe u djusltuthetrnewhvtrgcundttmns a meme buns e Lezmmg huwtut nteractweH wtth hustmuntry netmnetsuutede ufwurk Feehng rezsunzb y happy and bemg eptetu emuy dzyrturdzy eptmttes tuttuwttg three phase a phase 1 Fucu quesuu sunse frevzmztmn and genetet ewetenessmemdethetuuuwtrg s m mlemmrond asstgnment Iedlyfome Does myspouse mdfamtysuppon the deagon to go mtem wand Cuuect genetet mfurmztmn un zvzt zb ejubs fwlheloa st rt teemtngthetetguege cuslums and mtqumteu he regmn yuuwttt be pasted Dme upz zwzr nessuttheeuttuteendvem systemsufthegeugraphmzrez Wmmyuutsupenututyuuttntetestmthetntemetmnetesstgnment 0 Phase 3 Attend training sessions provided by the company Confer with colleagues who have had experience in the assigned region Speak with expatriates and foreign nationals about the assigned countw Visit the host countw with your spouse before the formally scheduled departure if possible International Human Resource Selection Procedures 0 AnticipatonAdjustment I Training I Previous experience 0 Inecountry Adjustment I Individual39s ability to adjust effectively Ability to maintain a positive outlook interact well with host nationals and to perceive and evaluate the host countw39s cultural values and norms correctly Clarity of expatriate39s role in the host management team Expatriate39s adjustment to the organizational culture I Nonework matters The Relocation Transition Curve Percewed Competence Figure 1 The Relocation Transltlnn Curve 7 Integration of n w skills and behavior environmen 3 lnleresl Fantasia A deeper Tllc leelrng or cxnlorallon el Enchantment and he cnvvrollmcnl oxcllemonl m the and a realizalion r Is 5 Search lor meaning Understand easons for suc 5 illg r Le wenvimnmem m and lallure Ne modelspersonal 3 i in ma n rvlng m do things differently Feedback 0 rceulls success and I E 1 Unreality The l hn 4 Acceplance of reality mm me velocallon is a Lenlng goquot ream of pas cemloname enixurlesrlre rcaiimlion lllarvou alc n slmngor in a slmngc land Beginning el transition Time Source Adaplcd from lain McCormick and Tony Chapman quotExecutive Helocallon Personal nd anlzational Tacticsquot in Managing Across Cultures Issues and Pets ecriles edr Pal Jovnl and Malcolm Warner London International Thomson Business Press 1996 p 368 Relative Cost of Living in Selected Cities Figure 14 5 Tukvo Relative Cast of Living In Selaclad Clues Hung Kong Copenhagen Svockhulm Kuala Lumpuv Johannesberg Bangkok Cairo Buenos Aires 5m Paulo Manila 25 an 15 100125 15a 0 SaurcoEconcms Intelligence UnI zooo Common Elements of Compensation Packages 0 Compensating expatriates can be difficult because there are many variables to consider 0 Most compensation packages are designed around four common elements I Base salaw 0 Amount of moneythat an expatriate normally receives in the home countw I Benefits 0 Should hostcountw legislation regardingtermination of employment affects em ployee be nefits e ntitleme nts 0 Is the home or host countw responsible forthe expatriates social security benefits 0 Should benefits be subject to the requirements of the home or host country 0 Which country should pay for the benefits 0 Should other benefits be used to offset any shortfall in coverage 0 Should homecountry benefits programs be available to local nationals I Allowances 0 CostofLivingAllowance Payment for differences between the home country and the overseas assignment Designed to provide the expatriate the same standard of living enjoyed in the home country 0 May cover a variety of expenses including relocation housing education and hardship 0 Incentives A growing number of firms have replaced the ongoing premium for overseas assignments with a onetime lumpsum premium I Taxes 0 Tax equalization 0 An expatriate may have two tax bills for the same pay Host country US Internal Revenue Service 0 MNCs usually pay the extra tax burden Individual and Host Country Viewpoint 0 Individual desires I Why do individuals accept foreign assignments I Greater demand for their talents abroad than at home I Faster track to promotion 0 Hostcountry desires I Whom would it like to see put in managerial positions I Accommodating the wishes of HCOs can be difficult They are highly ethnocentric in orientation They want local managers to head subsidiaries They set such high levels of expectation regarding the desired characteristics of expatriates that anyone sent by the MNC is unlikely to measure up Repatriation of Expatriates 0 Reasons for returning to home country I Most expatriates return home from overseas assignments when their formally agreedon tour of duty is over I Some want their children educated in a homecountry school I Some are not happy in their overseas assignment I Some return because they failed to do a good job 0 Readjustment problems I llOut of sight out of mind syndrome I Organizationalchanges I Technologicaladvances I Adjusting to the new job back home 0 Transition strategies I Repatriation Agreements 0 Firm agrees with individual how long she or he will be posted overseas and promises to give the individual on return a job that is mutually acceptable I Some of the main problems of repatriation include o Adjusting to life back home 0 Facing a financial package that is not as good as that overseas 0 Having less autonomy in the stateside job than in the overseas position 0 Not receiving any career counseling from the company Training in International Management 0 Four basic philosophic positions I Ethnocentric MNC o Stresses nationalism and often puts homeoffice people in charge of key international management positions I Polycentric MNC 0 Places local nationals in key positions and allows these managers to appoint and develop their own people I Regiocentric MNC o Relies on local managers from a particular geographic region to handle operations in and around that area I Geocentric MNC o Seeks to integrate diverse regions of the world through a global approach to decision making 0 Corporate Reasons for Training I Ethnocentrism o The belief that one s own way of doing things is superior to that of others 0 Personal reasons I To train overseas managers to improve their ability to interact effectively with local people in general and with their personnel in particular I Increasing numbers of training programs address social topics these programs also focus on dispelling myths and stereotypes by replacing them with facts about the culture CrossCultural Training Programs 0 Major types of crosscultural training programs Environmental Brie ngs 0 Provide information about things such as geography climate housing and schools Cultural Orientation 0 Familiarize the individual with cultural institutions and value systems of the host country Cultural Assimilators o Programmed learning techniques designed to expose members of one culture to some of the basic concepts attitudes role perceptions customs and values of another culture Language Training 0 Provide information about things such as geography climate housing and schools Field Experience 0 Send participant to the country of assignment to undergo some of the emotional stress of living and working with people from a different culture Sensitivity Training 0 Develop attitudinal flexibility A variety of other approaches can be used to prepare managers for international assignments including 0 Visits to the host country 0 Briefings by hostcountry managers 0 lnhouse management programs 0 Training in local negotiation techniques 0 Analysis of behavioral practices that have proven most effective


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