PRINC OF MANAGEMENT
PRINC OF MANAGEMENT MGT 3200
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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fabiola Bogan on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 3200 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Karim in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/223127/mgt-3200-louisiana-state-university in Business, management at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
CONTEMPORARY Effective managemem Groups and Teams chapter fifteen GARETH R JONES I JENNIFER M GEORGE Explain why groups and teams are key contributors to organizational effectiveness Identify the different types of groups and teams that help managers and organizations achieve their goals Explain how different elements of group dynamics influence the functioning and effectiveness of groups and teams Explain why it is important for groups and teams to have a balance of conformity and deviance and a moderate level of cohesiveness Describe how managers can motivate group members to achieve organizational goals and reduce social loafing in groups and teams Group Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs A unit of 2 or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a common goal gtThe study of underlying forces causing change in group processes gt Because members interact and influence each other groups develop a number of dynamic processes that separate them from a random collection of individuals Team A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific common goal or objective They are committed and hold themselves mutually accountable Managers use teams to perform tasks that are highly independent and require a high level of coordination A sense of shared mission and collective responsibility Presence of a specific overriding goal Shares or rotates leadership roles Holds team members accountable to each other Sets specific overriding team goals Encourages openended discussion and problem solving gt Discusses decides and shares work Two characteristics distinguish teams from groups 1 Intensity with which team members work together 2 Presence of a specific overriding team goal or objective gtAdvantage of synergy 39 People working in a group are able to produce more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately gt Factors that contribute to synergy Ability of group members to bounce ideas off one another To correct one another s mistakes To bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a problem To accomplish work that is too vast for any one individual to achieve Groups and teams can Figure 151 1510 gt Responsiveness to Customers Difficult to achieve given the many constraints Safety issues regulations costs Crossfunctional teams can provide the wide variety of skills needed to meet customer demands Teams consist of members of different departments 1511 Innovation The creative development of new products new technologies new services or new organizational structures Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for successful innovation Team members can uncover each other s flaws and balance each other s strengths and weaknesses 1512 gt Members of groups and particularly teams are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals Team members are more motivated and satisfied than if they were working alone Working along highly charged people can be stimulating gt Lower turnover satisfaction of social interaction need and improved ability to cope with work stress 1513 Fonn lgm psandileamaquot cleatad39hy anagers Interest groups Command Cross mncuonal teams Top management teams Figure 152 1514 Formal Group A group that managers establish to achieve organization goals gt Informal Group A group that managers or nonmanagerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs 1515 if rearm Topmanaement team A roup composed of the CEO the president and the heads of the most important departments Research and development team A team whose members have the expertise and experience needed to develop new products Command rou ps A roup composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor also called a department or unit Task forces A committee of manaers or nonmanaerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific mutual problem also called an ad hoc committee 1516 i Selfmanaed work team A roup of employees who supervise their own activities and monitor the quality of the oods and services they provide Virtual team A team whose members rarely or never meet face to face and interact by usin various forms of information technoloy such as email computer networks telephone fax and video conferences Friendship roup An informal roup composed of employees who enjoy each other s company and socialize with each other Interest roup An informal roup composed of employees seekin to achieve a common oal related to their membership in an oranization 1517 Give the team enough responsibility and autonomy to be selfmanaging The team s task should be complex enough to include many different steps Select members carefully for their diversity skills and enthusiasm Managers should guide and coach not supervise Analyze training needs and be sure it is provided 1518 Advantages of small groups Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their efforts 2 More motivated satisfied and committed 3 Easier to share information Better able to see the importance of their personal contributions 1519 gt Disadvantage of small groups is that members of small groups have fewer resources available to accomplish their goals 1520 gt Advantages of large groups More resources at their disposal to achieve group goals Enables managers to obtain division of labor advantages gt Disadvantages of large groups Problem of communication and coordination Lower level of motivation Members might not think their efforts are really needed 1521 Task interdependence 39 degree to which the work performed by one member ofthe group influences the work performed by other members 1522 Pooled task interdependence Members make separate independent contributions to group such that group performance is the sum of each member s contributions 1523 Sequential task interdependence Exists when group members must perform specific tasks in a predetermined order gt Reciprocal task interdependence Exists when the work performed by each group member is fully dependent on the work performed by other group members Members interact intensely high coordination of efforts high information sharing 1524 i Mo Qmman Group pelformance C Reciprocal task interdependence A Pooled leek interdependence Group Figure 15 3 Performance B Sequentiai task interdependence 1 52 5 Group Roles 39 The set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group 1526 In crossfunctional teams members are expected to perform roles in their specialty Managers should clearly describe expected roles to group members when they are assigned to the group Rolemaking occurs as workers take on more responsibility in their roles as group members gt Selfmanaged teams may assign the roles to members themselves 1527 Effective leadership is a key ingredient in high performing groups teams and organizations Formal groups created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization gt Groups that evolve independently in an organization have an informal leader recognized by the group 1528 Farming Figure 154 1529 Forming Group members get to know each other and reach common understanding Period of orientation getting antiquated the leader facilitates social interchanges Storming Group members experience conflict because some members do not wish to submit to demands of other group members Individual personalities emerge conflict and disagreement over team tasks and goals an the leader encourages participation Norming Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members Establishment of order and cohesion leader helps clarify team roles norms and values 1530 Performing The group begins to do its real work Cooperation and problem solving the leader facilitates task accomplishment Adjourning Only for task forces that are temporary Group is dispersed Task completion leader brings closure and signifies completion 1531 gt Like many universities Furman engages freshman in orientation activities gtThis includes many activities in the residential halls gt Many are forming and storming activities 43gt 1532 Group Norms Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow Accepted behavior within a group Shared standard of conduct that guides member behavior Provides a frame of reference for what is expected and acceptable Managers should encourage members to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals 1533 gt Conformity and Deviance Members conform to norms to obtain rewards get accepted imitate respected members and because they feel the behavior is right When a member deviates other members will try to make them conform expel the member or change the group norms to accommodate them 1534 Balancing Conformity and Deviance in Groups o u E o t a n a a o h m o a gt a 1 Balance of conformitydeviance In a group Low conformity Moderate conformlly High conformity high deviance moderaxe deviance ow deviance Too much deviance and Good balance results Too much conformity a lack of conformity in high performance and a lack of deviance Flgure resultinlow performance because the group can t control its members39 change dysfunctional behavlor norms 1535 gtGroup cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to their group gtThree major consequences Level of participation Level of conformity to group norms Emphasis on group goal accomplishment 1536 Factors leading to group cohesiveness Consequences of i WE group cohesiveness 3 5quot I Level of participation within a group j Group cohesiveness Group identity and healthy competition Emphasis on group goal accomplishment 1537 Figure 156 IFEle r l Group Size Smaller roups allow for hih cohesiveness Low cohesiveness roups with many members can benefit from splittin into two roups Manaed Diversity Diverse roups often come up with better solutions Group lclentity Encourain a roup to adopt a unique identity and enae in competition with others can increase cohesiveness Success Cohesiveness increases with success findin ways for a roup to have some small successes increases cohesiveness 1538 gt Members should benefit when the group performs well rewards can be monetary or in other forms such as special recognition gtndividual compensation is a combination of both individual and group performance 1539 gt Social loafing The tendency of individuals to put forth less effort in a group than individually Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to 7amp7 i I ia attain group i goals 1540 Making individual contributions to a group identifiable when possible Emphasizing 7 the valuable contributions quot r 39 SOCIaI of individual members loaling Keeping group size at an appropriate level Figure 157 1541 gt Is it easy to influence behavior gt How can managers influence the behavior of individuals and teams gtWhy do individuals resist change How can they be influenced to embrace change 1542