PRINC OF MANAGEMENT
PRINC OF MANAGEMENT MGT 3200
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Domenica Klocko II on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 3200 at Louisiana State University taught by K. Sauley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/223135/mgt-3200-louisiana-state-university in Business, management at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
EXAM 3 MOfIWlTION 1 What are the 5 needs in Maslow s hierarchy of needs Know what each need is amp be able to recognize what need is being satis ed in a given situation a Physiological need 4 food water air amp sex b Safe y need 4 security stability amp freedom from fear or threat c Social need 4 friendship affection acceptance amp interaction w others d Esteem need 4 personal feelings of achievement selfesteem amp recognition amp respect from peers e SelfActualization a feeling of selffulfillment or the realization of one s potential maximum personal motivation the need 4 growthamp development be all that you can be 2 According to Maslow what motivates your behavior The lowest unsatisfied need in the hierarchy SelfActualization 3 What does Maslow believe about satis ed needs Lower needs would have to be satisfied before the next higher need could motivate behavior No longer motivational you move up amp move on 4 If a need is frustrated what will the employee experience according to Maslow Can the employee still be motivated if hisher needs are frustrated The state of stuckedness being stuck You can t go up or down The employee can no longer be motivated productivity etc will all suffer 5 What needs are typically unsatis ed in most organizations Why is this the case What would help satisfy these needs Esteem amp self actualization because mostjobs are specialized Enriched or craft would help satisfy these needs 6 What need is the highest level of personal motivation How many people reach this level Is it ever fully satis ed or ful lled Selfactualization being all that you can be maximizing potential Very few do Never fully satisfied Reach it only temporarily 7 What is a peak experience The best you can be that moment in time in the zone Momentary self actualization at that one moment in time you are the best you can be 9 What does the research say about Maslow s hierarchy of needs We ve only been able to identify2 or 3 needs instead of the ve Not everybody climbs a hierarchy in the same progression A satis ed need can still motivate Satisfaction does not reduce the drive 4 selfactualization in fact once ppl have selfactualization they want more Maslow has been wrong on a number of accounts 9 What is a cafeteria style bene ts plan Pick and choose the bene ts that you need health amp life insurance Pick out the ones that t you 10 How would you apply Maslow s theory of motivation if you were a manager Ppl are motivated by different needs so they will nd different things rewarding Managers should motivate differently because everyone is at a different point on the hierarchy tailor the motivation to t the individual Ppl can move up or down in the hierarchyamp different things can motivate them over time 11 What are the 3 needs in ERG theory that can motivate behavior E Existence R Relatedness amp G Growth Needs 12 How do the 3 needs in ERG theory match up to the 5 needs in Maslow s hierarchy of needs a Existence similar 2 Maslow s physiological amp safety needs b Relatedness similar 2 Maslow s social amp selfesteem needs c Growth similar 2 Maslow s selfactualization need Maslow s theory repackaged to be more consistent with current research 13 What does Alderfer s ERG theory sat about a satisfied need It can still motivate 14 What is the frustration regression principle in ERG theory What does it say about need frustration If a higher level need is frustrated you can regress down to a lower level need amp still maintain motivation 15 What does Herzberg say is the opposite of job satisfaction The opposite of job dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction No Job Satisfaction Job Dissatisfaction No Job Dissatisfaction 16 What is a motivator factor amp what is it related to in 2 factor theory be able to recognize what are motivators on the job Motivators are like what need in Maslow s hierarchy The work itself amp how it makes you feel Esteem amp selfactualization in Maslow s hierarchy Related to job enrichment bc motivators are present so you have an enriched job 17 What is a hygiene factor amp what is it related to in 2 factor theory be able to recognize what are hygienes on the job Hygienes are like what needs in Maslow s hierarchy Equivalent to the 3 lower level needs in Maslow s hierarchy of needs physiological safety social It s outside of youeXtemal factor pay bene ts supervision coworkers workingconditions company policy 18 What does Herzberg advocate as the only way to motivate employees ie make them job satis ed Job enrichment 19 What is the effect of good pay good supervision good bene ts etcon job dissatisfaction Can hygiene factors motivate people according to Hertzberg It prevents dissatisfaction Causes no job dissatisfaction Hygienes can t motivate ppl according to Hertzberg 20 If I gave you an example of a person holding a certain type of job eg specialized or enriched amp having either good or poor hygienes eg pay bene ts amp supervision you will be able to tell me what the person is experiencing in terms of job satisfaction or no job satisfaction amp job dissatisfaction or no job dissatisfaction Taco Bell drivethru worker amp static intercom No JS JDS bad hygienes worstcase scenario Dr 90210 JS No JDS good hygienes bestcase scenario Sauley s brother specialized but good hygienes No JS No JDS neutral 21 What are the problems with Herzberg s 2 factor theory It assumes that all employees will be motivated by job enrichment It s a one best way theory so we know it s wrong It was based upon accountants amp engineers The way the interviews were conducted was faulty Suffered from a selfserving bias Some people s hygiene s are other people s motivators Assumes everybody has a expressive motivation towards work amp ignores instrumentals 22 What is the basic premise behind goal setting theory There is a direct connection between what we intend to do amp what we actually do The goals our intentions we have in uence the performance we exhibit 23 What does SCARF mean in goal setting theory 8 goals should be specific in terms of what s desired amp when it should be desired by C challenging yet achievable A accepted by the subordinate R rewards for goal attainment F feedbackabout goal related performance 24 How does one build greater of acceptance of speci c amp challenging goals Rewards for goal attainment Participation in goal setting by the employee Autocratic tell amp sell method 25 How does participation in goal setting increase performance They have increased acceptance it makes the person feel like it s their goal 26 When does participation in goal setting not work Management amp labor don t trust eachother The subordinate does not want to participate The manager is an autocrat Uncomfortable with subordinates creating goals 27 What is the autocratic tell sell method of goal setting When do you use it Where the manager acting alone sets goals for employees Tells them the goals then sells them on the goals Need to explain reason behind goals importance and value WIFM selling involves We see it when selling participation doesn t work mgt amp labor don t trust each other when the manager s autocrat Both are effective if used in the right way 28 In reinforcement theory what is Thorndike s law of effect Consequences for the behavior determines the behavior frequency Behaviors followed by positive consequences tend to be repeated increases frequency Behaviors followed by negative or no consequences tend to not be repeated decrease frequency 29 What is positive reinforcement What does it do to the frequency of the behavior When the behavior occurs it is followed by a positive consequence Frequency should increase 30 What is negative reinforcement What does it do to the frequency of the behavior When behavior occurs a negative consequence is withdrawn or not given Avoidance learning is what we call it Do the behavior to avoid punishment Perform well so your boss won t yell at you If it s got reinforcement in the title the frequency goes up 31 What is extinction What does it do to the frequency of the behavior Ignore it long enough amp it will go away The behavior is given no consequence Should decreases in theory but in reality increases before it decreases 32 What is an extinction spike Looking for a positive consequence but doesn t get one so dies out 33 What is punishment What does it do to the frequency of the behavior When the behavior occurs it s followed by a negative consequence Should decrease frequency of behavior The threat of punishment could be considered negative reinforcement If it doesn t have reinforcement in title it decreases it 34 What are the problems with punishment Only tells you what you have done wrong Does not tell you what you need to do to get the job right Replaces bad behavior with another bad behavior if there is no coaching Makes them feel either sad or mad either case productivity goes down When cat is away mouse will play when the punishment is not around the frequency of the bad behavior will increase 35 What is the leave alone zap trap What does the manager do when you perform well What does the manager do when you perform poorly or make a mistake When everything is going well manager leaves you alone extinction amp does nothing for good performance When you perform poorly they punish you Manager only associated with negative consequences You begin to engage in CYA behavior place blame on somebody else or cover it up Cover your Ass exculpatory behavior 36 What kind of work climate is created by the leave alone zap manager One based upon fear amp avoidance 37 How do you overcome the leave alone zap trap as a manager Manage by walking around amp catch them doing something right Give them positive consequencesrewards 38 How many positive consequences to every negative consequence does it take for your subordinate not to perceive you as a punisher in general 41 4 s to every Depends on the situation could be too many or too little 39 What is the jelly bean motivation trap How does it affect motivation amp performance How do you overcome it Rewards are only meaningful when they are tied to what Pass out rewards without regard to performance Everyone gets the same rewards with regards to what you do Motivation amp performance goes down over time Mostly effects high performers amp they will be most pissed off Must tie rewards to performance reward ppl based on how well they do 40 What is the rewarding on assumed needs trap What do you turn a reward into when you fall into this trap How do you avoid this trap Not all things are rewarding for everyone Can t assume what is good for someone bc it could be a negative for you You assume what s a positive consequence reward for you is a positive consequence reward for your employee amp you turn this reward into extinction bc you avoid by asking amp not guessing 4 p t What is the concern of equity theory Fairness in the workplace What people perceive to be fair amp how they react to be treated unfairly 4 N What are the 4 basic postulates or tenants of equity theory Ppl strive to maintain a state of equity When inequity is perceived it creates tension in the individual The greater the perceived inequity the greater the tension Ppl more readily perceive unfavorable inequity than a favorable one 4 W What is the difference between equity amp equality Equity the more you do the more you should get looks at inputs to determine outcomes Equality gets the same outcomes regardless of inputs Jellybean motivator is equality driven they create inequity 44 What is more important in equity theory perception or reality Perception because fair in reality may not be perceived as fair by all 4 UI What is favorable inequity Unfavorable inequity Favorable gt being overrewarded for the work you do Unfavorable gt being underrewarded for the work you do ppl more readily recognize 46 When faced with unfavorable inequity what are the different ways one can use to restore equity People respond negatively Quit take longer lunchamp breaks theft goes upamp do all this to make them feel even Absentee amp turnover will go up Expect ppl to behave negatively when their underrewarded 47 When faced with unfavorable inequity how do people normally restore equity behaviorally 0r cognitively Not through changing their perceptions but by changing behaviors Don t change their mind they change their behavior 48 When faced with favorable inequity how do people normally restore equity behaviorally 0r cognitively Not going to work harder if they are paying me this much I must be worth it cognitively Overpaying does not motivate people to work harder only makes them think they are better then they really are 49 What is an Entitled Equity SensitiveBenevolent What does each type perceive as fair Entitled taker wants to do less for more overrewarded is fair Equity Sensitive take give equally perceives equity as fair Benevolent giver wants to do more for less wants to give more than they take underrewarded is fair Least likely to quit benevolent bc so committed amp entitled b c they ve got no place to go 50 Which of the 3 types listed in question 49 is most prevalent Least prevalent Most equity sensitives followed closely by entitleds Least benevolents 51 What are the problems with equity theory IT LEb l DEB 5 El 52 What is leadership The art of in uencing of individuals amp groups to attain organizational goals willinglyamp harmoniously 53 What is the difference between management amp leadership Leadership is just 1 function of management Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling POSLC Just b c you re a great leader doesn t mean you re a great manager 54 What is the difference between leadership amp supervision 55 Ppl wanting to go along w you vs having to go along with you Voluntary compliance leadership vs forced compliance supervision Supervision Do it bc I m the boss Leadership Do it b c I set a good example amp you trust me What is reward power Coercive p0werLegitimate p0werExpert p0werReferent power be able to recognize when each is being used in a situation 56 5 l 5 00 59 6 C aReward 7 if you comply w my requests I will give you a reward you desire likepositive reinforcement b Coercive 7 using threats of punishment or actual punishment to gain compliance like negative reinforcement c Legitimat 7 do it bc I m the boss Reward Coercive amp Legitimate go together dExpert 7 ppl comply w your requests bc you have knowledge skills amp ability that they do not possess they look to you for guidance they have the expertise eReferent 7 you set a good example ppl comply w your requests bc they admire you trust you lead by example expertamp referent go together What power bases does a leader use Supervisor use Leader primarily expert amp referent Supervisor legitimate reward coercive Which of the power bases best exempli es supervision Leadership Supervision legitimate Leadership referent What is the relationship between the 5 power bases amp productivity Reward 7 has no affect on productivity but if used properly will increase productivity Coercive 7 the more you use it the lower productivity goes Expert 7 productivity increases when you use them Legitimat 7 has no affect on productivity Referent 7 productivity increases when you use them What are theory x amp theory y How do they affect leadership Views that managers make about ppl work amp can affect leadership behavior Theory X gt autocratic leadership style Theory Y gtdemocratic leadership style bc you share more power w their employees giving them more freedom amp autonomy b c they trust ppl What are the beliefs that underlie theory x Theory y Theog X Negative pick the positive ones for assumptions that don t fit Lazy ship less no good you can t trust them you can t love them You will supervise Specializedjob Theog Y Positive pick the negative ones Ppl will practice selfcontrol a need to be creative a need for achievement on the job You will lead Enrichedjob 61 What is meant by the phrase these theories x amp y can become self ful lling prophecies aka Pygmalion Effect 7 a Greek sculptor sculptured perfect woman amp prayed tothe Greek gd s to bring her to life amp they granted him his wish Where you bring your beliefs to life I think you re lazy Itreat you like you re lazy you become lazy It s a created effect 62 What is the basic idea behind trait theory of leadership Looking for those characteristics of traits that separate leaders from followers could be physiological or psychological 63 What is the great man trait theory Learned traits theory In the beginning was Great ManTrait born to be great leaders then was replaced by Learned Traits leaders can be madeyou can learn the traits of great leadership amp this came about in 1890 bc the Psychology field was created Nature vs Nurture 64 In general what has the research revealed about traits separating leaders from followers Leaders tend to be slightlytaller slightlymore intelligent slightly more visible ampslightly more adept than followers Doesn t automatically going to tell you who will lead amp who will follow 65 What trait does reliably tell you if someone will be a leader or not Behavioral Flexibility being able to change your behavior to fit the situation as the group s goals wantsamp needs change how you lead changes These people are all three types of leaders depending upon the situation human chameleons 7 change to fit the situation 66 Why was the trait in 65 not identi ed until recently We look for consistency in behavior across situations when we say that we have a trait so if shy always shy so must be a shy person Behavioral exibility says as a situation changes your behavior changes so they saw inconsistency amp that it couldn t be a trait bc traits are consistent 67 What is the focus of behavioral theory also known as the Ohio State Studies Ohio State Buckeyes a poisonous nut We re focused on what leaders do amp how that affects subordinate satisfaction amp performance Focuses on what leaders do 68 What is initiating structure Consideration be able to recognize these behaviors in a situation 2 leadership behaviors they identify in Ohio State Studies E 7 task oriented tell you what to do when to do it how to do it check your work schedule your work organize your work Q 7 relationship oriented develop the relationship bt you amp your followers based upon mutual trust 2way communication give amp take support amp encouragement treating them like a human being 69 Which combination of behaviors did behavioral theorists originally think would be the best in all situations Hi IS amp Hi C would always be the best in the beginning There s no 1 best way of management different strokes for different folks Hi IS 7 if employees already know how to do their job then your employees will get angry HI C 7 not every employee need emotional support from their manager may be selfmotivated amp not othermotivated 70 What is the major drawback of the behavioral theory Ohio State Studies as originally proposed If there s one best way to lead the situation doesn t matter The situation is totally ignored in the beginning amp in the end the situation became allimportant Ignore the situation 71 What combination of behaviors is actually the best in behavioral theory It depends upon the situation there is no best way 72 What combination of behaviors does a theory x manager exhibit Theory y exhibit Theory X Hi IS amp Lo C work you hard amp doesn t give a damn about you TheoerLoISampHiC Hi IS gt specialization Lo IS gt enrichment 73 In Fielder s contingency theory of leadership work group performance is a function of what The match between leadership style amp the favorableness of the situation When there s a good match work group performance goes up bad match work group performance goes down 74 According to Fiedler what is your leadership style based on As a result does Fiedler believe you can change your leadership style Your personality amp therefore it s fixed you can t change it 75 What does Fiedler believe about leadership training that teaches you how to be exible amp change your style to match the situation It is atotal waste of time 6 weeks of therapy won t change your personality so 6 weeks of leadership training won t change your leadership style live w it amp make the best of it 76 What scale did Fiedler develop to measure your leadership style LPC Least Preferred CoWorker Scale You think about all the coworkers you have ever worked w amp you pick out the one that you least prefer to work with amp then you describe that person with a series of bipolar adjectives amp by the way you describe them according to Fielder tells how you are as a leader It s a measure of your value system as a leader but not a good system bc values doesn t always translate to behaviors 77 If you LPC score is low what does that mean What type of leader are you You describe them in negative terms bc you have a low opinion of them you are taskoriented as a leader 78 If your LPC score is high what does that mean What type of leader are you You describe them positively bc you have a high opinion of them you are a relationshiporiented leader 79 What are the 3 factors that determine situational favorableness Which is more important Least important Situational Favorableness you go from very favorable situations to moderately favorable situations to unfavorable situations Basically says that a leader has very favorable a lot of control moderately favorable some control ampunfavorable very little control 80 When is a high LPC leader the best Low LPC Middle LPC Why is the case according to Fiedler High LPC in the moderately favorable situation when they have some control relationshiporiented Low LPC the very favorable or unfavorable when there s a lot of control or little control Middle LPC 7 in all situations they re the best bc as the situation changes they change which blows Fiedler s theory Why task oriented good extremes amp relationship good in middle bc it was the best match b c the work group performed the best bc they were the best match plain amp simple 81 What is another name for middle LPC leadership Behavioral exibility Being able to change your behavior to t the situation 82 What are the implications of Fiedler39s contingency theory for managers 1 Anybody can be a leader if they nd the right situation 2 If your work group isn t performing well the situation is at fault you re in a bad match no effective amp ineffective leaders only effective amp ineffective situations bc Fielder says the situation is the only thing that can change you can t change your leadership style 3 If your work group isn t performing well the situation needs to change change the situation to t your style Leadership Training Program leader match as soon as you see it being offered you run away from it 83 What does Fiedler recommend as a way to improve leadership effectiveness when a leader finds himself in a situation that does not match her style Change the situation 84 What is Vick Vroom amp Yetton s normative theory of leadership really a theory of A theory of decisionmaking how much subordinates are participating in making decisions 85 What is the basic idea behind Vroom amp Yetton s normative theory of leadership Leaders have to decide how much subordinates should participate in making decisions Will depend upon the situation sometimes little or lot or some 86 What is Al AIICICIIamp GII Be able to recognize each decision making style A autocratic AI where the manager uses the info available wo any input from subordinates amp makes decision alone All The manager goes to subordinates individually gets info from them doesn t tell them why amp then makes the decision alone not consulting with them C consultative CI The manager goes to individual subordinates one at a time shares the problem wthem one at a time gets their ideas and suggestions then makes the decision alone CII Rather than sharing the problem individually you share the problem wthe group all at oncethen you make the decision all alone you re consulting w them about a problem amp then make the decision alone GII Manager gets a group of subordinates togetheramp presents the problem to the group gets their suggestions amp uses them to arrive at a joint decision jointly make a decision about how to solve a problem A2 amp C1 are both individual but A2 ask for information amp Cl you present the problem Cl amp C2 7 one at atimeI vs all at once 11 87 What 2 situational factors in Vroom amp Yetton s normative theory of leadership determine the best decision making method for the situation Decision quality amp subordinate acceptance Make a quality decision that is acceptable to individuals 88 What is a feasible set Those decisionmaking methods that are effective for the situation 89 What is the minimum man hours rule amp the employee s development rule When do you use these rules Be able to apply these rules to a feasible set Minimum Man Hours Rule7 pick the one farthest left on feasible set Employee 3 Development Rule 7 pick the one farthest right Ifthere s only one set 7 you don t need a rule 90 What are the problems with Vroom amp Yetton s normative theory of leadership IT 91 What are the basic ideas behind reciprocal theory of leadership What makes the theory reciprocal The leader in uences the follower but the follower also in uences the leader It39s reciprocal 92 What determine whether a subordinate will be lead or supervised by his manager in reciprocal theory If you re part of the ingroup you will be led If you re part of the out group you will be supervised Performance does not always place people in the in or outgroups Ingroup does better over time 93 What has the research revealed when the manager is taught to lead the out group as well as the in group The outgroup performs just as well as the in group 94 What is the basic idea behind implicit theory of leadership Leadership is in the eye of the follower 95 What is the basic idea behind substitutes for leadership If a leader has been substituted for their no longer needed They re no longer important They may be irrelevant to the satisfaction amp performance of the subordinate 96 What does substitutes for leadership say about leaders receiving credit amp blame If the situation is beyond their control they don39t really deserve the credit or the blame 97What factors substitute for leadership making it irrelevant to subordinate satisfaction amp performance Knowledgeable amp experienced employees 300ng 98 How do formal amp informal groups differ Formal deliberately created by the organization emphasizes on duties amp tasksauthorityamp position will support organization s goals specialized roles amp work duties Informal develops naturally emphasizes personal amp social relationships may not support organization s goals help satisfy social needs of employees 99 What personal needs are satis ed by groups Safety Security strength in numbers Social friendship belonging acceptance Esteem think you re cool Reality 100 What is a reality need You will use the other group members to see if your perceptions of reality are valid or not 101 What are the 5 stages of group development amp what happens at each stage 1 Forming orientation of employees get to know 1 another see what each person brings to the table Isldate 2 Storming 39 r con 39 quotquotquot interpersonal con icts likely to occur here as members vie for certain roles con ict over who s gonna do what amp who s gonna be in charge 3 Norming a sense of solidarity begins to take hold set up unwritten rules of behavior in groups to prevent con icts cohesiveness kiss amp make up 4 Performing increased cooperation problem solving amp task performance sex the product 5 Adjourning task is complete duties are terminated members move onto other assignments amp things are wrapped up 102 At what stage is group cohesiveness the greatest Norming 103 At what stage is intragroup amp interpersonal conflict most likely to occur Storming 104 At what stage is the group likely to make the best decisions Performing 105 Which stage is most dif th to achieve Performing 106 What is the relationship between group size amp effectiveness As group size increases friendliness decreases participation decreases effort decreases decisionmaking process takes longer team work decreases domination by l or few individuals increases only thing that increases bc negative 2 ppl can be considered a group Optimal size for decisionmaking groups 57 members optimal for work group effectiveness As group size increases effectiveness decreases 107 What is cohesiveness The willingness or desire for a member to remain part of a group An important indicator of how much in uence the group has on the individual members The greater the cohesiveness the greater the desire 108 What does cohesiveness have to do with a group s in uence over its members Greater the cohesiveness the greater the in uence over its group members 109 What are the factors that increase amp decrease cohesiveness INCREASE DECREASE anything that makes a group anything that makes a group small group size large group size history of group success group failure external threat to the group unattractive group goals attractive group goals low public imagelow status group high public image high status group disagreeable group demandstasks lots of time spent together little time spent together winning history of losing 110 What are the bene ts amp drawbacks of highly cohesive groups Bene ts Low absenteeism amp turnover Higher job satisfaction amp morale amp selfesteem Good teamwork more amp better group interaction Greater interpersonal coordination Demand a lot of loyalty amp conformity Drawback Can limit creativity amp originality due to conformity main one Group think 111 What is a norm Norms are standards of behavior accepted by a group s members An unwritten rule about how you should behave in a group 112 How do norms amp cohesiveness interact to determine a group s performance High cohesiveness groups are a doubleedges sword High cohesiveness groups with high productivity norms are high performance teams unwritten rule is to do as much as you can High cohesiveness groups with low productivity norms are low performance teams group does little or nothing Low cohesiveness groups have very little in uence over their members performance N High cohesive amp high productivity norm do as much as you can amp get high productivity BEST CASE SCENARIO N High cohesive amp low productivity norm do what u need to get by amp get low productivity WORST CASE SCENARIO N Low cohesive amp high productivity norm ppl will do what they normally do on their own N Low cohesive amp low productivity norm ppl will do what they normally do on their own The Book 1 What are the 3 needs identified by McClelland that can motivate an individual s behavior a Need for Achievement b Need for Affiliation c Need for Power 2 What is involved with each of these 3 needs Need for Achievement a measure of a person s desire for clear selfset moderately difficult goals with feedback given based on goal achievement High achievers are seen as selfstarters goaloriented or full of task initiatives all traits that firms typically value Need for Affiliation the desire to work with others to interact with amp support others amp to learn the lessons of life through the experiences of others A pronounced desire for social acceptance can be a powerful motivating force in our daily lives Work organizations are important social institutions bringing Equot 5 UI 0 l What is the film 3m v people into regular contact with one another The need for affiliation is Maslow s social need applied to the individual Need for Power A desire to have in uence amp control over others This need can be an important determinant of behavior People dominate one another in many socially acceptable ways People are submissive to the dominance of police managers tour guides amp others It is natural amp often informative to allow other people control over an aspect of our lives Many people seek jobs that affords them the opportunity to ful ll a basic need in a sociallyacceptable manners ampsuccess at many jobs actually requires people to be forcefulamp capable of exerting their will over others In these positions people with a high need for power will outperform those with a low need for power What s the difference between a contingent amp noncontingent rewards Contingent Rewards distributed based on a specific preceding behavior a sales clerk may receive a free weekend trip for having the highest sales in her department for the preceding quarter Noncontingent Rewards not linked to any specific behavior a paid holiday may be available to all staff regardless of their level of performance Suggests that being burned by a hot stove represents punishment at the most general level amp in its most vivid form According to the hot stove rule punishment should be Swift intense impersonal amp consistent amp it should provide an alternative What is social learning theory Motivated behavior is a function of observing the success of other people amp then doing what worked for them Rather than being merely a function of environmental conditioning learning was in uenced by an individual s cognitive assessment of what behaviors were previously rewarded in the environment What are the steps in the social learning process 1 Attention during which another person is observed while successful performing a behavior 2 Retention of the behavioral response to memory the observer remembers not only the specifics of the behavior but also its content 3 Reproduction of the behavior exactly as it was committed to memory in the appropriate context or situation 4 Motivation for the successful performance of the behavior the individual often administers a selfreward or is granted an external reward or recognition A selffulfillrng prophecy whereby increasing a manager s expectations of subordinates performance actually improves performance 9 What does Fiedler s i itrg1quotvu il iw 1 c T mij say about stress amp leadership effectiveness The degree of stress confronting the manager in uences leader effectiveness In stressful situations the leader tended to focus on the source of the stress instead of the situation thereby leading to ineffective performance H 9 What s the general message to leaders from Cognitive Resource Theory Highstress situations leaders should rely on their experience in lowstress situations they should rely on their intelligence 11 What is transformational leadership An inspirational form of leader behavior based on modifying followers beliefs values amp ultimately their behavior 12 What is transactional leadership More closely related to both behavioral amp situational leader behaviors Transactional leaders appeal to their followers rational exchange motive The process of keeping workers riveted to organizational goals 13 What are the different ways group norms are communicated a Explicit statements by the group leader b Explicit statements by group members c Critical events in the group s history d Past group experiences 14 What is 9 A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive ingroup when members strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action Means suppressing or ignoring countervailing ideas that represent a threat to group consensus or unanimity Within the same group groupthink can occur during one decisionmaking situationamp not another REVIEW QUES39HONS FROM 615433 Jr a Taco Bell drive thru workers amp static intercom NO JS JDS bad hygienes worst case scenario b Dr 90210 JS NO JDS good hygienes best case scenario c Sauley s brother specialized but good hygienes No JS NO JDS neutral d According to Maslow s hierarchy of needs ALL ABOVE lowest unsatis ed need in the highest motivates behavior satis ed need cannot motivate behavior higher level of motivation is self actualization e Given most jobs are specialized what needs are typically frustrated for most employees esteemamp selfactualization f In Alderfer s ERG theory relatedness needs are equivalent to what needs in Maslow s hierarchy of needs socialamp esteem N growth selfactualization g In Hertzberg s 2 factor theory what motivates behavior job enrichment N Does everybody have an expressive motivation NO h If a person held an enriched job paid poorly had low benefits a person would feel which two states of the 2 factor theory J S JD N Specializedjob w excellent pay amp bene ts NJS NJD N Good pay amp good hygienes NJD i Which isn t a criticism of the 2 factor theory it assumes that evegone has an instrumental motivation rewards work j In the jelly bean motivation trap high performers receive inequity amp low performers receive inequity unfavorable underrewarded favorable overrewarded N The overrewarded change their mind so not good way to motivate ppl only gives ppl big heads N Jellybean motivators focus on equality but create inequity F Which is no an aspect of effective goal setting program in all situations SCART 39 quot narticination in goalsetting l Autocratic tell amp sell method works to improve employee performance by increasing the acceptance of goals m When a workers starts performing well to avoid being red this is known as negative 39 f voidance learning N You do to avoid performance n A slacker realizes poorer he performs less work his managers asks him to do Example of positive reinforcement N Behavior occurs given consequences that increases F N Punishment given consequences when behavior occurs 0 Which is not true concerning punishment only tells you what you ve done wrong PROBLEM it replaces bad behavior with good no w BAD p Initially leave alone zap managers use what consequence most frequently for managing performance no consequence q The frequency of high performance over time under the leave alone zap manager increases then decreases r How many consequences to every consequences must be administered for the manager not to be perceived as a punitive 41 more or less s When you reward on assumed needs as a manager the employee may perceive the reward as 39 39 439 quot positive reinforcement ALL ABOVE t Jelly bean motivation encourages what type of individual entitled get same as evervone amp doing less 11 A works 20 hourswk paid 200 amp B works 40 hourswk paid 200 Situation creates inequity but equality v According to equity theory fairness work when ppl perceive inequitv it creates tension that thev re motivated to reduce or eliminate N Perception is important w When employees faced w unfavorable inequity which may occur ppl change perceptiontheir minds ALL ABOVE reduced quantity quality performance extended work breaks stealing from employee x When employees faced w favorable inequity which may occur ppl change behavior increased con dence in the worker that they deserved the rewards given y If treat entitleds fairly in reality amp given them rewards they deserve based on their performance entitleds will perceive unfavorable ineguity N Benevolent favorable inequity z Which appropriate leadership style when employee is unable amp unwilling to do the task Hi IS amp Lo Consideration aa Which able amp willing to do the task Lo IS amp Lo Consideration bb Which trait reliably separates leaders from followers according to trait theory height ccWhich 0f the following leadership styles is the best according to the behavioral theory of leadership NONEinthe39 39 39 Hi IS amp Hi C quot quot dd Jelly bean motivators rely heavily on which of the following power bases reward power ee When managers use coercive power they are using to gain compliance punishmentamp negative reinforcement ff Which power base best exempli es leadership referent power gg Which of the following power bases is not signi cantly related to productivity legitimate power N related coercive power N related referent expert power hh Which of the following power bases best represents supervision legitimate power ii Which of the following beliefs is inconsistent w a theory Y viewpoint employees will avoid responsibility jj A manager who has a Theory X attitude towards ppl would exhibit which of the following leadership styles Hi IS amp Lo Consideration N Y Lo IS amp Hi Consideration ltlt ltltlt ltltltltltltltltlt lt kk According to Fiedler leadership training a waste of time should teach leaders how to ll Using LPC if describe your LPC in negative terms you have a LPC score amp are a leader low taskoriented N terms high relationshiporiented mm Which is true concerning Fiedler s contingency theory all above N Middle LPC invalidates his theory bc of behavioral exibility N Moderately favorable HIGH LPC relationshiporiented nn Which factors determines the feasible set decision quality amp 39 J39 J EX39flip CREDI39f Self Serving Bias we take credit for our success amp blame others for our failure Avoidance Learning you learn how to do the behavior so that you can do it aga1n Exculpatory Behavior culpa is blame ex is external you externalize the blame CYA Cover Your Ass De ant Obedience When you use legitimate power amp tell them to do something even though you re obeying the boss amp still do really well they stick it to you engage in under legitimate power when the manager tells you to do something ampyou know it s wrong but they don t amp you do it really well stick it to them The best way to lead depends on the situation a chameleon 13 of job satisfaction is genetically determined Vick Vroomamp Yetton s Normative Theory Hertzberg assumes everyone has expressive motivation amp ignores instrumental Job enrichment J S Specialized NO JS Leadership is in trouble in our country we re under led amp over managed LPC doesn39t measures style but value system lst born son Sauley wants to name gt Seven Steel Sauley aka S cubed amp call him Lucky or Boomer as a nickname Sauley s dad calls him Moose
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