HUMAN RESOURCE MGT
HUMAN RESOURCE MGT MGT 3320
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Domenica Klocko II
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Domenica Klocko II on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 3320 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see /class/223136/mgt-3320-louisiana-state-university in Business, management at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
CHAPTER 1 A psychological contract is the overall set of expectations held by the employee with regard to what he or she will contribute to the organization and that are held by the organization with regard to what it will provide to the individual in return Human resources HR are the people that an organization employs to carry out various jobs tasks and functions in exchange for wages salaries and other rewards Human resource management HRM is the comprehensive set of managerial activities and tasks concerned with developing and maintaining a qualified workforce human resources in ways that contribute to organizational effectiveness Abraham Maslow39s hierarchy of human needs was developed during the human relations era A human resource management system is an integrated and interrelated approach to managing human resources that fully recognizes the interdependence among the various tasks and functions that must be performed The human relations era supplanted scientific management as the dominant approach to management during the 1930s The human relations era was instigated by the Hawthorne studies Knowledge workers are employees whose jobs are primarily concerned with the acquisition and application of knowledge and they contribute to an organization through what they know and how they can apply what they know Line managers are those directly responsible for creating goods and services Outsourcing is the process of hiring outside firms to handle basic HRM functions presumably more efficiently than the organization Personnel departments specialized organizational units for hiring and administering human resources became popular during the 1930s and 1940s Personnel management a new type of management function grew from the recognition that human resources needed to be managed Productivity is an economic measure of efficiency that summarizes and reflects the value of the outputs created by an individual organization industry or economic system relative to the value of the inputs used to create them The manager who ran the personnel department was called the personnel manager Quality is the total set of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs Scienti c management one of the earliest approaches to management was concerned with structuring individual jobs to maximize efficiency and productivity Staff managers are those responsible for an indirect or support function that would have costs but whose bottomline contributions were less direct Douglas McGregor39s Theory X and Theoer framework grew from the human relations movement Utility analysis is the attempt to measure in more objective terms the impact and effectiveness of HRM practices in terms of such metrics as a firm39s financial performance KEY LEGISLATION Title VII ofthe Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of an individual39s race color religious beliefs sex or national origin CHAPTER 2 The legal and regulatory environment of human resource management in the United States emerges as a result of a threestep process First is the actual creation of new regulation The second step in the regulation process is the enforcement of these regulations The third step in the regulation process is the actual practice and implementation of those regulations in organizations PM live Cumit L leu onfmndiglini emplaye dkuiminailion i1 WW I mlhn h pnduinmanca mm In 39 mum ln nial gamma ura n ngwd Wt ppd unhmv and o mwsimmm 39h mdvgariat n Affirmative action represents a set of steps taken by an organization to actively seek qualified applicants from groups underrepresented in the workforce A bona de occupational qualification BFOQ states that a condition like race sex or other personal characteristic legitimately affects a person39s ability to perform the job and therefore can be used as a legal requirement for selection A business necessity is a practice that is important for the safe and efficient operation of the business Disparate impact discrimination occurs when an apparently neutral employment practice disproportionately excludes a protected group from employment opportunities Disparate treatment discrimination exists when individuals in similar situations are treated differently based on the individual39s race color religion sex national origin age or disability status The fourfifths rule suggests that disparate impact exists if a selection criterion such as a test score results in a selection rate for a protected class that is less than fourfifths 80 percent of that for the majority group Geographical comparisons involve comparing the characteristics of the potential pool of qualified applicants for a job focusing on characteristics such as race ethnicity and gender with those same characteristics of the present employees in the job A hostile work environment is one that produces sexual harassment because ofa climate or culture that is punitive toward people of a different gender Illegal discrimination results from behaviors or actions by an organization or managers within an organization that cause members of a protected class to be unfairly differentiated from others The McDonnellDouglas test is used as the basis for establishing a prima facie case of disparate impact discrimination Pattern or practice discrimination is similar to disparate treatment but occurs on a classwide basis A protected class consists of all individuals who share one or more common characteristic as indicated by that law Quid pro quo harassment is sexual harassment in which the harasser offers to exchange something of value for sexual favors A utilization analysis is a comparison of the racial sex and ethnic composition of the employer39s workforce compared to that of the available labor supply KEY LEGISLATION The ADA Amendments Act or ADAAA of 2008 broadens the protection offered to persons with disabilities at work by defining certain disabilities as quotpresumptivequot thus negating several court cases that had ruled certain persons having disabilities as not qualifying for coverage under the ADA The Age Discrimination and Employment Act or ADEA prohibits discrimination against employees age forty and older The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or ADA prohibits discrimination based on disability and all aspects of the employment relationship such as job application procedures hiring firing promotion compensation and training as well as other employment activities such as advertising recruiting tenure layoffs and leave and fringe benefits The Civil Rights Act of 1991 makes it easier for individuals who feel they have been discriminated against to take legal action against organizations and provides for the payment of compensatory and punitive damages in cases of discrimination under Title VII The DrugFree Workplace Act of 1988 was passed to reduce the use of illegal drugs in the workplace Executive Order 11478 requires the federal government to base all of its own employment policies on merit and fitness and specifies that race color sex religion and national origin should not be considered Executive Order 11246 prohibits discrimination based on race color religion sex or national origin for organizations that are federal contractors and subcontractors The Employee Free Choice Act EFCA would make it easier for unions to be recognized as sole bargaining agents eliminating the need for secret ballot elections The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ERISA guarantees a basic minimum benefit that employees could expect to be paid at retirement The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that organizations provide men and women who are doing equal work the same pay The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 requires employers having more than fifty employees to provide as many as 12 weeks unpaid leave for employees after the birth or adoption of a child to care for a seriously ill child spouse or parent or if the employee is seriously ill The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act GINA of 2009 prohibits employers from obtaining genetic information about employees The Labor Management Relations Act or TaftHartley Act curtailed and limited union powers and regulates union actions and their internal affairs in a way that puts them on equal footing with management and organizations The LandrumGrif n Act focused on eliminating various unethical illegal and undemocratic practices within unions themselves The National Labor Relations Act or Wagner Act was passed in an effort to control and legislate collective bargaining between organizations and labor unions to grant power to labor unions and to put unions on a more equal footing with managers in terms of the rights of employees The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or OSHA grants the federal government the power to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standards for all places of employment directly affecting interstate commerce The Patriot Act expanded the rights of the government or law enforcement agencies to collect information about and pursue potential terrorists The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1979 protects pregnant women from discrimination in the workplace The Privacy Act of 1974 allows federal employees to review their personnel files periodically to ensure that the information contained in them is accurate The Reconstruction Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1871 further extended protection offered to people under the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments The Vietnam Era Veterans39 Readjustment Act of 1974 requires that federal contractors and subcontractors take affirmative action toward employing Vietnamera veterans The Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires that executive agencies and subcontractors and contractors of the federal government receiving more than 2500 a year from the government engage in affirmative action for disabled individuals The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Noti cation WARN Act of 1988 stipulates that an organization employing at least 100 employees must provide notice at least 60 days in advance of plans to close a facility or lay off 50 or more employees CHAPTER 3 Culture refers to the set ofvalues that helps an organization39s members understand what it stands for how it does things and what it considers important Direct foreign investment occurs when a firm headquartered in one country builds or purchases operating facilities or subsidiaries in a foreign country The ethnocentric staffing model primarily uses parentcountry nationals to staff higherlevel foreign positions Expatriates are employees who are sent by a firm to work in another country they may be either parentcountry or thirdcountry nationals Exporting is the process of making a product in the firm39s domestic marketplace and then selling it in another country Exporting can involve both goods and services The geocentric staffing model puts parentcountry hostcountry and thirdcountry nationals all in the same category with the firm attempting to always hire the best person available for a position A hardship premium also called a foreign service premium is an additional financial incentive offered to individuals to entice them to accept a quotless than attractivequot international assignment In a joint venture strategic alliance two or more firms cooperate in the ownership or management of an operation on an equity basis Licensing involves one company granting its permission to another company in a foreign country to manufacture or market its products in its local market The polycentric staf ng model calls for the dominant use of hostcountry nationals throughout the organization The North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA reduced trade barriers between Canada the United States and Mexico NAFTA also includes separate labor agreements among the three countries CHAPTER 4 The adaptation model is one popular approach to business strategy where a business seeks ways to adapt to its environment Business strategy deals with how the firm will compete in each market where it conducts business Corporate strategy deals with determining what businesses the corporation will operate A cost leadership strategy is one that focuses on minimizing the costs as much as possible An organization39s culture refers to the set of values that helps its members understand what the organization stands for how it accomplishes what it wants to accomplish and what it considers important A company that uses a differentiation strategy attempts to develop an image or reputation for its product or service that sets the company apart from its competitors A diversification strategy is used by companies that are adding new products product lines or businesses to their existing core products product lines or businesses The focus strategy is undertaken when an organization tries to target a specific segment of the marketplace for its products or services Functional strategy deals with how the firm will manage each of its major functions such as marketing finance and human resources Growth strategy focuses on growing and expanding the business It can be pursued internally by opening additional locations or externally through mergers joint ventures or the acquisition of other businesses An organization39s mission is a statement of how it intends to fulfill its purpose Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways Individual motivation is also a major determinant of individual performance but motivation is at the heart of what causes an employee to choose to expend the effort that will support any organizational activity Organization design refers to the framework ofjobs positions clusters of positions and reporting relationships among positions that are used to construct an organization Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological attributes or traits that distinguish one person from another Some organizations believe that one or more particular personality traits may relate to how well an employee can perform a certain job or type of job A psychological contract is the overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide the individual in return An organization39s purpose is its basic reason for existence Related diversification is used when a corporation believes it can achieve synergy among the various businesses that it owns A retrenchment or turnaround strategy occurs when an organization finds that its current operations are not effective and major changes are usually needed to rectify the problem In most cases this strategy involves rightsizing the organization by closing operations shutting down factories and terminating employees in order to get back on the right track Stability strategy essentially calls for maintaining the status quo A company that adopts a stability strategy plans to stay in its current businesses and intends to manage them as they are already being managed The organization39s goal is to protect itself from environmental threats A stability strategy is frequently used after a period of retrenchment or after a period of rapid growth Stress is a person39s adaptive response to a stimulus that places excessive psychological or physical demands on that person It is important for HR managers to include an understanding of the causes of stress the processes by which stress affects individuals and how organizations and individuals can cope better with stress in organizational settings The top management team ofan organization refers to the group of senior executives responsible for the overall strategic operation of the firm Unrelated diversification is used when a firm attempts to operate several unique businesses in different unrelated markets The basic logic behind unrelated diversification is that a company can shield itself from the adverse effects of business cycles unexpected competition and other economic fluctuations Chapter l The Nature of Human Resource Management MULTIPLE CHOICE 1 N E 5 U39 One of the first factors that increased the importance of human resource management was a the 1964 Civil Rights Act b the worker revolution c technological advances in computers d the increase in manufacturing e the growth in the service sector ANS A PTS39 1 REF p4 OB 11 NAT AACSB diversity 1 AACSB HRM TYP knowledge The human resource function in organizations today a has grown into the role of strategic partner b does little beyond ensure compliance with labor regulations c is vital to the smooth operation of the business but is not in uenced by the organization39s strategy d dominates the other functional areas and dictates strategy to the organization e is organized and managed very much as it has been for the last century ANS A PTS 1 REF p 56 OB 11 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge A large computer chip manufacturer has just hired another firm to perform its applicant background checks Which of the following is likely part of this process a Theory Z b Theory X c Organizational culture d Strategic organization e Outsourcing ANS E PTS 1 REF p 6 OB 12 NAT AACSB re ective thinking 1 AACSB HRM TYP apply A small restaurant is concerned about increasing worker productivity and tries to better structure its jobs to maximize output and service delivery The restaurant is likely using some of the principles discusse in a downsizing b outsourcing c Theory X d scienti c management e Theory Y ANS D PTS 1 REF p 8 OB 12 NAT AACSB re ective thinking 1 AACSB motivation concepts TYP apply Early research determining that individual and group behavior was important to organizations involved the a Hawthorne Studies b scienti c management groups c total quality management investigations 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 1 0quot gt1 9 0 d use of employee testing e outsourcing studies ANS A PTS 1 REF p 9 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB motivation concepts OB 12 TYP comprehension The basic notion of the human relations movement was that employees had to be intimidated to be motivated technology was in decline satis ed employees would work harder for the company unions were a waste of time group work must be avoided in companies ANS C PTS 1 REF p 9 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB motivation concepts EDP057 OB 12 TYP knowledge In the 193 OS and 1940s units within a company that dealt with employees39 behavioral challenges and issues were ca e TQM groups scienti c administration personnel departments MBO operations planning parties EFF057 ANS C PTS39 1 REF 9 p OB 12 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB motivation concepts TYP comprehension During the 1950s and 1960s all of the following developed within the eld of human resource management EXCEPT a selection tests from World War II were adapted for use in private industry b reward and incentive systems became more sophisticated c government legislation expanded adding more complexity to human resource management d unions became more powerful and demanded more benefits for their members e the human resource management function was recognized as being critically important to organizational success ANS E PTS39 1 REF p 910 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge OB 12 The 1964 Civil Rights Act made it illegal for corporate managers to make decisions based on all of the following EXCEPT a gender b age c religion d race e national origin ANS B PTS p 10 1 REF OB 12 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB legal responsibilities TYP knowledge include all individuals who gain knowledge and utilize the information effectively to enhance the organization a Group members b Recruiting teams 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 2 LN c Selection specialists d Knowledge workers e Training networks ANS D PTS 1 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM REF p11 OB TYP comprehension 12 Ahuman resource management system integrates which of the following functions a nance function b operations function c marketing function d other fundamental organizational functions e all of these ANS E PTS39 1 REF p 18 OB 14 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension All of the following researchers contributed to the early growth of the human resource function EPT E a Elton Mayo b Frederick Taylor c Douglas McGregor d Thomas Edison e Abraham Maslow ANS D PTS39 1 REF p 79 OB 12 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP knowledge Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic goals of the human resource management function as discussed in the text a Helping the global economy b Promoting individual growth and development c Complying with legal and social obligations d Enhancing productivity and quality e Facilitating organizational competitiveness ANS A PTS39 1 13 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM REF p 12 OB TYP comprehension Which of the following activities MOST directly relates to the basic HRM goal of facilitating organizational competitiveness a Developing a strategic perspective to human resource management that satisfies goals and objectives b Investing in employee training that enhances productivity c Complying with government regulations d Designing quotoutreachquot programs to attract minority job applicants e Developing formal mentoring programs to help women and minorities advance in the organization ANS A PTS 1 REF p 13 OB 13 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge Genevieve a human resource staff member has the task of investigating employee complaints about civil rights violations at work Which of the goals of HR management is Genevieve working on a Facilitating organizational competitiveness 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 3 0 N O b Complying with legal and social obligations c Promoting individual growth and development d Enhancing productivity and quality e Recruiting sufficient workers to meet demand ANS B PTS 1 REF p 14 OB 13 NAT AACSB re ective thinking 1 AACSB HRM TYP apply Adam is a project manager in the human resources department of Intel the US semiconductor manufacturer Adam says quotI work on issues ranging from dependent care to worklife bene ts I work with employees to better understand their needs and to help design programs for themquot Which of the fundamental goals of HR management is Adam working on a Complying with legal and social obligations b Controlling costs c Facilitating organizational competitiveness d Enhancing productivity and quality e Promoting individual growth and development ANS E PTS 1 REF p 15 OB 13 NAT AACSB re ective thinking 1 AACSB HRM TYP apply Which of the following would typically be considered a staff rather than a line manager a uman resource manager b Operations manager c Financial manager d Marketing manager e Sales manager ANS A PTS 1 REF p 16 OB 14 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge HR activities are typically carried out by a line managers b staff managers c neither line nor staff managers d both line and staff managers e executive team members only ANS D PTS39 1 REF p 16 OB 14 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP knowledge The goals of human resource management typically include all of the following activities EXCEPT a facilitating organizational competitiveness b enhancing productivity and quality c complying with legal and social obligations d promoting individual growth and development e overseeing nancial reporting as part of the SarbanesOXley Act ANS E PTS 1 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM REF p 12 OB TYP comprehension 13 The managers who are directly involved in creating goods and service are known as a HR managers b staff managers c line managers 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 4 23 d chief executive managers e executive team managers ANS D PTS 1 p 16 1 REF OB NAT AACSB analytic AACSBHRM TYP knowledge 14 Who would typically have responsibility for carrying out human resource activities in a small independent business The human resource manager The owner or general manager A human resource specialist An operating manager A secretary or an administrative assistant ANS B PTS 1 REF p 1617 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP knowledge EDP057 OB 14 Which of the following is NOT a speci c requirement for being a successful human resource manager a An understanding of the legal environment b General management skills and abilities c Fundamental understanding of other functional areas d A degree in human resource management e Knowledge of business and corporate strategy ANS D PTS 1 REF p 1920 OB 15 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP comprehension A involves the set of expectations about the exchanges that occur between employees and employers a knowledge worker b costbene t analysis c human relations movement d downsizing e psychological contract ANS E PTS 1 REF p 15 OB 13 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension A sporting goods retail company hires another rm to manage all of its payroll functions This process is known as a HRIS b Theory X c Theory Y d professional accreditation e outsourcing ANS E PTS 1 REF p 6 OB 11 NAT AACSB re ective thinking 1 AACSB HRM TYP apply As the human resource field becomes more professional more HR managers are acquiring the Human Resource Certi cation Institute HRCI credential Which organization was instrumental in establishing that credential a The US Department of Labor b Certi ed Public Accountant CPA 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 5 2 2 0 9 0 0 c The Society for Human Resource Management SHRM d The National Labor Relations Board e No single organization was instrumental Colleges and universities established the HRCI ANS C PTS 1 REF p 20 OB 15 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge The modern term used to describe the management of people is a administrative synthesis b compliance management c strategic formulation d personnel management e human resource management ANS E PTS39 1 REF p6 OB 11 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension Both the military and its suppliers became more interested personj ob matching during a the Civ1l War b World War I c World War 11 d the Vietnam War e the Korean War ANS C PTS39 1 REF p 910 OB 12 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB motivation concepts TYP knowledge The HRCI offers several certi cations including all of the following EXCEPT the a PHR b SPHR c GPHR d UPHR e all of these are certi cations offered by the HRCI ANS D PTS 1 REF p 20 OB 15 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge The widespread use of has affected how HR systems are delivered a line managers b staff managers c executive teams d electronic technolo e personj ob t principles p 10 OB 12 ANS D PTS 1 REF NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP knowledge Following the requirements of the American Disabilities Act falls under which particular goals of HR facilitating organizational competitiveness enhancing productivity and quality complying with legal and social obligations promoting individual growth and development none of these EDP057 ANS C PTS39 1 REF p14 OB NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP knowledge 13 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 6 N W 5 Scenario 11 AOK Company an insurance company of 200 employees provides life and automobile insurance to clients throughout the southwestern United States The company39s owner Paul E See believes that happy employees are productive employees so Mr See provides employees services such as career planning and an onsite fitness center Due to recent legislation making the insurance business more complex AOK is in the process of redesigning its training program for its sales agents Mr See also realizes that AOK needs to examine its selection criteria for new agents joining the company and may need to increase salaries to attract needed talent Mr See is worried about this because he knows that none of his managers has a human resource management degree In fact they were operating employees who were moved into the human resource function Refer to Scenario 11 Mr See appears to be influenced by which era of management a the Hawthorne era b Theory XY era c human relations era d scienti c management era e production era ANS C PTS 1 REF 9 OB 12 NAT AACSB re ective thinking l AACSB HRM TYP analyze Refer to Scenario 11 In recognizing that training selection and compensation procedures are all interrelated Mr See recognizes human resource management as a a system b strategic resource c center of expertise d core decision process e network ANS A PTS 1 REF p 17 OB 14 NAT AACSB re ective thinking l AACSB HRM TYP analyze Refer to Scenario 11 The career planning and fitness programs provided to AOK employees help ful ll which fundamental goal of human resource management a Complying with legal obligations b Complying with social obligations c Enhancing productivity and quality d Promoting individual growth and development e Facilitating organizational competitiveness ANS D PTS 1 REF p 15 OB 13 NAT AACSB re ective thinking l AACSB HRM TYP analyze Refer to Scenario 11 Who is likely to be responsible for the human resource management function in an organization of this size a A fulltime human resource manager b Mr See c The sales manager d The operations manager e An administrative assistant ANS A PTS 1 REF p 1617 OB 14 NAT AACSB re ective thinking l AACSB HRM TYP analyze 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 7 35 Refer to Scenario 11 Should Mr See be worried about the ability of his human resource staff to effectively cope with the changes that are needed in that function a Yes Without a specialized degree HR staffs are sure to violate legal requirements of human resource management b Yes No staff could cope with all of the changes that Mr See envisions in the inlmediate future for his HR function c Yes Without many years of experience in HR exclusively Mr See39s staff will be out of touch with the needs of his workers d No These changes will be made quite easily and simply and do not need much attention to planning or expert knowledge e No Job experience is a good preparation for much HR work ANS E PTS 1 REF p 19 OB 15 NAT AACSB re ective thinking 1 AACSB HRM TYP analyze TRUEF AL SE 36 The realization that human resource management was an important eld was spearheaded by the passing of the RollinsRobinson Act ANS F PTS 1 REF p4 OB 11 NAT AACSB diversity 1 AACSB HRM TYP knowledge 37 The human resource function in organizations today is viewed as a key activity that can enhance the bottom line ANS T PTS 1 REF p 56 OB 11 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge 38 Outsourcing has caused a dramatic increase in the size of HR departments ANS F PTS 1 REF p6 OB 11 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP comprehension 39 Scienti c management focused on increasing efficiency and productivity ANS T PTS 1 REF p 8 OB 12 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge 40 Theory X and Theory Y were principles developed by Elton Mayo ANS F PTS 1 REF p9 OB 12 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge 41 The widespread use of the Internet has affected the basic approach to how human resources are managed ANS F PTS 1 REF p 10 OB 12 NAT AACSB analytic l AACSB HRM TYP knowledge 42 Scientists and lawyers are considered to be knowledge workers ANS T PTS 1 REF p11 OB 12 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 8 4 LN 4 4 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP knowledge Designing jobs that are more challenging and satisfying is part of a company39s HR compliance with legal obligations ANS F PTS 1 REF p15 OB 13 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension Utility analysis attempts to measure the effectiveness of different HR approaches ANS T PTS39 1 REF p19 OB 14 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension In order to take the PHR SPHR or GPHR certi cation exams an individual must have at least 10 years of professional experience ANS F PTS 1 REF p20 OB 15 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP knowledge SHORT ANSWER 46 4 co Contrast scienti c management and the human relations movement in terms of their focus on employees and their behaviors ANS Scienti c management is concerned with how to structure individual jobs to maximize ef ciency and productivity Time and motion studies for example examined every motion a worker made in order to nd changes in movement or in equipment that could increase productivity No attention was given to worker behaviors other than overt physical behaviors The human relations movement in response to the Hawthorne studies began focusing on understanding the human character of employees Research began to reveal that individual and group behavior played an important role in organizations through attitudes group norms and motivation PTS 1 REF p79 OBJ 12 NAT AACSBanalyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension What is meant by a quothuman resource management systemquot and how does this relate to the concept of an organization as a system ANS A human resource management system is an integrated and interrelated approach to managing human resources that fully recognizes the interdependence among the various tasks and functions that must be performed Every element of the human resource management system must be designed and implemented so that full integration with the various other elements can be performed The human resource management system may be seen as a subsystem of the complete organizational system The human resource management subsystem both affects and is affected by the other functional subsystems throughout the organization PTS 1 REF p 1718 OBJ 14 NAT AACSBanalyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension What are the important goals of human resource management For each goal give two examples of speci c HR actions or techniques that organizations can use to obtain that goal 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 9 L O ANS 1 Facilitating organizational competitiveness means providing support to help the organization achieve its strategic goals Human resource managers will ensure that the organization hires the right number and type of workers and they will help to control compensation costs as part of achieving this goal 2 Enhancing productivity and quality can be accomplished through effective training and appropriate motivational rewards Both of these are the responsibility of the HR function 3 Complying with legal and social obligations is carried out by HR departments when they monitor such items as work hours and overtime pay and when they ensure that the organization39s hiring is nondiscriminatory 4 Promoting individual growth and development could take the form of broad based training such as teaching fundamental math skills to operating employees or it could consist of wellness and other programs to enhance the quality of work life PTS 1 REF p 1215 OBJ 13 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension How does achievement of the other three goals enhancing productivity and quality complying with legal and social obligations and promoting individual growth and development aid an organization in accomplishing the goal of facilitating organizational competitiveness How would failure to achieve these goals hinder organizational competitiveness ANS This question highlights the interrelated nature of these goals When an organization has high productivity and quality its production volume is suf cient to satisfy demand and its products are of suf ciently high quality reducing costs and increasing sales Low costs and high sales help an organization to achieve its pro tmaking goals When organizations comply with legal and social obligations they avoid lawsuits easily attract and retain quali ed workers and enjoy a good reputation with local communities All of these lead to high pro ts in the long run When an organization promotes the individual growth and development of its workers workers are healthier more satis ed and likely to be more productive at lower cost to the rm Thus this goal also works to increase pro ts In addition these goals all help an organization to achieve non nancial goals If an organization failed to have high productivity and quality if it did not comply with legal and social obligations or if it did not promote individual growth and development it is very unlikely that it could be competitive PTS 1 REF p 1215 OBJ 13 NAT AACSBanalyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension What is the difference between a line manager and a staff manager and how would a human resource manager typically be classified ANS Line managers are those directly responsible for creating goods and services and their contributions to the organization can be directly assessed only in terms of their actual contributions and costs to the organization39s bottom line Operations managers nancial managers and marketing managers for example are considered line managers Staff managers are those responsible for an indirect or support function that has costs but the bottomline contributions are less direct Their role is to support line management39s efforts to achieve organizational goals and objectives Human resources legal and accounting departments are usually considered staff functions PTS 1 REF p 1516 OBJ 14 NAT AACSB analyticlAACSBHRM TYP comprehension 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be scanned copied or duplicated or postedto a publicly accessible website in whole or in part 10
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