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by: Christophe Bernier


Christophe Bernier
GPA 3.89

R. Scholl

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R. Scholl
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This 68 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christophe Bernier on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by R. Scholl in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/223150/mc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Louisiana State University.

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Mass Communications 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Media Effects Research Framing Entman de nition to frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communication text in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition causal interpretation moral evaluation andor treatment recommendation Framing tells us what parts of reality to pay attention to Framing is not the same as positive vs negative persuasive content Where do Frames show up Word choice cues o EX Terrorist vs Rebel frames the news as about safety vs citizen s consent to be governed Sources Photos Any other part of content Pairs of Frames Episodic vs Thematic o EX Poverty I Ivengar 1991 0 Media tend to present social problems in episodic terms individual short term instead of thematic terms collective longterm o This patterns encourages audiences to attribute responsibility for solving the problem to the individual instead of the collective Values vs Economy 0 EX Federal funding for stem cell research Strategy vs Policy 0 News coverage tends to focus on the game ofpolitics ad the competition between players instead of the features ofpolicy Particularly true during elections 0 Leads to audience cynicism and may contribute to the erosion of efficacy Ethical vs Material 0 News media tend to construct issues in terms of opposing rightsmoral principles as opposed to economics or pragmatics o Encourages simplified electoral decision making and attributions to candidate character Individual vs Societal 0 News media tend to frame issues at the individual level as opposed to the societal level due to dominant news values 0 This frame distinction interacts with other coverage elements to in uence the complexity of though tolerance judgments Risk vs Gain 0 News media tend to present issues in terms of what could be lost rather than what could be gained after a given change 0 People are risk averse they support changes presented in terms of avoiding loss more than they support the exact same change presented in terms ofachieving gain Media Effects Research on Framing Investigate the effect of different frames on people s opinions 0 These often don t find powerful effects 0 Instead researchers investigate under what circumstances and for whom which types of frames have effects Figuring out what frames exist in news and other media around particular issues Study why certain frames get used for certain issues 0 News routines Leadership from elites Photo Frames as a Metaphor The photo with which I started this class was a metaphor to help you understand framing Framing is not usually or not only visual In fact some media effects researchers don t like the photo frame metaphor o A frame doesn t limit our attention to particular aspects the way cropping a photo allows attention to only a part of the picture 0 Instead framing just points out of highlights particular aspects of reality The Daily Newspaper America s Media Dinosaur Or Not Guest Lecture from Bob Ritter Where Americans get their news 1 Television 0 1991 68 said they watched news on television yesterday 2006 56 2010 58 2 Any Web or Mobile 0 2010 44 said they accessed news yesterday on their mobile device or on the web I First year measured 3 Radio 0 1991 54 listened to radio news yesterday 2006 36 2010 34 4 Online 0 2004 24 said they read news online yesterday 2006 34 5 Newspapers 0 1991 56 said they read a newspaper yesterday 2000 46 2010 31 Overall 2010 o 1 Television 58 2Any web or mobile 44 3 Radio 34 4 Online 34 5 Newspapers 31 Minutes spent with news 0 Television 32 min Radio 15 min All online sources 13 min Printer newspaper 10 min 0 Total 70 min I 57 min from traditional sources 13 minutes from online sources Pity the poor newspaper When we pullout the online newspaper readership from that 34 figure the number ofpeople who read a print version yesterday declines to 26 0 Down from 38 in 2006 Down from 20 in 2008 And among young people 0 8 of those under 30 said they read a printed newspaper yesterday Some good news When we combine the printer newspaper readers with online newspaper readers the number skews younger for the three national newspapers 0 New York Times 67 under 50 34 under age 30 0 USA TODAY 55 under 50 0 Wall Streetjournal 55 under 50 What happened 0 1 Classified advertising revenue was the first to go auto real estate employment I Easily adaptable to the web sorting power I Craig s List Employment I Rise of Branded Sites Toyotacom Real Estate 0 2 Lesser but nevertheless significant declines in retail and national advertising I National down 20 billion annually I Retail down 2 billion in last four years after a steady decline over 30 years consolidation big box stores preprints o 3 Failure to capture the online reader I Time spent on online with newspaper websites 70 seconds per day 25 minutes spent reading a print edition I Online newsreaders tend to read at work and are worth less to advertisers I Less than 5 of newspaper ad revenues come from the online editions I Searches proved 35 to 40 ofquottraffic I The cost ofprinting and distributing print editions makes up about half the cost Editorials operations only make up 15 Newspapers in jeopardy especially metropolitan 0 Reporting power is declining Newsrooms staffing has declined 25 since 2000 to 41500 the lowest numbers since the mid 1970s Bottom Line 0 American s face a decline in both quality and quantity of news coverage locally in statehouses in Washington and around the world I Locally 0 Newspaper newsrooms traditional have more reporters than all the local TV stations combined Statehouse 0 Your health education taxes highways and transportation system Economic development and job creation and Malfeasance in government Washington 0 16 from Statehouse plus National Security and Environmental health Around the world 0 1 Our troops in Afghanistan and Iraq 0 2 The global economy and our understanding of the competitive forces and their impact on US jobs 0 3 Threats to our national security Investigative reporting 0 1 New York Times on the safety or lack thereof of hamburgers o 2 The Tim esPicayune s reporting on police killings during Katrina s aftermath o 3 The Washington Post s revelations that thicker armor was needed on military vehicles to protect troops from roadside bombers Hope but 1 Publishers must act now to convince readers that their brands are the most credible source of news and information Publishers must protect newsrooms from further decline or risk the fate of the railroads Provide news that is compelling to readers pocketbook health environment and education Reporting with an edge 4 Embrace new technology the web apps and the future and find new and better ways to tell stories Understand that the First Amendment the special role given newspapers by our founders is far more scared than Wall Street Chapter 5 A World of Blurred Media Boundaries Six Mass Media Trends Media Fragmentation 0 Increase in the number of massmedia outlets o Consequence of media fragmentation audience erosion decrease in the percent of the audience using a specific mediumoutlet Audience segmentation 0 Process by which production and distribution are targeted to reach different types of people with messages tailored for them 9 0quot 0 Increase in the number of audience segments due to media targeting I Targeting process by which a ass media organization sets its sights on having as its audience one or more of the social segments it has identified in the population Distribution Across Media Boundaries 0 Distribution ofmedia products across media boundaries 0 Creation of content for use in different media 0 Transformation of content to fit other media and their audiences I Goals 0 Increase revenue eg syndication licensing product placement 0 Syndication I Licensing or renting to local stations or cable networks the right to air programs with a long network run generally at least one hundred episodes 0 Licensing I Creative Rights allowing companies that make or sell clothing good toys or other goods the right to use characters or scenes from the film or TV show to attract customers I Syndicates firms that for a subscription fee continually provide hard and soft news to newspapers around the world 0 Product Placement I The process by which a manufacturer pays a production company for the opportunity to have its product displayed I a movie or TV shows 0 Achieve a good share of mind eg branding o Audiences awareness of the product Globalization 0 A way to increase profit 0 Media materials produced for global markets from the beginning Conglomeration 0 Holds several massmedia firms in different media industries I Intense mergersacquisitions in the 1980s and 1990s to increase revenue I Mass media conglomerate a company that holds several mass media firms in different media industries under its corporate umbrella 0 Horizontal Integration I Ownership of assets in different media industries I Integration of those assets for mutual profit 0 Vertical Integration I An organization s control over a media product from production through distribution to exhibition 0 Synergy I Whole greater than parts I Media organization channels content into wide variety ofmedia outlets Digital Convergence 0 Computer technology is basis for production distribution exhibition 0 Through digitization different media share same content 0 Crossplatform data 9 Crossmedia distribution I Crossplatform data digitized material that can easily be used as resources for the creation of material in other media 0 Repurposing reuse of content for different aims I Unauthorized copying sharing andor downloading I Illegal distribution of content eg MP3 0 Industry Responses 0 Track down largest distributors ofillegal downloads 0 Digital Rights Management and quotwatermarkingquot 0 License downloads through secure services Media Literacy Globalization 0 Cultural Colonialism Sti es nationspecific entertainment Reproduces consumerism Growth of conglomerates concerns 0 Narrowing of societal agenda 0 Threat of commercialism homogenization o Harm to the democratic process Chapter 6 Understanding the Strategies of Media Giants The Walt Disney Company What is Disney 0 Walt Disney Studios I Pixar Touchtone Miramax 0 Parks I Disneyland Disneyworld Parks in Paris Hong Kong Tokyo Disney Cruise Lines 0 Products I Toys Food Health amp Beauty World s largest publisher of children s books 0 Media I ABC ESPN Many radio stations Many TV stations 0 Distribution I Hulu 0 Disney is a part owner of Hulu along with NBC News Corp and others 0 Hulu is not listed in Disney s list of holdings Disney Key Strategies Exploit as much synergy as possible among subsidiaries 0 Use of animated films or theme parks books stores magazines Broadway musicals and the licensing of creative rights 0 Media Franchise media properties that are highly profitable over time and in many media formats beyond their original appearance as a film TV show etc Emphasize the global movement of content 0 Walt Disney International created in 1999 to boost global revenue 0 Disneyland Resort Paris and Hong Kong Disneyland Adopt new distribution technologies 0 Stream content to its corporate website 0 Sell content to web distribution sites EX Hulu unlike CBS 0 Brand mobilehone business Disney dropped this venture News Corp What Is News Corp Rupert Murdoch Fox movies Fox TV Fox cable Sky TV satellite TV outside US marketing company Newspapers New York Post Wall Streetjournal books Harper Collins Hulu though not listed MySpace and American Idol News Corp Key Strategies Expand rapidly into digital realm o Exploit the advertising potential of social networking MySpace 0 Create contentdistribution venues for mobile markets Nurture diverse global channels of distribution 0 Focus on distribution rather than content creation 0 Maintain distribution clout in traditional media Emphasize entertainment news sport 0 Production of homeviewing entertainment that builds audience loyalty 0 Sport programming Google What is Google Started by thenStanford grad students Larry Page and Sergey Brin Expansion through buying up internet startups YouTube Google products 0 A search engine powered by Ad revenue Picasa Google Docs Google Scholar Automatic news aggregator Google News Gmail Chrome web browser 0 An RSS reader I RSS Real Simple Syndications 0 Checks your favorite websites for you so you can see what s new and read it all in one place 0 You can subscribe to any website with a little organic icon in the address bar 0 One example of an RSS feed tool googlecomreader Google Key Strategies Improve global attractiveness of search engine 0 Use ISP to direct surfers to local versions of Google 0 Maximize search results Expand advertising activities 0 AdWords amp AdSense Create detailed databases ofquotdigital footprints Create products that build audience loyalty o Personnelcuttingedge technology for innovative products I Famous workplace culture in addition to expansion by buyout EX Andriod o Hardtoduplicate technology Media Literacy Understand the considerations that guide media firms is essential to bringing about change Critics argue against media conglomeration saying it allows a small number of huge firms to dictate what society will see across its most important media channels Critics are concerned that many media channels today have become quotretreadquot machines where media firms replay their wares over a variety of different platforms Critics argue that quotpersonalizationquot of media offered through data collection by media corporations like Google may limit our exposure to other viewpoints Chapter 7 The Book Industry Unesco Definition a quotnonperiodical printed publications of at least 49 pages excluding covers Before the 15th Century General 0 Books were handwritten o In 3000 BC Egyptians wrote on papyrus scrolls o Scriptorl39a areas located in ancient Greek libraries where books were copied by hand Ancient Romans 0 Selected works 0 Advanced money to authors 0 Chose format size and price o Developed markets The 15th Century Illuminations books with drawings copied by hand usually by monks Movabletype printing 1440 invented by Johannes Gutenberg process involving cutting individual letters out of wood 1500s17005 First printed books were mostly religious teth 1500s books challenged the dominant Catholic Church 1500s1700s had a great societal impact due to books 17th Century Britain Strong governmental control of the book market until the 17th Century 0 Early books supported the monarchy o 1509 licensing system 1637 only 25 licenses John Milton Areopagitica o Argued for a marketplace ofideas 0 Free media system and competition guarantee truth 17th 18th Century Britain 1680s law guaranteed free expression for members of Parliament 18th century publishes separate from booksellers Copyright Act of 1709 The British Colonies 1639 the first press established in Cambridge MA 1810 books published by small familyrun printing companies 182 517 US book business became an industry 0 1830 the invention of the steampowered press 0 Rise in literacy rates 0 Development of railway systems Dime Novels 1860s Cheap paperbacks 10 cents Aimed at men and boys Adventure western detective Sold by mail subscription retail Factorylike system ofproduction Predictable successes Domestic Novels 1870 Inexpensive paperback like the dime novels Aimed at women Tearjerkers Series retail outlets Mid 20th Century Highly segmented book industry until 1950s 1960s Time Warner CBS and Advance Publications bought major publishers 19805 European publishers buy US publishers Bertelsmann Germany bought Doubleday Bantam Dell and Random House The Modern Book Industry Educationaltraining books 0 Elhi 9 kindergarten through 12th grade 0 Highereducation materials 9 college and beyond 0 Corporate training materials 9 postcollege training in businesslaw Consumer Books 0 Categories are not about content instead the AAP groups books by distribution methods I Trade Books Massmarket paperbacks Religious Books Book Clubs Mailorder books University press books Subscription reference books Dominated by a few companies 0 Small publishers focus on market niches 0 Distribution is key large companies have competitive advantage Electronic Books 0 Amazon s Kindle Digital textbooks for schools Google s digitization project Production 0 Trade Press vs University Press I How manuscripts identified I Who recommends manuscripts I Marketing I What constitutes a quothitquot 0 Strategies to reduce risk I Prepublication research I Selection of authors with positive track records I Advance on royalties to lure star authors Distribution 0 Wholesalers I Discounted copies from the publisher profit I Benefit publishers by filling orders I Unsold copies returned for credit 0 3 Indicators ofPopularity I Size of print run I Positive early review I Scope ofpublisher s marketing plan Exhibition 0 Varies by type ofbook I Elhi first exhibited to evaluation boards I Exhibition via bookstores dominated by largest bookstore chains 0 Largest bookstore chains advantage over independent bookstores I Able to offer more books at better prices I Able to attract authors for book signings I Decreasing numbers ofindependent bookstores 0 Few publishers executives believe that online sales will completely replaces quotbrickand mortar stores Media Literacy Profitmaking decisions determine which titles become successful Successful titles fit the crossmedia conglomerate profile Chapter 8 Newspapers 17901830 1829 Approximately 512 Newspapers Published by small printing companies run as family businesses Partisan Major socialpolitical forum Newspapers mostly read by elites because of illiteracy and high prices Smallcirculation newspapers approximately 1500 The Penny Press 183065 Newspapers produced in the early 1830s that were sold on the street at 1 penny per copy Social and Technological changes 0 Steampowered cylinder press 0 Lowcost paper 0 Rise of the quotcommon man 0 Increased literacy rates Changes in newspaper nancing the definition of news and in how the news process is organized Profit orientation 0 Used hawkers to distribute 0 Drawings across first page to attract readers 0 Sold more space to advertisers because of higher circulation o Publishers invested in news coverage New approach to news 0 Actively sought out news Hired reporters Introduced new sections to appeal to different readers Newjargon of reporting quotInverted pyramid style of reporting Lack of objectivity o Objectivity presenting a fair balanced and impartial representation of events 0 Iames Gordon Bennett New York Herald and Horace Greeley New York Tribune used spirited debates 18805 Mass Circulation Changes 0 Increase in literacy Larger city population Better distribution Merchants needed newspapers to reach huge audiences Increased circulation 18905 Yellow journalism Changes in content and layout 0 Color comics Photographfilled Sunday magazines Sports sections Fight between Ioseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst over the Yellow Kid comic strip Newspaper products of the 1890s characterized by irresponsible unethical and sensational news gatheringexhibition Concern over excesses of yellow journalism calls for selfregulation and establishment of journalism schools 19205 The Tabloids A printing format that uses pages that are about half the size ofa traditional newspaper page 0 New York Daily News I Established 1919 used pictures sensationalist style entertainment section of newspaper 191019305 Drop in the numbers of dailies 2200 to 1942 Drop in the number of cities with competing dailies 689 to 288 SiX most powerful chains in 1933 Hearst ScrippsHoward PattersonMcCormick Block Ridder Gannett o The siX most powerful newspaper chains controlled about one quarter of all daily circulation 19305 Today Newspapers lost ad revenue to radio and television Percent ofnewspaper readers significantly declined Significant competition from the web Modern Newspaper Industry 1437 Daily Newspapers 0 833 Morning papers 614 Evening papers 907 of total have Sunday editions 0 Versus 586 in 1970 Total circulation is approximately 52 million 0 3 million fewer than in 2000 Daily newspapers 0 Published 5 times a week 0 Circulation decreased due to competition from free newspapers EX Metro and web 0 Most controlled by newspaper chains Dailies of national circulation 0 USA Today New York Times Wall Street journal Weekly newspapers 0 Published once a week 0 Alternative weeklies written for young urban audience with an eye on political cultural commentary 0 Shoppers free paper delivering ads to neighborhoods Audience niches 0 College papers 0 AfricanAmerican papers I Major daily Chicago Daily Defender Financing Newspaper Industry Newspapers with highest circulation 0 Wall Streetjournal USA Today New York Times Los Angeles Times The Daily News NY Decline in circulation Refer to Bob Ritter Lecture Production in Newspaper Industry Creating content 0 Publisher determines the advertising editorial ratio 0 Editor is in charge of the news hole Managing editor and copy editor 0 General assignment reporters beat reporters freelancers bloggers Use of content fro outside sources 0 Wire services EX Associated Press Reuters o Syndicates EX Universal Press Syndicate Pagination newspaper pages are composeddisplayed as completely pages on screen Distribution Key decision where to market the newspaper 0 Location of desired audiences 0 Location ofprinting plants 0 Number of competing papers 0 Consumer loyalty for paper Trends 0 Newspaper groups buy dailies serving adjacent communities in order to reduce cost of marketing Criticism 0 Marketing decisions I Dailies concentrated on the suburbs I Emphasis on the interest of upscale middle class I Editorial page re ects uppermiddleclass values Exhibition Stores street newsstands electronic devices homes via subscription Strategies for building readership 0 Analog build readership through attractive layout 0 Digital build newspaper that updates continuously Digital strategies 0 Continuous updates Dynamic features EX RSS Hyperlocal coverage Media Literacy Will the digital newspaper replace the traditional newspaper At what cost Can the newspaper be replaced Unique civic importance Mass Comm Final Test l Advertising is the activity of explicitly paying for media space or time in order to direct favorable attention to certain goods or services I Advertisers pay for the space or time they receive I Advertising clearly states its presence I Advertising involves persuasion History of advertising Advertising as old as selling Criers in Roman Empire Print ads on papyrus in ancient Egypt Criers and shop signs in medieval England xxx Early colonial period Benjamin Franklin successful sellerwriter of ads Until 1840s advertising involved direct negotiation between sellers manufacturers of products and newspapers 1840s Volney Palmer first to start an advertising agency 15 25 commission charged by an advertising agent Industrial revolution Creation of brands Changes in the functions of an ad agency create innovative ads that would stand out and the ad agencies had to start creating ad campaigns instead of individual ads Reasonwhy and image ads 1914 Audit Bureau of Circulation verified claims about a periodical s audience xx Types of Ads I Reasonwhy ads are ads that list the benefits of a product in ways that would move the consumer to purchase it I Image ads are ads that tie the product to positive feelings Selfregulation l Many misleading and false advertising claims I Advertising professionalized because of the false ads I the Association of National Advertisers the American Association of Advertising Agencies they established norms of proper adbusiness behavior they did this to stave off government intervention 19205 I Radio advertising Birth of the audience rating business New advertising strategies for the new medium Advertising clients actually owned programs 1930 5 During Depression ad revenue dropped I Did not recover much during WWII 19405 TV advertising Dramatic shift of ad revenue from radio to TV Advertisers bought half blocks of time from TV or sponsored entire shows Started to sponsor other shoes rather than creating the show itself 19605 I Networks decide to develop own programs changes Ads throughout entire flow of programs Time on TV expensive Length of commercial decreased average commercial 1 minute in 196039s 15 seconds today 19605 19905 Rise of research industry aimed at identifying effect of commercials on purchase decision Motivation research quotdo you understand what this product is for do you agree with the reasons stated to buy the productquot conscious questions which measure how much you recognize or like each product etc Whether the ad worked Subliminal persuasion Modern advertising industry I Trends Shift toward global presence Agency holding companies Ad agencies Specialty agencies agency that specializes in a particular client or sector eg healthcare Or specific market women Directmarketing firms no radio or TV ads they send you mail Research companies test whether the ads work Public relations agencies I Advertising holding company Idea offer clients range of services beyond advertising 1950s Interpublic Group of Companies Big agencies Omnicom Interpublic WPP Dentsu Havas l Types of advertising agencies Businesstobusiness v consumer General vs specialtyspecial only takes certain clients eg internet marketing general takes all Traditional vs directmarketing traditional gives you ads next to some other content you want so you can39t help but look at it Direct marketing is figuring out a way to get your attention even though it isn39t next to something you want to see Eg a sign on the ground Agency networks v standalone firms a standalone firm has only one location A network will have agencies spread out all over I 3 functions of ad work Creative persuasion Market research research to figure out who might buy the product target audience Media planning amp buying ad workers who figure out where the ad should run Eg what TV stations what time of the day the best bang for your buck to reach the target audience production The creation of brands is one of the most important activities The logo is the symbol of the brand Branding Creating a specific image of a product that makes it stand out in the marketplace l Creatinga brand I Interaction between ad agency personnel and client I Creation of the targeted message that portrays the brand in its social environment I Creating portraits of the intended consumer 1 Sales pitch efforts of the advertising agency quothere39s how we will reach the target audiencequot 2 The ad agency then produces the adcollection of ads illustrating the sales pitch 3 Positioning an attempt to tie a particular group of consumers eg busy moms to how the product can help Eg how swiffer will clean your house and keep it safe for your kids 4 Testing showing the ads in markets to see if sales go up Positioning Making a particular target group of consumers feel that a brand relates to their interests and lifestyle distribution l Media planners Responsible for determining where to place campaign ads Rely on demographic psychographic lifestyle data I Factors in media planning decisions Media outlet s reach Media outlet s efficiency in reaching target audience I CPM cost per thousand l Other factors Content environment surrounding the ad eg what is around the ad a recipe or tons of other ads Largest ad in the newspaper or a small ad with a lot of other ads Ad s relative visibility Goal of exhibition Exhibit an ad across a variety of media to a target audience hopefully have the target audience pay attentin to the ad Advertising campaign The entire set of ads using a particular theme to promote a product for a certain period of time exhibition l Media conglomerates advantages l Crossplatform deals I Deal between crossmedia conglomerate and advertiser I Agreements with one part of conglomerate across many media brands I Tracking consumers Locationbased advertisement use of mobile phones to serve ads based on the location of consumer Eg yelp most campaigns last a few months or a couple of years also your brand cannot change too fast or it will devalue the brand I 3 strategies to grab attention Increase relevance of ad to specific audiences Make deletingskipping ads impossible Disguise the ad product placement viral marketing buzz marketing environmental marketing Media literacy l Criticism of Impact of commercialism on social life Impact of advertising on democracy Power of conglomerates l Commercialism Teaches that society is just a marketplace Ties identity formation to the buying of products Exploits children who are less able to be critical of ads Exploits environment because we care more about what we buy than other social goals I Ads amp democracy Advertising industry s power over media prevents people from learning about social groups not attractive to advertisers l Power of conglomerates Consolidation increases advertising power over media content the people who own all of the advertising can tell the producers what they will pay to advertise on Ad clutter Media clutter harmful to have so much advertising going on because everyone must advertise more to obtain the same results Public relations Information activities and policies by which organizations seek to create attitudes favorable to themselves and their work and to counter adverse attitudes ADVERTISING v PR differences Advertising One type of activity Pays for spacetime Announces its presence Predictable xxxx PR More than one type of activity Doesn t pay for spacetime Doesn t announce presence Unpredictable xxxx ADVERTISING v PR similarities l Similarities Both spend money to achieve goals Both have profound influence on media content Advertising and PR used in concert Strategic Communication l Both advertising and PR are part of strategic communications l Many professionals see fewer distinctions between these activities than they did 20 years ago Early pioneers Benjamin Franklin did not see PR and advertisement as separate activities PT Barnum mixed advertising public relations and showmanship 1900s Advertising and PR industry grew apart PR 39 39 I 39 39 39 39 39 as 39 quot to guide the public image of corporations The Publicity Bureau one of the first businesses who were quotcounselorsquot 1920s I Oneway model of PR Ivy Lee was one of the famous early practitioners Focused on sending persuasive facts about a client to press PR counselor thought of as inhouse journalist I Twoway model of PR Edward Bernays Drew upon social science to shape audiences responses Asked people about what they wanted the company to do and how the company matched that PR counselor lead the public to see world from client s perspective Second World War 19505 Government used PR to encourage support for the war After Second World War 2 types of PR practitioners ShortIongterm PR counselors outside Fulltime PR specialists inside company 19605 I Twoway quotsymmetrica relationship with the public ess coercive more information exchange PR practitioners starting saying that they were mediators between clients amp public Researchinformed positioning of organization s message In Modern PR industry I 2 ways to perform PR activities Corporate communication in house Hiring PR agency outside agency I 3 functions of corporate communication departments External relations the company wants to talk directly to the public Internal relations communicating within the company employees Media relations communicating with the media I 1980s trend towards rapid conglomeration l Agency holding company owns Large ad agency networks PR firms Branding firms Market research firms Marketing communication firms l The Big Three agency holding companies WPP Omnicom nterpubic l 4 ways to help clients Understand challenges help the client know what communication problems they face Formulate objectives to meet challenges Develop strategies to meet objectives Carry out tactics to implement strategies Guest Lecturer Current state of advertising digitization making stuff digital fragmentation lots of channels websites disintermediation ad avoidance skyrocketing accountability mandate overall spending up Current state of digital advertising spend is up clickthroughs are through the floor 01 click rate banner blindness still focus on the click proliferation of rich media rise of social media What is effective advertising Relevance control personalization something unexpected Client Side vs Agency Side Client Side brand managers inhouse services work with larger agencies and boutiques Agency Side The Full Service Advertising Agency account services creative services media department production Traffic Product Research Account Services managers clientagency relationship 85 of revenue comes from advertising compared to subscription Account services key roles 1 account director 2 account planner 3 Account executiveaccount manager Nov 29th Public Relations l Shares are about how a show is doing relative to other shows I Number of TV s tuned to a show out of all TV s that are on Ratings are about how a show is doing relative to all other competitors for a person s time I Number of TV s tuned to a show out of all TV s in the area Modern pr industry I Areas of activities Corporate communication Financial communication Consumer 84 retail Public affairs Crisis management Media relations Industryspecific areas Advanced technology amp healthcare Corporate communication The creation and presentation of the company s overall image to its employees and to the public at large Financial communication Helping a client interact with lenders shareholders and stock market regulator Consumer amp b2b communication Use PR to project favorable image of company to convince consumers to buy company s products Public affairs Centers on government issues Crisis management Range of activities that helps a company prepare amp respond to unforeseen crisis affecting its image or its products Media relations All dealings with reporters and other members of the media organizations who might tell a story about a client production Press release Short essay written in the form of an objective news story Strategies for effective press release Find a quothookquot Hire former journalists Hire media practitioners to field questions Produce llsoft news stories instead of facts I distribution The placing of media materials with publicity outlet PR firms keep lists of publicity outlets in different areas exhibition PR firms are successful in exhibiting their messages because PR firms provide the media with information subsidies giving them a readymade news article Advantages Help journalists manage their time Help news organizations allocate fewer journalists to the beat Disadvantages Journalists are selective in what press release they pick up Good journalists do independent investigations of PR claims Integrated marketing IMC integrated marketing communications PR that creates a campaign that sends different yet consistent messages around particular themes to present and future publics of an organization Getting the message out in a bunch of different ways to a bunch of different people Integrated marketing I 3 types 1 Branded entertainment Event marketing Event sponsorship Product placement 2 Database marketing Construction of lists of customers actual and potential that can be used to determine purchase intentions eg health insurance purchasing lists from Visa 3 Relationship marketing Longterm relationship with customers through regular mailings and programs that keep customers connected to firm Media literacy l 3 main concerns Lack of truthfulness Impact of targeting on society Lack of transparency 1 Lack of truthfulness Messages produced by persuasion industries skewed toward client interests Public s inability to distinguish between news and PR compounds bias 2 Impact of targeting Decrease in individual privacy due to data collectionmining Targetoriented ads produce selfsatisfied disconnected segments of society 3 Lack of transparency re integrated crossmarketing activities of large agency holding firms increases the influence of hidden persuasion on media content Public Relations What is a quotpublicquot A group of people who 0 Face a similar problem 0 Organize to do something about the problem 0 Have a stake in an issue idea or organization Internal publics are those within the organization 0 employees stockholders and members External publics are those outside an organization 0 Community news media customers voters and legislators PRSA code of ethics This ethics code is all about responsibilities to various publics Code of Ethics Principles And examples of improper conduct 1 Free flow of information A member representing a ski manufacturer gives a pair of expensive racing skis to a sports magazine columnist to influence the columnist to write favorable articles about the product can lend cannot give 2 Competition A member employed by a quotclient organizationquot shares helpful information with a counseling firm that is competing with others for the organization39s business 3 Disclosure Front groups A member implements quotgrass rootsquot campaigns or letterwriting campaigns to legislators on behalf of undisclosed interest groups Lying by omission A practitioner for a corporation knowingly fails to release financial information giving a misleading impression of the corporation39s performance 4 Confidentiality A member changes jobs takes confidential information and uses that information in the new position to the detriment of the former employer 5 Conflicts of Interest The member represents a quotcompetitor companyquot or a quotconflicting interestquot without informing a prospective client 6 Enhance the profession A PRSA member declares publicly that a product the client sells is safe without disclosing evidence to the contrary Viral marketing A type of marketing that uses people s social networks to deliver the persuasive message An example from Prof Scholl s Facebook page of marketing that arrived via her brother Summing Up What s new about media Convergence Takes place when content traditionally confined to one medium appears on multiple channels Audience fragmentation The mass audience is breaking up into smaller audience segments Mass communication The industrialized production and multiple distribution of messages through technological devices In traditional advertising immediate results are impossible to observe A TRUE B FALSE In 1914 the Audit Bureau of Circulation was established by a the federal government b the newspaper industry c ad agencies d the Hays Office Advertising agency clients are sometimes referred to as a creditors b accounts c spots d entries People who work in the advertising industry s production area are called a producers b creatives people in advertising who produce the product c talents d techies Research activities are not needed to position a product A TRUE B FALSE Product placement involves a determining the best schedule of a client s ads on television and radio stations b determining the best schedule of a client s ads on television and radio stations and the best locations within newspapers and magazines for the client s print ads c billboard advertising d the insertion of products or ideas into media materials l Advertising conglomerates are called agency holding companies I ATRUE l B FALSE One of the big differences between advertising and public relations is that a PR uses persuasive communication strategies b PR practitioners are eager for the public to recognize examples of publicity c advertisers typically pay for the media space and time they receive d all of these Edward Bernays a strongly advocated a oneway model of public relations b was a nephew of Carl Jung c claimed that PR practitioners could engineer the consent of audiences d all of these Press releases can be a powerful public relations tool I A True l B False The creation and presentation of a company s overall image to its own employees and to the public is called a corporate communications b internal PR c organizational communication d interface PR One way to curry favor with news reporters is to give to one newspaper an exclusive interview about a client39s important deal and to then give another newspaper a behindthescenes look at the transaction A True B False information subsidy 15 clicker questions Convergence refers to how the selling of a product in one form promotes sales in another form the merging of technologies industries and content large companies involved in many types of businesses two becoming one in a cosmic relationship porn When a company buys many different types of businesses that span production distribution and exhibition this is referred to as a monopoly B economies of scale C vertical integration D horizontal integration 3 Our nation39s founders intended the media to have aan relationship with the government A Adversarial B Close C Symbolic D Cooperative the assumption that media particularly television affects how people view the world is A diffusion of innovations theory B agenda setting theory C cultivation theory D individual differences theory most researchers today believe media have A powerful effects B minimal effects C limited effects D none of these movie attendance declined in the 5039s because A families moved to the suburbs leaving urban movie theaters behind B people were staying home and watching television C people were spending time and money on their homes instead of going to movies D all of these the movie known for starting the era of the special effects blockbuster was A Citizen Kane B Jaws C Toy Story D Star Wars the dow jones news service is an example of a chain ownership company a features syndicate a wire service all of these porn cable television began not sure about this one as an attempt to bring TV into hardtoreach areas to allow people to receive additional channels as an alternative to satellite TV all of these porn a rating is a percentage of homes A in which the television is in use and tuned to a particular station B with access to cable or satellite C which subscribe to a particular cable channel D equipped with TVs that are tuned to a particular station at a particular time in the 1950s was when record promoters paid disk jockeys to play certain records A Payola B pay for play C the format scandals D the promotion wars what public relations tool is a short document written in standard news firm for insertion into news reports A News hook B Trial balloon C Press release D Exclusive men watching a commercial aimed at women is n example of A Circulation waste B Puffery C Segmented advertising D Target marketing which of these rights is not included in the first amendment freedom of speech B freedom of religion C the right to privacy D the right to peaceably assemble media ethics deals with A required conduct B impact issues C required and voluntary conduct D voluntary conduct Second World War 19505 Government used PR to encourage support for the war After Second World War 2 types of PR practitioners Shortlong term PR counselors outside Fulltime PR specialists inside company 19605 I Twoway quotsymmetrica relationship with the public less coercive more information exchange PR practitioners starting saying that they were mediators between clients amp public Researchinformed positioning of organization s message In Modern PR industry I 2 ways to perform PR activities Corporate communication in house Hiring PR agency outside agency I 3 functions of corporate communication departments External relations the company wants to talk directly to the public Internal relations communicating within the company employees Media relations communicating with the media I 1980s trend towards rapid conglomeration l Agency holding company owns Large ad agency networks PR firms Branding firms Market research firms Marketing communication firms l The Big Three agency holding companies WPP Omnicom nterpublic l 4 ways to help clients Understand challenges help the client know what communication problems they face Formulate objectives to meet challenges Develop strategies to meet objectives Carry out tactics to implement strategies Chapter 1 Audience fragmentation process of dividing audience members into segments based on backgrounds and lifestyle in order to send them messages targeted to their specific characteristics Mass production process the industrial process that creates the potential for reaching millions of diverse anonymous people at around the same time Industrial nature what distinguishes mass comm from other forms of communication is the industrialized process that is involved in creating the message material Interpersonal communication form of communication that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other using their voices facial and hand gestures and other signs that they use to convey meaning Mediated interpersonal communication a specialized type of interpersonal communication that is assisted by a device Mass media the technological vehicles through which mass communication takes place Social functions of mass media enjoyment social currency companionship surveillance and interpretation Social currencymedia content used as coins of exchange in everyday interpersonal discussions Parasocial interaction the physiological connections that some media users establish with celebrities who they learn about through the mass media Media Literacy ability to apply critical thinking skills to mass media Chapter 2 Media Practitioners the people who select or create the material that a mass media firm produces distributes or exhibits Line an assortment of products with a particular predetermined format Targeted created to appeal to particular segments of society rather than the population as a whole Six Primary business activitiesProduction Distribution Exhibition Audience research Finance Vertical integration an organization s control over a media product from the production through distribution to exhibition Horizontal integration when a business expands be doing more at the same time mcdonalds buying chickfila Mass communication the industrialized production and multiple distributions of messages through technological devices Mass media outlets organizations that send out messages via mass media THREE COMPONENTS OF INDUSTRAIL PROCESS 1 Innovation constant changes in the media product 2 Research amp Development media industries engage in RampD just like other industries do 3 Risk media industries are big risk takers Production creation of mass media materials for distribution through one or more mass media vehicles Exhibition activities for producing mass media materials to audience for viewing purchase Sources of revenue 0 Direct sales Licensing fees 0 Rentals 0 Usage fees 0 Subscriptions 0 Advertising Venture Capitalists individuals or companies that invest in startup or nonpublic firms in the hope that the firms value will increase over time Initial public offering IPO the offering for sale to the general public of a predetermined number of shares of stock of a company that previously were owned by a limited number of individuals and the listing of the company s shares on a stock exchange Retransmission fee amount a cable system or satellite firm pays to broadcaster for the right to pick the broadcaster s signal off the air and send it to cable or satellite subscribers Chapter 3 Regulation with regard to mass media laws and guidelines that influence the way media companies produce distribute or exhibit materials for audiences Four Models of Media Regulation by Governments o Authoritarian 0 Communist o Libertarian 0 Social responsibility Authoritarian model approaches to media regulation that require the owners of mass media firms to be avid supporters of the authoritarian regime with workers who are willing to create news and entertainment materials that adhere strictly to the party line typically adopted by dictators who want to keep themselves and the elite class that supports them in direct control over all aspects of their society Communist model approaches to media regulation that hold that the government should determine what the population sees reads hears and experiences through media outlets in order to convey communist beliefs in everything the media produce for public consumption Libertarian model approaches to media regulation that hold that individuals are capable of making sound decisions for themselves and that government should intervene only in those rare circumstances in which society cannot be served by people going about their own business the mass media do not represent such an area since individuals and companies will create mass media materials without prodding from the government Social responsibility model approaches to media regulation that agree with libertarian belief in the importance of the individual and the marketplace of ideas but hold that the real competition over ideas will never happen without government action to encourage companies to be socially responsible by offering a diversity of voices and ideas and also argue that sometimes things that individuals or companies want to publishfor example child pornography might be harmful to a large number of people in the society 3 TYPES OF GOV CONTROL 1 Regulation before distribution 2 Regulation after distribution 3 Economic regulation Copyright the legal protection of an author s right to a work mterpretztmn pzrumes teachwrg Schulzrshxp Research they uperate Mass Communications Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 9 Magazines Magazine collection ofmaterials stories ads poetry that its editors believe will be ofinterest to readers History Tracing Magazine Development Colonial Period Aimed at educated urban literate audiences After the Revolution Political and topical articles Penny Press Era Written for the middle class Magazine Boom Available money better printing lowered prices special mailing rates muckrakers The 20th Century specialization the digest the news magazine the pictorial magazine 17005 18005 Magazines were primarily aimed at elites focused on politics and literature expensive to produce costly done for hobby instead ofprofit 1741 first magazine in Philadelphia PA 1825 fewer than 100 magazines 1825 1840 4000 to 5000 new magazines 1850 highest circulation in the US 150000 Expansion of magazines changes in the nature of business emergence of the freelance magazine writer 0 Market for magazines increases large readership and national in uence I Scientific American 1845 amp Harper s Monthly 1850 I Women s Magazines Godey s Lady s Book 1830 18505 19005 Fundamental Changes 0 Expansion of railroads easier distribution of magazines 0 Postal Act of1879 cut mailing costs 0 Advertisement revenue lower subscription prices Magazines attract national audiences Ladies Homejournal first magazines with over 1 million circulation 1901 1900 19205 Magazines joined the muckraker movement 0 Term coined by Theodore Roosevelt 1906 o journalists crusaded against big business for social justice 0 Pure Food and Drugs Act 1906 Main magazines focused on storytelling humor and information 0 Notable periodicals Ladies Homejournal Saturday Evening Post Romanticized American virtues Reader s Digest quotApplicabilityquot quotlast interest and quotConstructivenessquot Time Interpretive journalism Life Passalong journalism Second Half of 20th Century 19605 Magazine industry changed because of television 19705 Magazines aimed at small but attractive audiences Computerized technology decrease in cost profits from smaller circulations Modern Magazine Industry 20590 magazine titles published in North America in 2008 Circulation rates vary widely Average US newsstand displays 2600 titles Newsstands typically get about 3 copies of each issue Single copy sales are declining Five types of magazines 2 o Businesstobusiness trade consumer literary reviewsacademic journals newsletters comic books public relations magazines only some add this category to list Consumer vs Trade Magazines Consumer Magazines appeal to specific audience most sell advertising on about 50 of their pages have larger circulation base and are more profitable Trade Magazines Specialized business publications often required reading for a particular job industry or profession do no compete with consumer magazines not found on newsstands lower circulations and revenues high subscriptions or controlled free circulation making money from ad revenue The Fall of General Interest Magazines TV Guide Electronic media beings to change environment People After demise of Look and Life it filled the need for celebrity Financing Controlled Circulation 0 Supported entirely by ad revenues 0 Mostly tradebusiness to business magazines 0 Publisher decides who gets the magazine Paid Circulation 0 Supported both by ad revenue and readers 0 Consumer magazines 0 Need for circulation audits Segmentation need to attract advertisers ads depends on the market segment increasingly specialized magazines Magazine Advertising Magazine specialization succeeds because demographically similar readerships attract advertisers seeking to target products and services to those most likely to respond to them 0 Split runs special versions of given issue in which editorial content and ads vary according to specific demographic or regional grouping Production Production goals attractive audience loyal audience conducive environment for advertising efficient price 0 Efficient price I CPM determines how much space an advertiser will buy I Customization of content for attractive audiences I 54 ads in magazines 2008 data A magazine needs to develop a bran with which reader can identify 0 Advantages of Brands I Contribute to the movement of content across media boundaries I Have online presence I Are visible during events organized by the magazine Distribution Refers to the channel used to reach the exhibition point and the process of sending content online or to mobile providers Distribution for consumer magazines is through the mail by subscriptions or through retails stores in singlecopy sales 0 Challenges I Building a good subscription base is very costly I Difficult to expand subscription base I Hard to reach new readers through newsstands o Reliance on national distributors o 200 titles on magazine racks o 50 discount to distributor 0 Woman 5 World amp US Weekly magazines that use singlecopy sales as main road to readers I Singlesale copies attractive because they bring in more revenue than subscriptions Exhibition Determines the visibility ofa magazine 0 Large magazine groups have a competitive advantage 0 Small magazines bought up by major distributors Media Literacy Impact of conglomeration benefits rich firms Advertisers in uence on content since magazines are mostly supported by advertising revenue are they ways to limit in uence Who s in control Advertising vs Editorial 0 Advertorials advertisements in magazines that are designed to look like editorial content Chapter 10 The Recording Industry 1880519205 Early sources of music 0 Minstrel shows vaudeville shows home pianos and windup music boxes I Minstrel a touring show in which performers dressed up in special quotblackfacequot makeup made jokes and sang songs that actually had little to do with the African American lifestyles and rhythms they claimed to mimic I Vaudeville a touring show comprised of several types ofacts that were popular in the US Early attempts to reproduce music 0 Phonograph invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1877 this device recorded and played back sound on tin foil wrapped around a metal cylinder with spiral grooves on it o Graphophone Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter s 1885 modification of Edison s phonograph which featured a oating stylus that marked groves in a wax cylinder for recording and playback o Gramophone Emile Berliner s 1887 modification of both the phonograph and the graphophone which featured wax disks for recording and playback rather than a cylinder Technologyinduced changes 0 Lower prices for music sheets 0 More complex songs 0 Standard 3 minutes length 0 Changes in the nature oflyrics 1920s19305 Competition with the radio industry record music companies tried to retain control of the music market 0 Victor Talking Machine merged with RCA 0 Columbia Phonograph Company financed CBS Radio industry in the 1920s 0 Played mostly quotlivequot music 0 Didn t play certain kinds of music jazz hillbilly ethnic I Opportunities for record producers 1930s 0 Radio regarded as platform for promoting sale of records 0 Collection of royalties by ASCAP American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers 1950519805 The role of TV and Baby Boom Generation 0 Development of radio formats I Radio formats the personality ofa station organized around the kind of music it plays and the radio personalities it features 0 Define a station s personality 0 Used particular music genres to target desired audiences 0 New technologies for the record industry I Highfidelitystereophonic record players increased sales I Shellac replaced with unbreakable vinyl I Longplaying records new music ideas I Tape recording I Transistor radio tape player changed listening habits 1980519905 1980s emergence of cable TV MTV other music channels 1983 CDs improved sale of record late 1990s Internet music download Modern Recording Industry Characteristics 0 International ownership quotthe Big Four I Universal Music Group VivendiFrance I Sony Music Entertainment Sony Corpapan I Warner Music Group US I EMI UK 0 Highly fragmented production I Thousands of companies produce records I Independents not owned by the Big Four 0 Concentrated Distribution I The Big Four are also the preferred distributors because they have immense marketing power and access to exhibition points US sales third of all recording sales 0 115 billion 33 of global music sales Singles vs albums 0 Physical singles 13 million 0 Physical albums 105 billion 0 Digital singles 3669 million songs 0 Digital albums 136 million albums Physical vs digital media formats 0 2006 Physical 96 Billion 643 Million units mostly albums 0 2006 Digital 878 Million 622 Million units mostly singles I 2008 Decrease in Revenue 85 billion Finance Does the decline in direct music sales doom the recording industry 0 Increase in live music revenue due to higher ticket prices is one ray of sunshine for music industry 0 Revenue from use ofsongs on TV is another 0 Online streaming of music Pandora Vevo Lastfm etcis not yet making money for the industry but it might be stemming losses from piracy Digital Music Digital music may end the replacement cycle that sustained sales of older music o 8tracks replaced Vinyl 0 Tapes audio cassettes replaced 8tracks 0 CD s replaced tapes 0 MP3 s replaced CD s 0 The End We increasingly buy digital music one track at a time not as an album Production Label division of a recording firm that releases certain types of music Artist amp Repertoire AampRl person responsible for screening new acts Manager hired by the artist paid 1025 of artist s revenue Artist may need to join royaltycollection association ASCAPBMI Producing record with label 0 Producer responsible for staying on budget 24 royalty 0 Studios costs deducted from artist royalties 0 50000 on recording 500000 sales to break even Producing without label 0 Affordable digital technologies for producing own CD 0 Internet especially MySpace as a venue to publicize own music Power of the Big Four promote artist so that retailers will carry records Distribution Promotion 0 Radio based promotion I Recording and radio industry depend on each other I 1950s quotpayolaquot scandals 0 TV Internet Movies Concert tours Exhibition Avenues Digital downloads record stores other retails stores internet downloads record clubs direct sales Media Literacy Concerns over lyrics 0 ViolentSexual Lyrics 0 Large retailers refuse to stock albums with controversial lyrics 0 Concerns over lyrics in specific subgenres gangsta rap death metal Concerns over Piracy 0 Industry claims big money loss from piracy I 21000 suits between 2003 and 2007 against illegal downloaders o RIAA has stopped filing suits 0 PR disaster Success ofiTunes working with colleges I DRM Digital Rights Management restrictions 0 Who really owns the music you buy Chapter 11 The Radio Industry End of the 19th Century 1895 Guglielmo Marconi develops a way to send messages vvirelessly Technology first used on ships Early 20th Century 1907 Lee De Forest develops broadcasting widely received transmissions First World War Radio was a useful technology during the First World War 0 US Navy took control of the radio 0 Con ict with US tradition of media independent from government control Creation of RCA 1919 Congress decided that radio should be a private enterprise Need to pay for license RCA Radio Corporation ofAmerica formed by firms with radio broadcast patents ATampT GE and Westinghouse Radio amp Advertising 1922 ATampT sold first radio ad to the Queensboro Realty Company Entertainment mixed with commercial pitches 1930 RCA controlled the market through patents 1930 Courts broke RCA monopoly 0 ATampT and Westinghouse split from RCA 0 RCA allowed to keep radio manufacturing facilities Radio Networks 0 1926 NBC I 1927 NBC Red commercially sponsored entertainment and music I 1927 NBC Blue noncommercial programs 0 1927 CBS The creation of radio networks groups ofinterconnected radio stations was logical extension of stations desire to attract advertisers Government Regulation Radio Act of1 912 gave the secretary of commerce the right to issue licenses to parties interested in radio broadcasting and to decided which radio frequencies should be used for which ties of services ie public broadcast military use police use etc Radio Act of1 92 7 created the Federal Radio Commission whose purpose was to issue radio licenses to those who applied for them and to bring order to the nation s radio airwaves Federal Communications Act of1 934 Congressional act that turned FRC into the Federal Communications Commission with responsibilities for regulating the telephone and telegraph industry as well as the radio broadcasting industry 1930519405 News drama comedy and other talkentertainment programming 1943 NBC Blue 9 ABC WWII radio important source ofnews 1950519705 The rise of television and the emergence of the baby boom changed the radio industry Changes due to television radio went after specific local audiences radio stations started building identity Changes due to baby boom 0 Rock 39n Roll means to address the new generation 0 Portable transistors 0 Increase in the number of stations 1946 1000 9 1955 3500 Paona record promoter pays money to radio personnel to play a certain songartist o Frequent practice in 1950s 0 Declared illegal but still an ethical issue Development of FM FM 0 VHF part of the spectrum frequency modulation clearer shorter distances AM 0 AM radio is carried in a lowerfrequency band than FM amplitude modulation interference longer distances Earlier radio stations investment in AM stalled development of FM 1960s FCC passed no duplication rule stopped handing out AM licenses NOTE REFER TO SHIPKA LECTURE FOR CHAPTER 12 THEMOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY Chapter 13 The Television Industry Television and Society Television as a Major Social Force 0 Compared to Gutenberg printing press Americans spend 15 hours per week actively watching 17 are heavy viewers 5 or more hours a day Study by Kaiser Family Foundation in 1999 I Children watch TV for 2 hours and 46 minutes on average per day I 53 of children have a TV in their bedroom Television s Earliest Forms 1880s Lab work to develop broadcast technology in Germany 1928 first telecast of a drama from GE s experimental studio 1935 to 1938 Nazis in Germany operated first regular TV service for propaganda 1939 RCA introduces improved system at World s Fair New York Post WWII Commercial TV introduced in the US Tied to companies that controlled radio NBC CBS and ABC 194852 freeze on new station licenses 19505 1955 645 ofhouseholds owned a TV set Early TV shoes broadcast live from New York Hollywood s first filmed show was Love Lucy 19605 TV increasingly adfriendly TV planning amp timeselling AC Nielsen begins supplying TV ratings TV executives used TV rating to determine advertising fees 19705 FCC passes Primetime Access Rule PTAR o Forced networks to stop supplying programming to local station of half an hour during prime time for 6 days of the week FinSyn Rules 0 Prohibited ABC NBC and CBS from owning most of the entertainment programming they aired 0 Limited networks involvement in producing syndicated shows Videocassette records VCRs introduced commercially in 1976 o Timeshitting taping a show for later viewing 0 Zipping fastforwarding through taped commercials Cable Television Started as community antenna television CATV o 1976 Home Box Office 0 1976 Ted Turner s Superstation 0 1980s CNN Nickelodeon MTV OOO Fragmented TV Era Telecommunications Act of1 996 o Allowed anyone to enter any communications business 0 Telephone and cable could compete for the first time 0 Removed finsyn rules Modern Television Industry TV Broadcasting 0 Commercial supports itself by selling time to advertisers o Noncommercial supports itself through donations and commercial billboards 0 Television Network organization that distributes television program to all its affiliated stations or station that agree to carry a substantial amount of the network s material 0 Four Major Commercial Networks ABC CBS Fox NBC 0 Network A liate local stations that are not owned by broadcast network but transmit their signals 0 Independent broadcast station not affiliated with one of the Big Four I 1400 Television Stations today I 99 of American s can receive free overtheair broadcasting o 64 receive cable services 0 25 receive satellite services Cable Services amp Satellite Services Financing TV Industry TV Broadcasting o Commercials 45 Billion ad revenue in 2005 Cable Satellite 0 Commercials 22 billion ad revenue in 2005 I Subscriptions 59 billion in 2005 o MSO Multiple System Operator Production Three Forms 0 Producing channel lineup I Technological limitations 0 Digital compression technology allows 414 digital video signals in same analog slot 0 HDTV uses more bandwidth I Money for exhibitors 0 License fees costs that networks charge exhibitors for carrying lineup 0 Cable tiering different levels of programming I Whether exhibitor owns part of network 0 IfMSO owns channel channel included in the lineup o IfMSO creates channel then channel included on many systems 0 Producing format for individual channel I Depends on o 1 Determining channel s intended audience 0 Competition available pool ofviewers interests of the sponsors costs of relevant programming 0 2 Data on viewers watching habits ratings 0 Determine how much network can charge advertisers Nielsen Media Research dominates the business Sweeps Feb May Aug Nov Ratings vs shares 0 3 Schedule 0 Series are building blocks leadinsleadouts for new series counterprogramming used by competing networks 0 Producing individual programs I Pitch treatment concept testing pilot testing the pilot contract 13 episodes How a Program Gets on the Air A producer has an idea or a network has an idea and asks a proven producer to propose a show based on it 0 Put a deal guaranteeing that the network will order at least a pilot or pa the producer a penalty 0 Ifnetwork persuaded it buys the option and asks for a written outline o If still interested the network will order a full script 0 If the network approves that script it will order product Feedback Ratings The estimated percent of all TV households tuned to a specific station The rating measures popularity amount potential audience Feedback Shared The estimated percent of households using television tuned to a specific station The share measures popularity among homes with sets in use Distribution Broadcast TV Network Syndication Other avenues o Outof home TV international distribution DVD DVR Video on Demand Internet mobile devices Exhibition Major upheaval 0 Local broadcasters competition from cable satellite Internet mobile phones 0 Conversion to digital extra channels that need to be filled up DTV Digital Television 0 Freed up parts of spectrum for public service and commercial auctions 0 June 12 2009 deadline for fullpower television stations to stop broadcasting analog signals 0 Consumers need converter box Old TV has 525line scanning standard DTV scans at a rate of 1080 lines per frame better picture Current TV picture ratio is 3by4 DTV is 9by16 FCC required broadcasters to leave their frequencies and convert by June 09 DVR owners spend 60 of their time watching recorded or delayed programs They report skipping 90 of the commercials o 3 out of 10 viewers watch no commercials at all Media Literacy Controversies about audiences television content and industry control Commodification of audiences shapes both public and private life by the values ofbusiness and commercialism TV Content Issues controversies on violence desensitization sexual content stereotypes of social groups O 0000 10 Industry Control Issues Conglomeration is shrinking competitions leading to lack of content diversity Understanding Cable Pricing 0 Media literate cable viewer needs to understand how quickly the bill for cable services can grow and what value is received for what is now and average monthly basic cable price of I Mediate literate viewer understands that the average cable user watches only about siX of the available channels and asks if that increase has produced a commensurate rise in value from the medium Recognizing Staged News 0 Television professionals drive to get pictures often walk the fine ethical line of news staging recreating some event that is believed to or could have happened I The news producer must balance service to the public against ratings and profit I Viewers must balance their desire for interesting stimulating visuals against confidence that the news is reported rather than manufactures Chapter 14 The Internet 1980s Invention of the modem device to convert analog to digital and digital to analog Commercial networks established eg America Online Prodigy History of the Internet 1969 ARPAnet developed by ARPA 1989 Time BernersLee amp Same Walker created HTML 1993 Mosaic first web browser Internet Industry 0 806 ofUS homes have computer 77 in 2007 o 916 of homes with a computer have Internet access 0 739 of all US homes have Internet access PRODUCTIONAND DISTRIBUTION IN THE INTERNET INDUSTRYARE INTERTWINED Production amp Distribution Reasons for company websites 0 Create company image 0 Sellproductsservices 0 Sell advertisement Online advertisement 0 TeXtAds o DisplayAds I Banners I Popups 0 Mass customization I Use of sophisticated technology to send tailored ads I Based on online data gathering data mining I Personalization of content interactivity The attractiveness of online advertisement rests on the ability for mass customization of online content based on user data Data mining the process of gathering storing collating user information for audience profiling Search Engines forms of content creation unique to the web Use complex set of rules to relate sites to search terms In the early days we portal gave users an indeX to the Internet Good search was a revolution Exhibition 11 Exhibitor in the Internet Industry is the company that provides the technology that enables users to get online 0 ISPs cable companies phone companies mobile phone companies World Wide Web address system 0 Expressed as URLs o Structured domain name 0 ICANN administers the domain name Web 20 The name for changes in the Internet beginning in early 2000 s Interactivity enhanced comments userprovided content Personalized cookies content can be selfselected Social Networking Any Internet site that facilitates mediated interpersonal communication Early days Liveournal Friendster MySpace Now Facebook Twitter Net Neutrality Controversy Some ISPs argue that they should charge as function of amount of bandwidth used 0 So that users of big files pay more 0 They want the Internet providers to charge like cell phones with data plans 0 They argue that this will help companies make investments in the Internet Net neutrality advocates claim that tiered pricing will sti e Internet growth 0 They think quotall information is created equal and are concerned that monopoly Internet providers will overcharge for other company s media products 0 They want the Internet providers to keep charging like they usually have up until now pay for a speed no matter what kind of content you choose The FCC currently supports net neutrality 0 Some ISPs do things that might violate net neutrality 0 Lots of political debate on what the rules should be Media Literacy Digital convergence raises questions about how we study media Power of conglomerates online Web ltering increasingly pervasive online censorship Online privacy 0 Controversies over transactional databases 0 Available optinoptout mechanisms 0 Privacy protection for children Chapter 14 The Video Game Industry Games are an important form of Mass Communications The bestselling game is 2007 s Halo 3 0 170 million in revenue on its first day 0 Beat the firstday box office record of 150 million at the time US computer and video game software sales generated 105 billion in 2009 Sixtyseven percent ofAmerican household play computer or video games Computers are the exhibition point and more recently also the distribution method for video games History of Computers 1600 Pascal invents early computing machine 1600s Leibnitz introduces binary digits 1940 computer constructed at Harvard U 1946 ENIAC the first generalpurpose computer at U ofPennsylvania 1950s Bell Labs invents the transistor replaced vacuum tubes 1970s invention of microprocessor put the CPU on a single microchip 1970s first PCs small enough to fit on a desk built by people at home from kits 1980s Apple and IBM selling fully assembled PCs Computer Networks 1969 ARPAnet developed by ARPA 1980s Invention of the modem device to convert analog to digital and digital to analog Commercial networks established eg America Online Prodigy 1989 Time BernersLee amp Sam Walker created HTML 1993 Mosaic first web browser History of Video Games Pinball machine precursor of modern video game Pinball machines part of entertainment arcades 1950s studentcreated computer game eg Spacewar 1972 Atari first successful US company to create video arcade games Pong 1970s1980s Home video consoles 0 Games sold on cartridges specific to the console 0 Many were redoes of arcade games o EG Super Mario Brothers for Nintendo 1980s games for personal computers 0 Games sold on disks 0 EG Where in the World is Carmen SanDiego 1990s Online multiplayer games o Leverage social nature ofplaying games WoW Video Game Platforms Console Computers Handhelds Internet Video Game Industry Hardware consoles software discs What games get produced Risk reduction 0 Games can sell over the course of years while movies make more of their money upfront Crossmedia content Movie TieIns 0 Sometimes poor quality games because movie release date was the deadline 0 Even a Lego Star Wars game a 3way cross promotion Production Hardware 0 Game Consoles PS Sony XBOX Microsoft Wii Nintendo Standalone computers Online games Portable gaming platforms iTV cable satellite RBOC Software genres 0 Action Adventure Casual Stimulation Sports EDUtainment Game Types Firstperson shooter games MMORPG s Advergaming Using games to advertise to specific segments of the population Ingame advertising predicted to experience the highest growth rate among various types of game advertising methods 800 million in 2012 Two types of advergaming 0 Creation of game exclusive to particular eg Am ericu s Army 0 Embedding ads into video games eg Chrysler in The Movies I Common in sports games advertise the teams and players and also their real world sponsors Realism or just another crossmedia content creation and conglomeration example Distribution amp Exhibition Stream games by subscription Disks and cartridges for PCs and consoles sold in stores 0 GameStop sells used games and general retail stores like Walmart Downloadable games 0 iPhone quotmultitouch screen Using game hardware to exhibit other kinds of content 0 Consoles have long exhibited DVD s now stream Net ix one streams ESPN New Exhibition Technology Console have long tried to sell addons o Nintendo s Duck Hunt gun Today Motion Control 0 Interacting with the game via motion Nintendo Wii Coming soon 3D 0 Like 3D movies except without perhaps without glasses These new exhibition technologies drive the games that can be produced and may also change our expectations of other kinds ofmedia Games and the Real World Currency in games 0 Some games allow players to earn gameworld money 0 Real markets to trade game goods and game money using real money have sprung up around some games 0 Some games have capitalized on this trend by selling game goods or offering a discount if the player buys some other real product Game Rating Controversies Ratings do not inform parents of the true level of sexviolence 0 Recent case where makers of GTA didn t disclose all the graphic content when they got the rating in the first place 0 Parents may fail to pay attention because they have no experience with gaming Game retailers may ignore ratings Media Effects Research on Games Games can be an effective venue for learning 0 Engagement interest motivation visualspatial learning Games don t cause realworld violent behavior 0 But they can cause aggressive thoughts 0 And aggressive actions in children in the lab 0 And desensitization to violence Lately research on genderrelated topics 0 Effects on female players 0 Effects ofnew kinds of games that target female players 0 Genderrole socialization Mass Communication 2000 Final Exam Revision Chapter One Mass Media Convergence Content in one media now appears in other media Arrival of media channels radio TV stations VCRs cable networks etc led to audiencefragmentation dividing audience into segments according to their characteristics This leads to fewer people watching or reading any one channel Mass communication is carried by organizations working together advertising web to produce and distribute content It s a process called mass production It creates the potential to reach diverse people simultaneously Communication messages interpersonal communication mediated 39 39 39 quot 39 39 communication small and organizational communication and public communication There are seven major elements which involve messages The source is where the message comes from person or organization Encoding is the process by which message is translated in order to transmit it to human beings sight sound smell and taste The transmitter sends the message body or internetphone medium helps to transmit messages All communication takes place through channels they are pathways through which the transmitter sends features of messages Decoding is when the transmitted impulses are converted into understandable signs The person or organization that gets the message is called the receiver When the receiver decides to answer to the source feedback occurs If there is some interference it s called noise Mass communication takes place through media The message is typically verbal or visual The source tends to be organizations encoding occurs by the organization s technology the channel is often the air or technology Receiver people in different locations Decoding technology and an individual s brain Feedback immediatedelayed but direct Noise environmental mechanical semantic sometimes caused by organizations on purpose Mass Media which is responsible of carrying mass communication is the technological instrument which allows mass communication newsprint television radio Mass media outlets are companies that send messages via mass media Magazines and television Due to the focus on making money media professionals view the programs articles and films they create as commodities the goods in a market place Innovation is the introduction of something new in a company s products A new type of lotion Companies have research and development RampD departments that explore new ideas and generate new products and services in order to attract future customers updating products The need of constant innovation is the same as constant risk producers don t know what to expect out of new products People use media for different purposes such as enjoyment companionship surveillance and interpretation Mass media present ideas ofthe culture in three ways 1 Direct attention to acceptable behavior in society 2 Tell people what and who counts in their world and why 3 Tell people what others think of them People often criticize mass media by using its power as reflectors and creators of culture One ofthe criticisms is that media presents prejudices by using stereotypes and political ideologies who should hold greatest power within a culture and why It also detracts American s quality of life and it encourages political and economical manipulation of audiences Media literacy allows people to analyze media Literacy means the ability to comprehend and use messages Media Literacy on the other hand is the ability to access analyze and evaluate communication in different forms Six Media Principles 1 All media materials are constructed 2 Media materials are created and distributed in commercial environment 3 Created and distributed in political environment 4 Presents their ideas with primary genres of entertainment news advertising information and education 5 People are active recipients of media messages 6 Media representations play a role in the way society understands reality Six Media Skills 1 Understanding of commercial forces 2 Awareness of political influences 3 Ability to examine content for cultural and commercial meanings 4 Ability to think through ethical implications of media firm s activities 5 Understanding of research on media s implication for the individual society 6 Awareness of public s influence on production and distribution on materials Chapter Two Media Business Five biggest media firms Time Warner Comcast Corp Walt Disney Co News Corp and NBC Universal General Electric s Content is the material media firms produce distribute and exhibit Made up of five genres Entertainment news information advertising and education Media practitioners people who selectcreate the material a firm produces distributes and exhibits are aware that the content must be attractive to the audience Firms think that audience as income they categorize them according to income gender age job etc Consumers This means that they have to create attractive contentto advertisers in order to make money To do this they decide if the advertisers want to reach the same audience they need to prove to the advertisers that they can afford the costs In order to know which audience firms want to target they control their risks with research which is based on demographics psychographics and lifestyle categories In order to attract their targeted audience firms must take certain steps such as choosing creators with good track records in order to reduce the risk history of successes They might also use similar material that has been successful in the past If a lot of money is at stake executives turn to research and development to investigate potential sources of revenue They also use surveys focus groups eight to ten chosen people who are asked to discuss their habits and opinions about topics Analysis of existing data a systematic investigation of potential audience Counting sales and audiences is a lot easier than determining why a media product succeeded or failed Material categories of media content are called genres Entertainment notion of making money by keeping audience steady busy or amused Grab audiences attention Subgenres of entertainment are festivals gaming drama and comedy Every genre has a formula which consists of three major features setting typical characters and patterns of action Setting is the environment patterns of action are predictable activities associated with the characters News is shows which inform us of something they often have a beginning middle and end Reporters directors editors producers and other people who works in the industry are calledjournalists a person who is trained to report nonfiction events to an audience News is often classified as Hard news investigative reports Editorials and Soft news Hard news is a news story marked by a timeline unusualness conflict and closeness it must ve happened recently They are considered as unusual struggles between opposing forces and it is more likely to be seen as hard news if it happens close by After they decide its hard news they have to think how they re going to present it Journalists use the word Objectivity to summarize the way in which news need to be researched organized and presented INVERTED PYRAMID Investigative reports are in depth explorations of some aspects of reality Journalists have more time to do their research thank hard news journalists 60 minutes 2020 An editorial is a subgenre which concentrates an individual s or organization s point of view Columnists write editorials on a regular basis Soft news doesn t have the critical importance of hard news Information is the raw material that journalists use when they create news and stories The information industry creates and distributes much of its products for companies not individual consumers People often find the information they want in databases Information is a widely used and lucrative mass media commodity The information industry also focuses on providing quick retrieval of data for people whose work requires them get the facts quickly Education means content that is purposefully crafted to teach people specific ideas about the world in specific ways The genre of education extends far beyond text books and other types of printed materials An Advertisement is a message that explicitly aims to direct favorable attention to certain good and services The message may have a commercial purpose or be aimed at advancing a non commercial cause The subgenres are Informational ads which rely on a recitation of facts about a product Hard sell ads are messages that combine information about the product with attempts of making the consumer buy the product quickly Soft Sell ads are ads which create good feelings about a product or service by associating it with music personalities etc These three types of ads differ in degree but not in kind the amount of stress they place on facts about the product All kinds of media organizations must produce distribute exhibit and finance their content in ways that maximize its chances of success with audiences Production for the mass media means the creation of materials for distribution through one or more vehicles A mass media production firm is a company that creates materials for distribution The making of media products requires both administrative personnel and creative personnel The administrative personnel make sure that the business side of the media organization is working The creative personnel are the ones who get the initial ideas for the material or use their artistic talent to put the material together An on staff worker is a person who works full time A freelancer is a worker who makes a living by accepting and completing assignments for a number of different production companies Production in media business is a collaborative activity in which many people work together to initiate create and polish the end material In mass media industries the term format is used to describe the rules that guide the flow of products Distribution is the delivery of the product material to the exhibition point Production is useless without distribution Some people believe that the internet reduces the importance of distribution A distributor s power is measured in terms of the firm s ability to ensure that media products will end up in the best locations Exhibition is the activity of presenting mass media to audiences for viewing or purchase Shelf space is the amount of area or time available for exhibition most media firms compete for shelf space Some book publishers may be able to offer trade incentives payments in cash discounts or publicity that enable exhibitors to highlight a product Cooperative advertising is advertising paid for in part by media production firms in order to help the exhibitor promote a product The control for the entire production to exhibition process is called VERTICAL INTEGRATION The cash coming into mass media firms can be divided into two categories 1 Money tofund new production and 2 Money to buy already completed products In order to fund a new product a company has two options taking out loans or encouraging investments in the company In order to pay for an already completed product firms bring in revenues by direct sales consumer pays producer distributor or exhibitor license fees person or organization pays producer for the use ofthe product but the producer has ultimate control rentals gain revenue by charging for employing a mass media product for a certain amount of time usagefees producer distributor or exhibitor charges for mass media product based on the time it is employed subscriptions or advertising Chapter Three Media Law Regulations in the mass media are laws and guidelines that influence the way media companies produce distribute and exhibit materials There are four different approaches to government regulation of media they are authoritarian communist libertarian and social responsibility approaches Political economic andor cultural factors may help to explain the differences in the ways countries translate the same approach into actual regulation Political influences refer to the types of power that officials can exert Economic influences revolve around the costs of carrying out certain types of regulation Cultural influences center on the historical circumstances that lead societies to accept certain media systems than others In the United States the legal foundation for government s relation to the press is the First Amendment It states that the government can t interfere in journalistic organizations No one needs the government s permission to communicate ideas publicly quotCongress shall make no lawquot means that the quotgovernment and its agencies shall make no law regardless the location or level of government Film protection was established in 1952 TV and Radio protection was established by the Supreme Court in 1973 In 1976 the Court ruled that Advertising and other forms of commercial speech are included in the First Amendment s definition of lThe Press The term abridge means to cut short curtail The Supreme Court has approved governments restrictions on speech or the press that place limits on time place and manner of expression When it comes to abridgment or regulation some types of media expressions are more protected than others There are three types of governmental regulation 1 Regulation before distribution when the government restricts speech before it is made it is engaging in prior restraint The Supreme Court ruled that regulation or restricting speech before it is made violates both the spirit and letter ofthe First Amendment In previous years the court has been strict about allowing prior restraint when political ideas are involved Prior restraint is allowed in cases involving obscenity national security military operations clear and present danger to public safety copyright courtroom proceedings education and commercial speech 2 Regulation after distribution courts have stated that authorities must wait until after distribution to press charges for illegal activity this often involves a conflict between an individual and media Defamation is a false statement which causes injury to the reputation of a personorganization Libel is a written form of defamation whilst slander is a spoken for of defamation Although they are both types of defamation they are controlled by different laws There are two categories of libel plaintiffs publicfigures and private persons Concern for the First Amendment takes the precedence over libel laws as they relate to media The Court ruled that the First Amendment requires proof of simple negligence lack of reasonable care even when private persons sue the mass media for libel In order to win a libelsuit a plaintiff they must prove the following a Published defamatory statements b Defamatory statements identified in the plaintiff c The statement harmed the plaintiff d The defendant was at fault and e The defamatory statements were false Defenses to libel come in three forms Truth proving that the statement is true Privilege public s right to know takes precedence over a person s right to maintain privacy and Fair comment and criticism defendant claims and proves that the statement was part of defendant s commentary and criticism The Supreme Court has accepted that the Federal Communication Commission FCC can regulate broadcast content The basic principles of freedom of speech apply to both electronic and print media The FCC demands certain requirements such as airing educational programs 16 and underradio only equal time rule requires broadcasters to provide equal amounts of time during comparable parts of the day to political candidates In 1940 the FCC stated the Fairness Doctrine which required broadcasters to provide some degree of balance in the presentation of a controversial issue This doctrine was appealed in the 1980s Privacy is the right to be protected from unwanted intrusions or disclosures Almost every state recognizes some right of privacy Invasion ofprivacy is considered as a personal tort or behavior that harms another individual Only a person can claim right to privacy not a companyorganization Public figures have limited claims to the right of privacy they voluntarily exposed themselves to scrutiny There are four areas of privacy 1 False light considered as an invasion of property by implying something untrue about a person It can take place by distortion altering material embellishment false material is added to a story places someone in false light and fictionalization making reference to real people2 Appropriation is the unauthorized use of a person s name or likeliness in an advertisement without their consent 3 Public Disclosure is truthful information concerning the private life of a person that a media source reveals 4 Intrusion when a person invades someone else s solitude private areas or affairs It can be physical or non physical Congress has passed laws that limit the ability of companies and government agencies to use and share data without the knowledge of the individuals involved The Cable Telecommunications Act of 1984 is a law that requires cable companies to report to their subscribers what personal information is collected about them and how it is used It also prohibits the provider from releasing information without consent The only other laws that specifically prohibit media firms from sharing information about their audiences are the Video Privacy Protection Act of 1988 VPPA and the Children s Online Privacy Protection Act COPPA of 1998 COPPA states that is a website would like information about a child 13 years old or younger it must receive a parental permission Economic Regulation placed on media organizations greatly affect the ways in which these organizations finance produce exhibit and distribute their products The two most common types of economic regulations are 1 Antitrust Laws excessive market control is behavior by one or a few more companies that make it impossible for new companies to enter the market place and compete Control of the market by one firm is called monopoly Control by a few firms is called oligopoly In order to maintain competition legislators have begun to take actions on these activities These laws came to be known as antitrust policies and they were carried out in three ways a Through the passing of laws b Through enforcement ofthe laws by the US Department ofJustice and by state attorneys general and c Through federal court decisions that determine how far the government ought to go in encouraging competition 2 Direct Regulation by Government Agencies the Federal Trade Commission FTC and Federal Communication Commission FCC are the two most important federal agencies involved in regulating the mass media The FTC s coverage includes any ofthe mass media as long as it is released to the smooth functioning of the marketplace and consumer protection in that sphere By contrast the FCC is specifically mandated by Congress to govern interstate and international communications by television radio wire satellite and cable There are three responsibilities that relate to media today 1 Creating technical order it is through the FCC that radio stations get licenses that allow them to broadcast FCC decisions about how much and how to allocate the spectrum space helps to define which and how many companies can afford to get into businesses thus affecting the number of companies consumers have to consider and how much they will pay 2 Consumer Protection the FTC is involved in issues ranging from combating deceptive advertising to children s privacy on the web To implement the COPPA the FTC had to create rules that specified exactly which websites were covered by the Act 3 Encouraging Competition enforcing federal antitrust laws it is controlled by the FTC Government officials have tried to prevent journalists from gaining access to certain types of information in other ways In order to reduce these obstacles press has encouraged the following 1 Gathering information on Government and Meetings one way in which government can limit speech is to restrict access to government documents 2 Gathering information on news events Journalists often access people to gather information They also need to access government meetings where important decisions are made but most ofthese meeting are closed to public Journalistic access can make the community aware of certain issues 3 Gathering information from a confidential source in some cases the journalists may claim an evidentiary privilege which is a journalists right to withhold the identification of confidential sources Forcing journalists to reveal the identity of their sources could deter people from talking to them and so harm the public interest The Federal Freedom of Information Act FOIA along with local and state laws has helped journalists learn information that is important for the publics understanding of social policies but might otherwise have remained out of view In 1967 the Congress passed an act that allows citizens to request government records and reports that have not yet been public Sunshine Laws the alliance between journalists and advocacy to states pass this law which are regulations that ensure that governmental meetings and reports are made available to the press and public The Shield Laws are laws passed in 30 states and the District of Columbia that afford the media varying degrees of protection against being forces to disclose information about their sources There is a number of media industry pressures internal and external aimed at ensuring that media professionals operate in an ethical manner It is the outside pressures that often influence the self regulation mechanisms that industries create External Pressures Stakeholders are parties outside media industries who care particularly about an issue and may try to use their economic and political power to influence the outcome to their benefit 1 Pressurefrom members of the public when individuals are disturbed about media content they may contact the production firms involved to express their displeasure and demand alterations in the content 2 Pressures from Advocacy Organizations when individuals try to find others who share their concerns join or start advocacy organizations or pressure groups people who work to change the nature of certain kinds of mass media materialsRepresentatives of these organizations may try to meet with the heads of media firms start letter writing campaigns or attempt to embarrass media firms by attracting press about an issue 3 Pressure from Advertisers advertisers can be an incredibly powerful force in pressuring the media to make changes in their content The marketers of many important companies in the industry created the Family Friendly Programming Forum in order to stimulate the production of shows meant to appeal the broader multigenerational audiences and suitable to run between 8 and 10pm Internal Pressures Media companies worry about maintaining their credibility with the public at large but at the same time they don t want pressures from outside entries especially the government continually interfering with their firm s activities To achieve these goals executives in the media industries set up self regulation policies and codes They are called internal self regulation and they take form by 1 Editorial Standards written statements of policy and conduct established by media organizations as a form of self regulation At local television station level policy and conduct are most often guided by policy books which help to lay down guidelines for fairness accuracy and appropriateness of station content Newspapers and magazines are often guided by a Operating policies which are mostly used by print media organizations that spell out guidelines for everyday operations b Editorial policies which are also used by print media organizations that identify company positions in specific issues 2 Ombudspersons an individual who is hired by a media organization to deal with readers viewers or listeners who have a complaint to report an issue to discuss The role is to act as an impartial intermediary between the organization and public 3 Professional Codes of Ethics One ofthe oldest approaches to self regulation A formal list of guidelines and standards that tell the members ofthe profession what they should and should not do Adherence to thee codes are voluntary they can t be enforced 4 Content Ratings and Advisories media organizations regulate themselves by the adoption of rating systems These ratings are often controversial There are three categories a Film Ratings adopted by the Motion Picture Association in 1968 G PG Pg 13 R and NC 17 b Television Ratings TV Y TV Y7 TV G TV PG Tv 14 and TV MA and c Electronic softwareVideo Games The Entertainment Software Rating Board established these ratings in the early 1990s EC E E10 T M and A0 5 Press Councils an independent group of people who monitor complaints from media consumers Ethics is a system of principles about what is right that guides a person s actions Classical Ethics approaches to understand what is ethical and what is not The five approaches are 1 The Golden Mean Aristotle believed that an individual s acts are right and virtuous ifthey are means oftwo extremes in other words no moderation the farther you lean away from one extreme the more you lean toward the other 2 The Golden Rule refers to the admonition to do not do to others what you would not want done to you 3 The Categorical Imperative an individual would act only in ways in which he or she would want everyone else to act all the time 4 The Principle of Utility the rightness or wrongness of any action can be judged by its consequences 5 The Veil oflgnorance justice emerges only when all parties are treated without social differentiation Chapter Four Media Research Research is the application of a systematic method to solve a problem or understand it better than in the past Mass Media Research involves the use of systematic methods to understand or solve problems regarding mass media Mass media research has various branches such as 1 Audiences media firms pay to find out who uses media 2 Predicting the success of certain media materials media firms want to estimate the popularity in its target audience 3 Success in advertising campaigns which ads are most profitable Approaches to Mass Media Research We can distinguish between research that is empirical research that involves investigating and reporting on actual things in the world and research that is conceptual which focuses on the perspectives or philosophies that we should use when we think about media or media research Theories are bodies of knowledge that contain tested explanations of how phenomena work According to the theory of reasoned action the most important determinant ofa person s behavior is intent Quantitative research is research in which the researcher collects and reports data in numerical form Qualitative research involves making sense of an aspect of reality by showing how different parts of it fit together in particular ways Qualitative research relies on sets of concepts called frameworks to guide understanding Over the decades researches have developed a variety of ways for trying to think about the drawbacks of research findings Some topics are 1 The nature of the sample 2 The size of the sample 3 The design of the study 4 The reliability of the study 5 The soundness of the analysis and 6 The validity of the study Mass media research in the United States began in the first two decades of the twentieth century The two issues that worried thinkers was 1 the media s role in helping to keep a sense of American community alive 2 The media s role in encouraging bad behavior among children Researchers noticed that mass media was helpful it allowed immigrants to understand and assimilate the American lifestyle Researchers argued that media brought together large numbers of geographically separated diverse individuals It also allowed them to share ideas about the society without assembling the same geographic area Robert Park said that immigrant newspapers were helping people to acclimate to American Society thus making immigrants good citizens The Chicago School ofSociology formed by Robert Park empirical Charles Cooley and John Dewey conceptual Many of their ideas are new and interesting even today They were among the first academics to show how systematically presented ideas and research about the mass media could feed into important social issues Harold Lasswellfrom the University of Chicago saw mass media organizations as powerful weapons of persuasion because they reached enormous numbers of people simultaneously Lasswell and his teammates feared that powerful interest groups in society would use mass media for propaganda purposes They feared that under the right conditions such propaganda would enable people in power to spread lies about their opponents through the media and manipulate large numbers of people These fears emerged due to the successful manipulation of newspaper reports and photographs by the Allies and the German government in World War Propaganda messages designed to change the attitudes and behaviors of vast amount of people on controversial issues Many liberal thinkers saw the war propaganda as fundamentally threatening to democracy since citizens often had no idea ofthe intentions behind the messages they were seeing The news media are a primary source of the lpictures in our heads about the vast external public affairs that is lout of reach out of sight and out of mind Lippmann s notion that the media creates lthe ideas in our heads about what is going on in the world is referred to as agenda setting Many journalists saw the agenda setting as a justification for examining content of newspapers and the work that people in the business perform Leonard Doob Alfred McLung Lee Ralph Casey and George Seldes saw the importance of systematically exploring the forces guiding media companies They also saw great value in analyzing media content Their aim was to lift what they felt was a veil ofsecrecy over what media firms did They felt that by publicizing their findings they could help citizens to protect themselves from the power of media organizations They called it propaganda analysis Propaganda analysis involves the systematic examination of mass media messages that seem to be designed to sway the attitudes of large populations on controversial issues It is carried out through contact analysis trained coders examine a population of messages articles movies radio shows for elements that researchers believe are significant Some writers of the history of mass communication research have suggested that propaganda analysts took a magic bullet or hypodermic needle approach to mass communication They mean that the propaganda analysts believed that messages delivered through the mass media persuaded all people powerfully and directly without people having control over the way they reacted Ohio State University performed studies on the social and psychological effects offilms led by Professor WW Charters The studies published in 1933 looked at the effects of particular films on sleeping patterns knowledge about foreign cultures attitudes about violence and delinquent behavior They used a range of empiricaltechniques including experiments surveys and content analysis Some commentators in the 1930s suggested that the results showed that individual movies could have major negative effects on all children a kind of hypodermic needle effect Columbia University the sociology department made an emphasis on people s different reactions as media materials emerged It was the idea that social relations influence the way people interpret messages The basic idea is when people watch movies read newspapers listen to the radio etc they often talk with other people about what they ve seen or heard Lazarsfeld and his colleagues interviewed four similar samples of approximately 600 people about their use of radio and newspapers as it related to the election They were exploring a technique called panel survey the same individuals are asked questions over a period oftime The purpose is to see whether and how the attitudes change over time When the Columbia researchers concentrated on the roles that radio and newspapers played in an individuals decision regarding the campaign they found out that news about the race seemed to change few people s voting intentions Lazarsfeld and his colleagues offered the two step model This model states that media influence often works in two stages 1 Media content is picked up by people who use the media frequently and 2 These people in return act as opinion leaders when they discuss the media content with others The others are therefore influenced by the media in a way that is one step removed from the actual content After all the research they concluded on the emphasized idea ofthe active audience Active audience means that people are not simply passive recipients of media messages rather they respond to content based on their personal backgrounds interests and interpersonal relationships The best known aspect of this research came to be known as uses and grati cations research which studies how people use media products to meet their needs and interests The aim of this research was to ask and answer questions about why individuals use mass media Uses and gratifications research typically employs two research methods One method involves interviewing people about why they use a specific media and what kinds of gratifications they get from these media The second research method involves surveys that try to predict what kinds of people use what media or what certain kinds of people do with particular media Propaganda became an important tool during World War II in the 1940s and during the Cold War During the Second World War military officials became especially interested in the ability of movie filmstrips and other media to teach soldiers about the reasons for the war and to increase the motivation to serve A naturalistic experiment is a study in which randomly selected people are manipulated in a relatively controlled environment without knowing that they are involved in an experiment Researchers ask both groups the ones that know and the ones that don t the same questions at different times This experiment showed how hard it is to change an individual s opinion This is from Carl Hovland Yale University Researchers seem to agree that the ways in which most adults and children react to such materials depends on family background social setting and personality They also agree that consistent viewing of violent television shows or movies may cause children to become aggressive towards other regardless of family backgrounds A large number of researchers have been interested in who learns what from mass media material and under what conditions There are two studies that stand out 1 Whether media can encourage children s learning educational skills and 2 Who in society learn about current national and international affairs through media Children s learning educational skills researchers have found that Sesame Street can teach boys and girls from different income levels their letters and numbers thus impairing their vocabulary Prof Ellen Wartella summarized her findings from a study based on children watching Mr Roger s Neighborhood that such programs are successful not only in teaching children but also in pro social behaviors It is easier to influence toddlers rather than seven year or older aged children since their personalities are not fully developed Who learns about current national and international affairs from media Researchers argue that these individuals are looking at pro social learning but in a different way The basic belief is that a democratic society needs informed citizens if public policies are to be guided by the greatest number of people Agenda setting scholars agree that differences among individuals make it unlikely that the mass media can tell you precisely what opinions we should have about particular topics But they point out that large numbers of people can agree on what topics to think about by making some events and not others into major headlines This shows that the press has the power to startinitiate public dialogue on major topics facing the nation University of North Carolina Profs Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw demonstrated this agenda setting effect in research for the first time in a 1970 article They surveyed voters on issues in the presidential campaign and also conducted a content analysis content analysis of the attention media outlets paid to issues in the presidential campaign They showed that the rankings ofthe importance that voters placed on certain issues were related to the priorities that the media outlets presented Priming the process by which the media affect the standard that individuals use to evaluate what they see and hear in media Researchers have found that mass media agenda setting has the ability to affect people s sense of public affairs priorities They emphasize that individual background and interests weaken these effects They bring about a lot of variation in what issues people pick up as important how they prioritize these issues and whether if they use it as an evaluation criteria The weakening of these effects occurs primarily because people s differences lead them to pay attention to different things in media Education has consistently been a major factor that is positively associated with differences between those who pick up knowledge of public affairs and those who don t people are more likely to remember events and facts that media present if they have frameworks of knowledge from schooling that can help them make sense of the news events they see or hear University of Minnesota Profs Tichenor Donahue and Olien found that the knowledge gap means that educated people get information faster than the less educated people This means that individuals are not just passive receivers of messages rather they make conscious decisions about what they like and have different reasons for using different media Digital Divide separation between those who have access to and knowledge about technology and those due to education don t Mainstream approaches research models that developed out of the work of the Columbia School Yale School and the University of Ohio According to critics of the mainstream approach there are two major problems 1 it stresses on change rather than continuity much of the research focuses on whether a change will occur as a result of specific movies articles or news They say that this approach ignores the possibility that the most important effects of media have to do with encouraging people rather than changing them Critics also argue that research has placed so much emphasis on the individuals relationship to media that it has ignored social power It has neglected to emphasize that there are powerful sources that exert control over what media industries do as part oftheir control over society 2 Its emphasis on the active role ofthe individual in the media environment and not on the power of large social forces Frankfurt School 1940 Researchers Theodor Adorno Walter Benjamin Herbert Marcuse and Max Horkheimer Each of these philosophers shared the basic view of capitalism ownership of the means of production by a ruling class in society The Frankfurt School focused on the cultural aspect of capitalism They explored the relationship between culture and capitalism in an era in which economic depression war and mass exterminations made it difficult to be optimistic about the liberating potential of culture Their writings about the corrosive influence of capitalism on culture became know as Critical Theory Writings by Adorno stress the power of culture industry to move audience members towards ways of looking at the world Marcuse wrote suggestions to researchers of how messages of social power can be found in all aspects of media content Political Economy Research contrasted to the Frankfurt School it fears specifically on the relationship between the economic and cultural They look at when and how the economic structures of society reflect the political interests of society s rich and powerful Robert McChesney examined ownership patterns of media companies in the early 2000s He concluded that we re in an era where media worries far more about satisfying advertisers and share holders than providing entertainment or news that encourage people to understand their society Ben Bagdikian point out that huge media firms are often involved in many businesses outside journalism Their research looks into the economic relationships within the media system and tries to figure out their consequences for issues of social power and equity Most of their work is concerned with looking at how institutional and organizational relationships create requirements for media firms that lead the employees ofthose firms to crate and circulate certain kinds of materials and not others Child abuse report on Disney s Parks Herbert Schiller explored global issues such as Cultural Colonialism the exercise of control over an area or people by a dominant power by surrounding the weaker countries with cultural materials that reflect values and beliefs supporting the interest of that dominant power English is becoming main language in non English speaking countries due to media Cultivation Research Researchers are also interested in depictions but in a different way These studies are different from political economy studies in that hey focus not on industry relationships but on the information about the world that people pick up from media portrayals Where cultivation researchers differ from mainstream effects research is in the perspective they bring to the work and how they interpret their findings Cultivation studies emphasize that when media systematically portray certain populations in unfavorable ways the ideas about those people that mainstream audiences pick up help certain groups in society retain their power over the groups denigrate They believe that stereotypes reinforce and extend power relationships Annenberg School 1960s 1980s Profs George Gerbner began his work with the perspective that all mass media material gives people views of the world The views are mass produced outputs of huge corporations Gerbner s Cultivation Research the critical approaches from political economists and the Frankfurt School helped to add another dimension to the way US scholars looked at mass media Cultural Studies studies that start with the idea that all sorts of mass media present their audiences with technologies and texts and that audiences find a meaning in them Historical Approaches AnthropologicalApproaches what technologies mean in the context of social class and social power by examining people s use of media and Linguistic Approaches multiple meaning according to background Mass Communications 2000 Exam 4Final Study Guide Chapter 15 The Advertising Industry Advertising is the activity of explicitly paying for media space or time in order to direct favorable attention to certain goods or services 0 Advertisers pay for the space or time they receive 0 Advertising clearly states its presence 0 Advertising involves persuasion History of advertising Advertising as old as selling Criers in Roman Empire Print ads on papyrus in ancient Egypt Criers and shop signs in medieval England Early Colonial Period Benjamin Franklin successful sellerwriter ofads Until 18405 advertising involved direct negotiation between sellersmanufacturers of products and newspapers 18405 Volney Palmer first to start an advertising agency 1525 commission charged by an advertising agent Industrial Revolution Creation ofbrands Changes in the functions of an ad agency Reasonwhy and image ads 1914 Audit Bureau of Circulation verified claims about a periodical s audience Types of Ads Reasonwhy Ads ads that list the benefits of a product in ways that would move the consumer to purchase it Image ads ads that tie the product to positive feelings SelfRegulation Many misleading and false advertising claims Advertisingprofessionalized o The Association of National Advertisers The American Associate ofAdvertising Agencies establish norms ofproper adbusiness behavior and stave off government intervention 19205 Radio advertising 0 Birth of the audience rating business 0 New advertising strategies for then new medium 0 Advertising clients actually owned programs 19305 During Depression ad revenue dropped Did not recover much during WWII 19405 TV advertising 0 Dramatic shift ofad revenue from radio to TV 0 Advertisers bought half blocks of time from TV or sponsored entire shows 19605 Networks decide to develop own programs changes 0 Ads throughout entire ow of program 0 Time on TV expensive 0 Length of commercial decreased 1960519905 Rise of research industry aimed at identifying effect of commercials on purchase decision Motivation research Subliminal persuasion Modern Advertising Industry Trends 0 Shift toward global presence 0 Agency holding companies I Ad agencies specialty agencies directmarketing firms research companies public relations agencies Advertising holding company 0 Idea offer clients range of services beyond advertising 0 1950s Interpublic Group of Companies 0 Big Agencies Omnicom Interpublic WPP Dentsu Havas Types of advertising agencies 0 Businesstobusiness vs Consumer 0 General vs Specialty 0 Traditional vs DirectMarketing 0 Agency networks vs Standalone firms 3 Functions ofAd Work 0 Creative persuasion Market research Media planning amp buying Production Branding creating a specific image ofa product that makes it stand out in the market place the creation ofbrands is one of the most important activities in advertising Steps in creating a brand 0 1 Interaction between ad agency personnel and client 0 2 Actual creation of the targeted message that portrays the brand in its social environment Creating portraits o 1 Sales Pitch o 2 Produce adcollection of ads illustrating the sales pitch 0 3 Positioning I Making a particular target group of consumers feels that brand relates to their interests and lifestyle 0 4 Testing People who work in the advertising industry s production area are called creatives Distribution Media planners responsible for determining where to place campaign ads and rely on demographic psychographic and lifestyle data Factors in media planning decisions 0 Media outlet s reach and efficient in reaching target audience CPM cost per thousand o Other factors include content environment surrounding ad and the ad s relative visibility Exhibition Goal Exhibit an ad across a variety of media to a target audience Advertising campaign the entire set of ads using a particular theme to promote a product for a certain period of time Media conglomerate advantages 0 Crossplatform deals I Deal between crossmedia conglomerate and advertiser I Agreements with one part of conglomerate across many media brands 0 Tracking consumers I Locationbased advertisement use ofmobile phones to serve ads based on the location of consumer o 3 Strategies to grab attention I Increase relevance of ad to specific audiences I Make deletingskipping ads impossible I Disguise the ad product placement viral buzz or environmental marketing Media Literacy Criticism of impact of commercialism on social life impact ofadvertising on democracy and power of conglomerates Commercialism o Teaches that society is just marketplace o Ties identity formation to the buying ofproducts 0 Exploits children amp environment Ads amp Democracy 0 Advertising industry s power over media prevents people from learning about social groups not attractive to advertisers Power of Conglomerates o Consolidation increases advertising power over media content 0 Ad amp Media clutter Mass Communications 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Understanding Mass Media and the Importance of Media Literacy Media literacy thinking critically about how and why media is produced Empowers you as a responsible media citizen Knowing the forces and motivations behind media messages allows you to be a better judge of media content Convergence takes place when content traditionally confined to one medium appears on multiple channels Reshaping media boundaries Changing out use of the media Mass Production Process the industrial process that creates the potential for reaching millions even billions of diverse anonymous people at around the same time Industrial Nature what distinguishes mass communication from other forms of communication is the industrialized or mass production process that is involved in creating the message material Interpersonal communication a form of communication that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other using their voices facial and hand gestures and other signs that they use to convey meaning Mediated interpersonal communication a specialized type of interpersonal communication that is assisted by a device such as a pen or pencil a computer or a telephone Audiencefragmentation the mass audience is breaking up into smaller audience segments Message set of symbols that appear purposefully organized to sendersreceivers Communication at least one party understands the message Source Encoding Channel Receiver Decoding Feedback Noise Mass Communication the industrialized production and multiple distribution ofmessages through technological devices Mass Media 111 technological instruments through which mass communication takes place Massmedia outlets organizations that send out messages via mass media Three Components of the Industrial Process Innovation constant changes in the media product Research and Development Risk media industries are highrisk industries need for risk reduction 0 Consumer behavior is unpredictable regardless of audience research Social Functions of Media Content Enjoyment Social currency Companionship Surveillance and Interpretation Culture ways oflife that keep society together passed on to members of society through time Mass media produce culture 0 Identify norms ofbehavior 0 Produce and reinforce hierarchies ofpower 0 Construct identities I Criticism of mass media 0 Use of stereotypes use ofpolitical ideologies political and economic manipulation Homogenization Six Principles of Media Literacy Media materials are constructed Media material are created and distributed within a commercial environment Media materials are created and distributed within a political environment Mass media have the primary genres of entertainment news information education and advertising People are active recipients ofmedia messages Mass representations play a role in how society understands its reality Six Media Literacy Skills An understanding of the commercial forces behind media materials An awareness of the political in uences that shape media materials Ability to examine media content systematically for meaningful patterns Ability to think through the ethical implications of media firms activities An understanding of media research An awareness of how the public can in uence the production and distribution of massmedia materials Chapter 2 Making Sense of the Media Business Media business is big business Six Primary Activities of Media Industries Production 0 The creation of massmedia material from distribution through one or more massmedia vehicles Distribution 0 Delivery of the produced material to the point where it will be shown to its intended audience I Key to successful product I A firm s ability to ensure that the media product ends up in the best location for viewing sale Exhibition 0 Activities for presenting massmedia materials to audience for viewingpurchase I Shelf Space amount of spacetime available for presenting products to customers Audience research 0 Aimed at identifying the target audience for the media product 0 Way to reduce the risk by linking target audience to production distribution exhibition I Audiences are constructed by media industries to meet their needs and the needs of advertisers 0 Types of Research 0 Demographics characteristics by which people are divided unto particular social categories age gender Psychographics categories based on attitudes personality types and motivations art lovers idea hunters Lifestyle categories based on types of activities in which potential audiences are involved skateboarders gourmet home chefs O O Finance 0 Money to fund new production 0 Money to pay for already completed product I Direct Sales Licensing fees rentals usage fees subscriptions advertising Government regulation Vertical integration control over media product from production through distribution to exhibition 0 Reduces risk by limiting audiences choice and assuring control over production distribution and exhibition 0 Potentially subject to regulatory intervention Genre category of artistic composition marked by distinctive style form or content Genreformula patterned approach to content creation Five Primary Genres Entertainment 0 Setting Typical characters patterns of action News 0 Hard news investigative reports editorials soft news Information 0 Information gathers data collection onlineampInformation retrieval LexisNexis Education 0 Teaches people specific ideas 0 Determined by age and intellectual development of the audience Advertisement 0 Informational ads Hardsell ads Softsell ads Hybridity mixing genres and subgenres to create a new media product Advertising amp Entertainment product placement in film Education amp Entertainment Sesame Street News amp Entertainment The Colbert ReportThe Daily Show Risk Reduction Use of creative personnel with successful track record Use of content successful in the past Use of established content genres targeted to predictable audiences Chapter 3 Formal and Informal Controls on Media Content Government Regulation Four Approaches to Media Regulation Authoritarian 0 Owners of mass media are supports of the regime o Massmedia content strictly adheres to party line Nazis Communist 0 Government determines what the population experiences through media outlets so as to convey communist beliefs North Korea Cuba Libertarian o Assumes individuals capable of making sound decisions for themselves 0 Government intervenes rarely and not in mass media Social responsibility 0 Importance of the individual and the marketplace ofideas 0 Real competition happens only with government action 0 Certain content is harmful I Public Television Copyright the legal protection of an author s right to a work 0 Copyright Act of 1976 amended 19781998 works protected for creator s lifetime plus 70 years Fair Use of Copyright Excerpts used in critical analysis Nonprofit educational use Transformative interpretations Parodies 0 Not always clear when fair use applies Federal Trade Commission oversees most commercial speech may censor falsedeceptive ads State Regulation of Media Regulation after distribution Defamation highly disreputablefalse statement about personorganization that injures reputation Libel Slander Libel 0 Written communication that is considered harmful to a person s reputation I Depends on Whether libel in itself or implied Privatepublic person Simpleactual malice Negligence I Evidentiary requirements 0 Published defamation Identified plaintiff Harmed plaintiff Defendant at fault Defamation was false Slander o Spoken communication that is considered harmful to a person s reputation FCC regulations 0 Fairness doctrine requires broadcasters to provide some degree of balance in the presentation of controversial issues no longer actively enforced o Equaltime rule requires broadcasters to provide equal amounts of time in comparable parts of the day and the rates to legally qualified candidates applies ONLY to candidates Privacy 0 The right to be protected from unwanted intrusions or disclosures I False light I Appropriation I Intrusion I Public Disclosure 0 Sources ofprotection I Cable Telecommunications Act of 1984 I Video Privacy Act of1998 I Children s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1988 State Regulation of Media Economic Regulation Antitrust laws 0 Limit excessive market control by media companies Direct regulation by governmental agencies FTC FCC Control of Press Access Limits on journalists access to government documents Limits to journalists access to government meetings Courts may rule against journalists privileges of source protection 0 Iournalists may use I Freedom ofInformation Act FOIA I Sunshine Laws I Shield Laws Media SelfRegulation Stakeholders members of the public advocacy organizations and advertisers who can in uence the creation of media content 0 Types of stakeholders I Members of the public I Public advocacy organizations I Advertisers Internal SelfRegulation Internal Pressures Editorial standards Ombudspersons Associations that maintain professional codes of ethic Rating systems Press councils Iournalism reviews Ethics System ofprinciples about what is right that helps regulate a person s actions 0 Approaches to classical ethics I Golden Mean I Golden Rule I Categorical imperative I Principle of utility I Veil ofignorance 0 Media professional s ethical duties I Duty to self audience employer profession promiseholders and society 0 Media Literacy I The more you know about media regulation the more your critical awareness increases I Knowing the laws controlling particular media is crucial for intervening when you dislike content Chapter 4 Making Sense of Research on Media effects and Media Culture MassMedia Research 0 Conceptual I Perspectives we should use when researching media history ethics 0 Empirical I Research involving data collection reporting 0 Quantitative I Data collection report in number form experiments surveys content analysis 0 Qualitative I Data collection to understand meanings history ethnography Evaluating Research Nature of sample sample size design of study reliability soundness of analysis validity Chicago School Robert Park John Dewey Charles Cooley Role of mass media for community 0 Claims I Popularity of mass media led to new communities I Mass media brought together geographically dispersed individuals I Mass media taught idea for democracy Propaganda Research Harold Lasswell Role of mass media for persuasion Walter Lippmann 0 Power of the media to create quotideas in our heads Hypodermicneedle model mass media messages persuaded all people directly without people being able to control how they reacted Payne Fund Studies Mid1920s Early 1930s Impact of mass media on children 0 Claims I Negative effect of movies on children I Movie impact depends on individual differences Columbia School 1940s Harold Lazarsfeld Robert Merton Elihu Katz Mediating effects ofmedia impact Twostep ow model of communication 0 Mass media content first picked up by opinion leaders who in turn in uence others through discussions Active audiences Focus on why people used mass media uses amp gratifications research American Soldier 1940s Carl Hovland Limits ofpropaganda effects 0 Concluded that the effect of massmedia propaganda on soldiers was very limited Yale Program Under normal circumstances and in varied communication environments minimal massmedia ability to sway people s opinions on controversial issues Mainstream Media Research 1950s Opinion and behavior change What people learn from ass media How people use mass media uses amp gratifications I Model of active audience I Research on digital divide 0 Conditions for media impact I Individual reactions depend on background social setting personality I Consistent exposure to sexual violent 9 desensitization Agenda setting 1970 Maxwell McCombs Donald Shaw 0 Mass media tell people not what to think but what to think about 0 Knowledge gap effect Theory To understand mass communication theory recognize that 0 There is no one mass communication theory 0 Mass communication theories are often borrowed from other fields ofscience 0 Mass communication theories are human constructions 0 Mass communication theories are dynamic The Scientific Perspective 0 Researchers learned that media in uence was limited by individual differences social categories and personal relationships 0 Theories that emerged from this era of the first systematic and scientific study of media effects now called limited effects theories Developing a Theory Bodies of knowledge pass through various stages of development 0 Hypotheses put forth tested and supported or rejected 0 Uniform theory or paradigm a theory that summarizes and is consistent with all known facts results 0 As new facts emerge and knowledge and understanding increase a paradigm shift a fundamental even radical rethinking of what we believe to be true can occur Critical Approaches Criticism of the mainstream research agenda 0 Focuses on change rather than reinforcement ofbeliefs o Overemphasis ofindividuals relationships with the media Research program 0 Power of the media to reinforce beliefs status quo o Forces that shape media industries 3 Main Critical Approaches 0 Frankfurt Schools 1940s I Theodore Adorno how culture industries shaped audiences view of the world I Herbert Marcuse how mass media contain messages about social power I Other theorists Walter Benjamin Max Horkheimer 0 Political Economy I Robert McChesney Ben Bagdikian Herbert Schiller o How institutional relations shape media content 0 Cultural colonialism and globalization 0 Relationship between minorities and mainstream media 0 Annenberg School cultivation research I Cultivations studies George Gerbner claims about longterm exposure to mainstream media 0 Reinforces stereotypes 0 quotmean world syndrome 0 reinforces status quo 0 1980s the quotmeaningmakingquot role ofmedia texts I Historical I Anthropological I Linguistic


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