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by: Christophe Bernier


Christophe Bernier
GPA 3.89


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Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christophe Bernier on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/223155/mc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Ch 2 The Internet and New Technologies STU DY G U I D E III Origins of the Internet The Birth of the Internet Know why ARPAnet s quotdistributed networkquot design was significant to those who designed it Be able to explain how 1 the Web s quothypertextquot or hyperlinks 2 HTML code and 3 web browsers transformed the Internet into the rockin World Wide Web we know and love today The Internet Grows Up Understand how Yahoo became the first major Internet quotportal I and what that means III The Structure of the Internet Today Internet Service Providers Study the paragraph on AOL especially re its merger and its decline Directories and Search Engines Study the 3 paragraphs that start with Google s 1998 release Media Convergence Online Know what convergence means what kind of impact it has had on culture and traditional media industries who has benefitted from it see Apple and what its critics say about it El Ownership Issues on the Internet Major Players This section focuses on Microsoft but I think it s on its way out Google s the one to watch So just study the last 2 paragraphs Alternate Voices Boo this section doesn t explain what opensource means Let s see what Wikipedia an opensource application itself explains it quotOpen source is an approach to design development and distribution that offers practical accessibility to a product39s source goods and knowledge The principles and practices are commonly applied to the peer production development of source code for software that is made available for public collaborationquot Okay in other words it s about creative sharing Most media and technology companies claim proprietary copyright on everything they create Apple took this to the extreme with its operating system back in the 1980s which is why there s more cool stuff available for a PC than for a Mac The idea with opensource software content etc is that you make your data available usually free so others can build on it tweak it etc I generally heap praise on all things open source except for this semester Why Because Moodle is opensource Grrrrrr Makes you suspect that maybe you DO get what you pay for or don t in this case Anyway just study the two subsections that talk about Linux and Wikis Open Source Software Wiki Web Sites El Free Expression Security and Access Liv We I like that this section mentions the Telecommunications Act of 1996 at least the CDA portion but all you need to remember about the Telecomm Act s CDA is what I told you in class That it quotsuggestedquot that the TV and cable networks come up with their own voluntary ratings system then required TV manufacturers to put VChips in TV sets that could quotreadquot those ratings Do check out what it says about swapping porn on filesharing sites just for fun The Economics of the Digital Divide What s the digital divide and what quotdemosquot tend put you on the wrong side of it How is WiFi being used to bridge that divide El Citizens the Internet and Democracy Is the Internet a democratizing medium or not What are the arguments on each side I To understand what atoms are I To understand how atoms interact to form molecules I To understand why water is so important to life I What Are Atoms Atoms are basic structural units composed of still smaller particles Electrons orbit the nucleus at fixed distances called orbitals Life depends on the ability of electrons to capture and release energy matter I Atoms are the fundamental structural units of and are composed of 3 types of particles Protons positively charged Located l the central atomic Neutrons uncharged nucleus Electrons negatively charged Located the orb around the central ln orbit amundthe nucleus ammo uceug Atoms are electrically neutral because their number of positive protons and negative electrons is equal I An element is a substance that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical reactions I All atoms belong to one of 92 types of naturally occurring elements I An atomic number of protons is the defining value for an element For example carbon has 6 protons nitrogen has 7 i nilh L l39 quot e e 6 t 39 39 i 3733 e a Hydrogen H h Helium He The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is known as its atomic number The atomic mass of an element is the total mass of its protons neutrons and elec rons Atoms ofan element may vary in the number of neutrons they have In the nucleus Variant atomic forms of an element are called Some isotopes are radioactive meaning that they spontaneoust break apart and release energy and are used in research and medicine Radioactive isotopes used in medicine give off energy gamma rays that can target s ecific cells eg cancer ce Is but at a levelt at does not directly harm other cells I1 12 s IIIII II WE s I I IIIII I I IIIII Elements may occur as solids liquids and gases Electron shells Larger atoms can accommodate more electrons than smaller ones can Electrons are distributed around the nucleus of an atom in electron she Is The first shell or energy level holds 2 s The second shell and higher hold up to Electron shells The roles of the nucleus and the electrons are The nucleus provides stability The electrons interact with other atoms for example to form chemical ban 5 Chemical bonds are the force of attraction between neighboring atoms that holds them together within a molecule mm El 6 Lullain al 7 a at 2 2e 2 3 15 2W xquot 187v 2nquot Dwml mmwsm Diumvlhl G 391 iThe rst shell orenergy level holds 2 electrons iThe second shell and beyond hold up to 8 Life depends on electrons capturing and releasing energy Electron shells correspond to energy levels When energy excites an atom it causes an electron to jump from a lower to a higher energy shell Later the electron falls back into its original shell releasing the energy Flu 272 Ii Muttiii Atoms interact when there are vacancies in the outermost electron shells etheelmrnndrnns Chemical bonds hold atoms together in m m 9izii nquots mu u cti i i z simnmy hmherenwuymell mam m0 90 es mmV777 Jen Wm quotTheirstsheii WWW cmmm orenergyleyel E t x I hold52 9 A electrons i l i 9 i i i l quotThe Second Shell holds up to 8 Antaclla mwun Fig 273 up Echuvges rillaz rllw 3L quotTV Ll iri AMEN Interaction between atoms I Interaction between atoms Molecules consist of 2 or more atoms from the Atoms Wl nOt r aCt With Other atoms i t same or different elements that are held outermost shell is completely full such atoms together by interactions among their outermost are cons39dered men electron S ens Example Neon With 8 electrons in its outermost shell is full and therefore is inert Reactions between atoms depend upon the confi uration of electrons in the outermost electgon she Atoms will react with other atoms if the outermost shell is partially full such atoms are considered reactive Example Oxygen with 6 electrons in its outermost shell can hold 2 more electrons and so is susceptible to reacting v fanaye ti 1 l awn Milieu 513 Miami Interaction between atoms 39 Single electrons 39 Hydrogen and Reactive atoms gain stability through electron from eaCh Of 2 interactions chemical reactions To empty the outermost shell electrons can be lost To fill the outermost shell electrons can be gained oxygen aoms ydrogen gain stabilityby molecules fillthe Interactlng With outer shell of an oxygen atom Eectrons can be shared with another atom when both atoms have full outermost shells Hydrogen MolemleiH find it lifti711 li39U lHtli knlK 3L quotTV Lil39i rJJHl iN limitr1 in turn tiling ii I Some cellular reactions produce free radicals Chemical bonds hold atoms together Within molecules QZeargiar1mggrm A chemical reaction is a process by which new quotWalequot l W i alf l iiSgeo ii s i fff i Z S i hifre h H m r in WW 1 e s Meme rawmum I Free radicals are highly 9quot F55 unstable and reactive Free radicals steal electrons destroying other molecules Cell death can occurfrom free radical attack I Ionic bonds form among charged atoms that are called ions 16m amid in manage Moli zjlk W mm I Covalent bonds form between uncharged quot quot atoms that share electrons ovilenl um may Dzmrs bniwenn m m anyquot mm m mm a m n I Hydrogen bonds are attractlve forces between Wit 1213 2232 W quot 32C 7 L J il f lilifizlillltw polar molecules Table 272 gt cm LIquot 1 Ions and ionic bonds Ions and ionic bonds Salt crystals are formed by a repeated orderly arrangement of sodium and chloride ions Atoms that have lost or gained electrons thereby altering the balance between protons and electrons are charged and are called ions Atoms that have lost electrons become positively charged ions eg sodium Nat Atoms that have gained electrons become negatively charged ions eg chlorine Ct Oppositer charged ions that are attracted to each other are bound into a molecule by ionic bonds Covalent bonds form between uncharged atoms that share electrons An atom with a partially full outermost electron shell can become stable by sharing electrons with another atom forming a covalent bond Two electrons one from each atom when shared form a covalent bond Covalent bonds are found in H2 02 N2 and H20 Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds but vary in their stability Covalent bonds form between uncharged atoms that share electrons Ionic bonds rapidly dissociate break down in water Biological molecules must function in a watery environment so the atoms in most biological molecules eg proteins sugars and fats are joined by covalent bonds xlfprllaz rllm How electrons are shared determines whether a covalent bond is nonpolar or polar Atoms within a molecule may have different nuclear charges Those atoms with a greater positive nuclear charge pull more strongly on electrons in a covalent bond In molecules like H2 both atoms exert the same pulling force on bond electrons and the bond is called a nonpolar covalent bond 3L quotTV Kiri Agllglliarrc N How electrons are shared determines whether a covalent bond is nonpolar or polar In molecules where atoms of different elements are involved H20 the electrons are not always equally shared and these covalent bonds are called polar covalent bonds How electrons are shared determines whether a covalent bond is nonpolar or polar A molecule with polar bonds may be polar overall We egmyheere n H2O is a polar molecule gherge e 7 fl Li imi The slightly positively charged pole is around each hydro z reiheheer The slightly negatively charged pole is around the ox en hel rge huge gem Jeaual g he hee my hygrggehe ghghergeg eeehhggrege shere ggewe drogms Wge slightly D sitivE 7 e77 m gas on m 3KlnrllirslvileniIlnilhgmhyirlgen IPolarovalen honilngmwakrNg xg rrllaz rllw 3L quotTV Kiri LJHWN g Hydrogen bonds are attractive forces between polar molecules Polar molecules such as those in water have partially charged atoms at their ends Hydrogen bonds are attractive forces between polar molecules Polar biological molecules can form hydrogen Hydrogen bonds form when partial opposite bonds with water each other or even within the same molecule charges in different molecules attract each other The partially positive hydrogen atoms of one water molecule are attracted to the partially negative oxygen on anothe Hydr gen bonds are comparatively weak but collectively can be quite strong hmull Fig 1397 4m 1 ll lt13 Water molecules attract one another Cohesion is the tendency of the molecules of a single substance to stick together Hydrogen bonding between water molecules 5 on produces high co e Watercohesion explains how water molecules can form a chain in delivering moisture to the top of a tree Cohesion of water molecules along a surface produces surface tension Spiders and water striders rely on surface tension to move across the surface of ponds Water molecules attract one another Water molecules stick to polar or charged surfaces according to the property called adhesion Adhesion helps water climb up the thin tubes of plants to the leaves Water interacts with many other molecules Water is an excellent solvent A wide range of substances dissolve are completely surrounded and dispersed in water to form solutions Wit 3 6 r 3 M Jamal Water interacts with many other molecules Water moderates the effects of temperature Water soluble molecules are hydrophilic Change Water molecules are attracted to and can Very low orvery high temperatures may damage surround and thereby dissolve ions or polar ethmeS 0F Slow down important Chemical molecules such as sugars and amino acids reaCtiOhS Waterinsoluble molecules that repel and drive Water helps to absorb some 0f the heat and together uncharged and nonpolar molecules like PFOteCtS SUbStahceS Within the water from fats and oils are hydrophobic damage The clumping of nonpolar molecules is called hydrophobic interaction 3 LJPQIHHH m u Waterforms an unusual solid ice Ice floats in liquid water Ponds and lakes freeze from the top down and never freeze completely to the bottom Many plants and fish are therefore saved from Waterforms an unusual solid ice Most substances become denser when they solidify from a liquid Ice is unusual because it is less dense than freezmg liquid water Water molecules spread apart slightly during the freezing process


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