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by: Arne Stoltenberg


Arne Stoltenberg
GPA 3.62

D. Himelrick

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D. Himelrick
Class Notes
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Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arne Stoltenberg on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGRO 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Himelrick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/223174/agro-1001-louisiana-state-university in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
NP P PP E Jquot l i i i i Lo 00 imuI 39 39 00 O u N W N l N P AGRONOMY 1001TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE Students spend 75 of their time socializing and sleeping only 16 is spent studying 68 of Americans are overweight or obese Modern day farming is traced to the Neolithic revolution Rice wheat and corn account for most of the world s caloric intake Rice wheat and corn provide 60 of the world s food energy intake Cassava is the most important food crop grown on the African continent Farmers only receive 20 cents on the dollar that consumers spend the rest in consumed in marketing processing wholesaling distribution and retailing The main staple foods in the average African diet are cereals roots tuber and animal products This is also true for Western Europe Agronomy is that component of agriculture which is concerned with the theory and practice of growing crops and with the management of soils Horticulture deals with high value intensively managed crops Agronomy deals with highly mechanized large acreage crops Horticulture is quality crops agronomy is quantity crops The Fertile Crescent was the site of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants in 8000bc The dawn of agriculture may have come with the domestication of fig trees in the near east some 11400 years ago Roughly 1000 years before staple crops such as wheat barley and legumes were domesticated in the region Pulses have the ability to fix nitrogen making them a key crop in crop rotation Pulses are high in protein and essential amino acids Pulses are annual legumes harvested solely for the dry grain Biological nitrogen fixation occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by an enzyme called nitrogenase New world to old world agricultural items are com potatoes tomatoes peppers chocolate vanilla tobacco beans pumpkins peanuts cashews blueberries wild rice squashes sweet potatoes and quinine Old world to new world agricultural items are horses cattle pigs sheep chickens honey bees wheat Asian rice okra peaches pears watermelon bananas olives and chickpeas The three staples of Native American food are com squash and beans For many Native Americans this triad is called the llThree sisters All three of the triad originally came from Mexico Central and South America Slowly making their way north to our native people Pecans originated in the Mississippi Valley They were not commonly cultivated until the 19 h century Pilgrims thanksgiving menu did not include items such as ham potatoes sweet potatoes corn on the cob cranberry sauce pumpkin pie chickeneggs or milk N U39I NN you N 9 N 59 W O W II W N W 0 040 In W 0 WWW RDOOV The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period between the early 15 h to the early 17 h centuries During which time European ships traveled the world in search of new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe They were also in search of gold silver and spices Humans began to use spices for In Its ability to mask the odor of rotting food b Neutralize unpleasant odors c Act as antibacterial and antifungal agents d Provide nutritional components e Yield a physiological quothighquot f Make otherwise dull food more interesting Most of the early explorers had the immediate task of finding a direct trade route to India and the Far East in order to obtain spices These explorers included Ferdinand Magellan and Christopher Columbus of Spain and Vasco de Game of Portugal Moluccas Islands were known as the spice Islands The Columbian exchange is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy oranges in Florida chocolates in Switzerland and chili peppers in Thailand Also a number of creatures of which the colonist knew nothing about and had never seen hitched along these being I I I I I II I I I earthworms African grasses bacteria fungi viruses and rats of every description Chili pepper is the most used spice in the world Though its monetary value is very little due to the fact that is readily cultivated by its consumers A spice is considered any of various pungent aromatic plant substances used to flavor food any of various aromatic plant products used to season or flavor foods Spices are usually dried for use and have distinctive flavors and aromas An herb is considered any of various often aromatic plants used especially in medicine or as seasoning a plant or part of a plant that s valued for its medicinal savory or aromatic qualities any plant used as a medicine seasoning or flavoring Condiments are considered anything that is used to enhance the flavor of food Only three of the new world spices caught on those being allspice red pepper and vanilla But its wealth of new vegetables eventually transformed the cuisine of the old world Spices native regions are Pepper IndiaSri Lanka Nutmeg Moluccas Mace Moluccas Cinnamon IndiaSri Lanka 5353957 Cloves Moluccas f Ginger Tropical Asia Top five producers of spices are 1 India 2 China 3 Turkey 4 Bangladesh 5 Pakistan Top five producers of pepper are 1 Indonesia 2 Viet Nam 3 Brazil 4 India 5 China Green Cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight bb Nl bb bus 4 m U39IU39I Nl U39I 00 Saffron is the most expensive spice Vanilla is the second most expensive The most dangerous animal that ever lived is the mosquito Half of all human beings who have ever died 45 billion have been killed by diseases carried by mosquitoes Today mosquitoes kill 1 person every 12 seconds 40 of the world s population lives in malaria risk areas Close to 90 of the world s malaria cases occur in Africa The number one killer on young adults age 1529 is automobile accidents The spread of malaria and its economic impact prompted the Bureau of Entomology of the US dept of Agriculture USDA to establish a research lab at Mound Louisiana in 1913 Only certain species of the Anopheles genus and only females of these species can transmit malaria Plant extracted antimalarial drugs include quinine and artemisinin Quinine is derived from the bark of several species on Cinchona The Cinchona tree was call quina quina by the indigenous people of Peru Thus the name quinine First use of the powdered Cinchona bark was recorded by the Jesuits in 1633 The Jesuit fathers were the primary exporters and importers on quinine during this time Dutch and British began to cultivate cinchona trees due to the rise in demand for quinine but the species they had was very low in quinine content A British obtained seeds ofa relatively potent Bolivian species Cinchona ledgeriana English reluctant to purchase more trees with possibly low quinine content refused to buy the seeds The Dutch bought the seeds planted them in Java and monopolized the world s supply of quinine for almost 100 years Japanese seized control of Java during World War II The Dutch took seeds from Java but had no time to grow new trees to supply their troops stationed in the tropics The US sent a group of botanist to Columbia to obtain enough quinine to use throughout the war In 1944 an American scientist developed synthetic quinine The synthetic quinine was effective and had less side effects The need for natural quinine subsided until the causative malarial parasite became resistant to synthetic quinine preparations Interestingly the parasites have yet to develop a full resistance to natural quinine Many historians today think quinine permitted the European conquest of the tropics Quinine structure is C20H24N202 Quinine genus Cinchona Species officinalis ledgeriana succirubra calisaya Common names Quinine tree Peruvian bark Jesuit s bark quinaquina and fever tree Native range spans Costa Rica Venezuela Ecuador Peru and Bolivia Joseph Priestley made the first drinkable glass of carbonated water Schweppes was granted and English patent for tonic water in 1858 and brought it to the US in 1953 m 4 0 U1 mm IOH 0 RD l O l l N l W I 4 l U39I l 0 ll 00V l RD 00 O 00 00 N 00 W 00 4 00 U1 00 0 Schweppes claims to have invented the soft drink business by patenting the process for carbonating water in 1783 Early carbonated drinks had round bottoms to keep the cork wet Tonic water glows in UV light People who inherit two hemoglobin genes with the sicklecell mutation become ill and die often but those who inherit only one gene with the mutation are resistant to malaria In the ancient ruins of Peru and Chile archaeologists have found potato remains that date back to 500 BC The Incas grew ate and worshiped potatoes The Incas even buried their dead with potatoes They stashed potatoes in concealed bins for use in case of war or famine They dried them and carried them on long journeys to eat on the way The potato is the most important noncereal crop in the world and fourth most important crop overall The only crops more important are corn wheat and rice Potatoes for all practical purposes fall into two categories a Baking potatoes which are high in starchamylose starch b Boiling potatoes which are low in starchAmylopectin starch Boiling potatoes are also called waxy potatoes They are relatively high in moisture and sugar but low in starch Potato chips are Americas most popular snack food They are made from baking potatoes French fries account for more than M of all potatoes sold in the US market today Potato solanum tubersum originated in the highlands of South America where it has been consumed for more than 8000 years Spanish explorers brought the plant to Europe in the late 16 h century as a botanical curiosity By the 19 h century it had spread throughout the whole continent providing cheap and abundant food for the workers of the Industrial Revolution In the old world potatoes were used primarily to feed hospital inmates The stems and leaves of potatoes are poisonous In Europe the potato was cultivated primarily as a curiosity by the amateur botanists The potato famine in Ireland cut the population by halfthrough starvation and emigration The 1840s was the start of the potato blight a fungicide was not found until 1883 by a French botanist The potato was domesticated in the proximities of Lake Titicaca near the current border between Peru and Bolivia The llGreat Irish Famine or the quotGreat Hungerquot was a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 This famine was initially caused by potato blight A monoculture is a cultural system in which a single variety is grown making it vulnerable to total crop failures if a devastating pest attacks 00 l Genetic modification GM occurs when scientists isolate a gene from one plant or animal and successfully introduce that gene to another plant or animal thus changing its genetic code and function 00 00 Top 5 potato producing states in America are 1 Idaho 2Washington 3Wisconsin 4 Colorado and 5 Oregon 00 RD The US is the 5 h largest producer of potatoes in the world RD 53 More than 1 in 10 potatoes produced in the US is exported RD The potato plant is an herbaceous annual 92 Underground the stems of potatoes extend into structures called stolon s The ends of the stolon s may enlarge greatly to form a few to more than 20 tubers of variable size and shape 93 The tubers bear spirally arranged buds in the axils of aborted leaves of which scars remain They grow into plants identical to the plant that bore the tubers 94 A tuber is a modified enlarged stem of a plant which develops at the tip of a stolon 95 A stolon is a slender horizontal stem of a plant that grows on or near the surface of the ground 96 An eye ofa potato is a bud or growing spot for a new plant RD l Seed potatoes are potatoes that are grown to be planted and produce new potato plants 98 A certified seed potato is grown in a program to ensure genetic purity and freedom from disease 99 CIP maintains the world s largest bank of potato germplasm The collection is maintained under the auspices of the FAO and is available to plant breeders worldwide free upon request 100 Sugar has had 5 main uses medicine spice material used to make sculptures sweetener and a preservative 101 From the 10 h to the 18 h century sugar was considered a wonder drug 102 Every medicine used during the llBlack Plague contained sugar 103 Sugar brought slavery to the Americas and entirely to the Western Hemisphere new world 104 70 of the enslaved people brought to the new world were used to produce sugar the most labor intensive crop 105 For thousands of years people used the sap and juice extracted from plants to obtain sweet syrups Ex wild date palm sugar palm sorghum and sugar maple 106 Today only two plant sources provide most of the natural sweeteners sugar cane and sugar beets 107 It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India 108 New Guinea is the home of a cultivated form of sugarcane Highfiber forms were used for construction softer juicier forms were propagated in gardens for chewing From about 8000 BC on people migrated from New Guinea to several Pacific Islands taking a cultivated form of sugarcane with them It later reached Indonesia the Philippines and Northern India By 400 BC crude sugar was developed 109 The Egyptians developed clarification crystallization and refining 110 Columbus introduced sugarcane to the new world in 1493 111 The first sugarcane planted in the new Americas was planted by Christopher Columbus in what is now the Dominican Republic 112 Sugar reached Louisiana in the late 1700 s 113 Sugarcane was cultivated in India in 400 BCE 114 Sugarcane cultivation technology was carried to China and Arabia 115 Crusades brought sugarcane cultivation to Europe 116 In 1791 Capt Bligh transported Saccharum officinarum noble canes from Tahiti to Jamaica 117 Plantation agriculture first developed in Brazil and spread to new world 118 By 1640 sugarcane had become the crop of choice in Haiti Puerto Rico Jamaica and Cuba 119 International trading companies moved goods and people across the Atlantic Ocean in a pattern known as the quottriangular trade 120 Ships filled with manufactured goods tools weapons and textiles sailed from Europe to West Africa where they were sold The profits bought sugar coffee cotton and tobacco which were sent back to Europe 121 Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts such molasses or directly from sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation The distillate a clear liquid is then usually aged in oak barrels 122 The Haitian Revolution was from 17911804 123 The Haitian Revolution enabled the Louisiana Purchase of 828000 square miles of Frances claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803 124 The LA purchase cost the US 15 million dollars less than 3 cents an acre 125 The LA purchase doubled the size of the US 126 Sugar sucrose is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable It is the major product of photosynthesis 127 Six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon dioxide produce one molecule of sugar plus six molecules of oxygen 128 Table sugar is called sucrose 129 Fruit sugar is called fructose 130 Milk sugar is called lactose 131 Malt sugar is called maltose 132 Sugar from honey of sweet fruits in called glucosealso called dextrose corn sugar or grape sugar 133 Glucose in a monosaccharide simple sugar and is an important carbohydrate in biology The cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediates 134 Sucrose glucosefructose 135 Sugar is produced in 121 countries and global production now exceeds 120 million tons a year 136 Approximately 70 of sugar is produced from sugar cane 137 The remaining 30 is produced from sugar beets 138 Sugar beets are a root crop resembling a large parsnip grown mostly in the temperate zones of the north 139 The US does not export any of its sugar 140 Top sugarcane producers 1 Brazil 2 India 3 China 4 Pakistan 5 MexicoThe US is 10 h in production 141 Sugarcane was originally from Southeast Asia Asia India and New Guinea 142 Sugar beets flourish in a climate that has a mean temperature of 70 deg F during the growing season 143 Sugar beets unlike sugarcane can be grown in temperate or cold climates 144 Top sugar beet producers 1 France 2 Germany 3 United States 4 Russia 5 Ukraine 145 40 of the sugar we consume is in soft drinks 146 Tobacco was believed by Native Americans to be a cureall and was used to dress wounds as well as a pain killer 147 Chewing tobacco was believed to relieve the pain of a toothache 148 The major reason for tobacco s growing popularity in Europe was its supposed healing properties 149 Europeans believed that tobacco could cure almost anything from bad breath to cancer Much of this thinking persisted until the 1950 s when evidence surfaced that smoking was linked to lung cancer 150 The origin of tobacco use in Europe started with the discovery of the Americas 151 It was the Taino Indians in Cuba that Columbus first encountered tobacco 152 Many of the founding fathers were tobacco growers and tobacco made many fortunes 153 Globally the use of tobacco is increasing although it is decreasing in highincome countries 154 More than 80 of smokers live in low and middle income countries 155 Tobacco is indigenous to the Americas 156 5070 varieties grow wild in North America at least 8 of which were smoked by native tribes 157 Nicotiana rustica and nicotiana quadrivalis were the most frequently used 158 Nicotiana tabacumthe most popular species of tobacco today was introduced from Mexico by Europeans making settlements on the eastern seaboard 159 After the Spanish successfully introduced tobacco to Europe and the British aristocracy adopted pipe smoking as a popular pastime its increasing cultivation formed the economic basis of the first successful English colonies in North America 160 By the 1630 s Virginia established tobacco and their staple crop and chief source of revenue 161 Around 1612 an entrepreneurial Virginia colonist seized on the growing popularity of pipe smoking in England planted imported seeds from Trinidad and Cuba in Roanoke and succeeded in harvesting good quality tobacco not the bitter Virginia weed used by Native Americans 162 Tobacco got its nicotianaquot genus name from the French ambassador to Portugal by the name of Jean Nicot 163 European traders dispersed tobacco throughout Asia and Africa and by 1605 it was recognized by the world 164 In 1622 Virginia farmers became the exclusive suppliers of tobacco to a large English and Irish market 165 At the time an acre of tobacco yielded for times the revenue of com 166 Tobacco is one of the top ten US cash crops 167 The US is 4 h in world production behind China Brazil and India And 3rd behind Brazil and China in exports 168 There are 4 tobacco classifications a Aircured these are dried naturally sheltered from sunlight in large barns The drying is carried out on the whole plant or as individual leaves Sugar is the by product of this 3 month drying process b Dark tobaccos these tobacco plants are very mature and developed at the time of picking The leaf is subjected to a second fermentation process These leaves are used to make cigars c Fire cured Akin to Dark its natural drying is completed by a wood fired fumigation d SunCured Almost all of Oriental tobaccos are cured by this method Oriental tobaccos are grown in Greece Turkey Bulgaria and adjoining countries 169 There are more than 4000 chemicals in tobacco smoke They include tar carbon monoxide nicotine cyanide formaldehyde and ammonia 170 Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants Solanaceae predominantly in tobacco and in lower quantities in tomato potato eggplant and peppers It is also found in the leaves of the coca plant 171 Nicotine serves as an antiherbivore chemical with relative effects as an insecticide due to its unique specificity to insects Low concentrations have a stimulating effect responsible for its addictive properties 172 Other than to help people quit smoking nicotine has no therapeutic value 173 Nicotine is considered addictive because it alters brain functioning 174 Nicotine is a quotreinforcingquot drug 175 Nicotine is more addictive than crack 176 Smoking kills more people each year than AIDS alcohol drug abuse car crashes murders suicides and fires combined 177 Perique tobacco was discovered by Pierre Chenet in the 1780 s when he observed the local Choctaw Indians smoking a tobacco that had been fermented under pressure in tree stumps using a press and a lever 178 In the 1820 s he developed a process of fermenting Perique tobacco anaerobically under pressure that endures essentially unchanged to this day 179 After fermentation for about a year the tobacco is jet black glossy and aromatic with a moist silky texture 180 Perique is from St James parish LA 181 Linen is made from flax 182 Cotton has been the most pesticidedependent crop in the world accounting for 25of the world s pesticides 183 Cotton is one of the 4 great natural raw materials from which we make fabrics and textiles Of the other 3 flax the source of linen is also from the plant world while wool and silk are animal products 184 Modern canvas is made of cotton or linen although it was historically made from Hemp 185 Half of the world s textiles today are made of cotton 186 Cotton is the most important fiber plant in the world 187 Of all the fiber sold worldwide over 40 is cotton 188 Two species of cotton G hirsutum and G barbadense were domesticated in the New World 189 G hirsutum accounts for 95 of the world s crop 190 No one knows exactly how old cotton is Cotton bolls in cloth have been found in cloth that proved to be over 7000 years old 191 The first evidence of cotton textiles has been discovered in the Indus River Valley in what is now Pakistan and western India dating back to 3000 BC similar textiles were found in Peru dating to 2500 BC 192 The first people to grow cotton for clothing towels and sheets were in India about 2500 BC 193 Major use of cotton began in India about 1500 BC India refined cultivation and ginning techniques and spread cotton throughout Asia Europe and parts of Africa 194 When Columbus discovered America he found cotton growing in the Bahamas 195 By 1500 cotton was known generally throughout the world 196 Cotton was brought to the new world by European settlers 197 Cotton was first spun by machinery in England in 1730 198 The Industrial Revolution in England and the invention of the cotton gin in the US in 1793 paved the way for the important place cotton holds in the world today 199 From 18701920 cotton was the only major cash crop in the South The boll weevil became the most devastating insect in the history of agriculture forcing thousands of farmers out of the cotton business 200 When the cotton picker was invented in 1927 each picker could replace more than 100 hand laborers the loss of these jobs began the process that would eventually lead to large permanent migrations of rural Southerners to the cities in search for jobs 201 Top 5 US cotton producing states 1 Texas 2 Mississippi 3 Georgia 4 Arkansas 5 N Carolina 202 China is the top cotton user and producer in the world 203 The bur of the cotton plant holds the locks of cotton in place when fully dried and fluffed and ready for harvest 204 Notill cotton is planted so that the residue between rows helps prevent moisture loss and weed growth 205 Once processed cotton fiber consists of nearly pure cellulose 206 Cotton fibers are single cell hairs that extend from the seed coats 207 Cotton seed consists of two parts the hull and the kernel 208 The major US oilseed crops are soybeans cottonseed sunflower seed canola and peanuts 209 Soybeans are the dominant oilseed accounting for about 90 of US oilseed production 210 Two types of genetically modified cotton have been introduce Bt cotton which is able to produce its own pest killing toxin And Roundup ready cotton which is developed to tolerate specific herbicide applications 211 A Pheremone is a chemical substance secreted externally by some animals that influences the physiology or behavior of other animals of the same species


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