New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Gladys Ritchie PhD


Gladys Ritchie PhD
GPA 3.97

Bobby Matthews

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Bobby Matthews
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Foreign Language

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gladys Ritchie PhD on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Bobby Matthews in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/223188/engl-2000-louisiana-state-university in Foreign Language at Louisiana State University.


Reviews for ENGLISH COMP


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 2 Prereferral Intervention A child who may need special education usually comes to the attention of the schools because p51 1 Ateacher or parent reports concern about differences in learning behavior or 39 39 2 The results of a screening test suggest a possible disabillL Before referring the child for more formal testing and evaluation for special education however most schools initiate a process known as pre referral intervention Many schools use intervention assistance teams also called student support teams or Dre referral 39 teams to help classroom teachers devise and implement interventions for students who are experiencing either academic or behavioral difficulties so that they can remain in the regular classroom p 54 Evaluation and Identification IDEA requires that all children suspected of having a disability receive a nondiscriminatory multifactored evaluation MFE p 55 Either the school or the parents can request that a child be evaluated for special education p55 IDEA requires that within g days of receiving parental consent for evaluation the school district must complete the evaluation to determine the child s eligibility for special education and identify the educational needs ofthe child p 55 The multi factored 39 quot is 39 Iby a school based muiti quot 39 quot y aluati team called a student study team which includes the child s parents The team examines the test results and all other relevant information to determine ifthe child has a disability and needs special education p56 Culturally and linguistically diverse students are both underrepresented and overrepresented in special education Disproportionate representation is problematic if it means that children have been wrongly placed in special 39 quot or results in segregation and 39 39 39 The process of referral and identification has not been applied equally across different groups of students p 56 Three areas have been identified as integral to the problem of overunder representation p57 1 Incongruity between teachers and culturally and linguistically diverse students and families which may lead to biased referral 2 Inarruratp of culturally diverse students 3 Ineffective curriculum and instructional practices for culturally diverse students Barrera 1995 notes that there are three potential sources of learning problems in children who come from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds p 58 1 unrecognized culturalZlinguistic diversity 2 deficits 39 from chronic poverty or trauma 3 disabilities To better meet the needs of students with disabilities from culturally diverse backgrounds schools should address three issues p 58 1 staff must become culturally responsive to students and families 2 staff must 39 39 appropriate strategies for determining the 39 39 needs of culturally diverse students 3 39 should 39 39 I 39 practices that support a 39 39 approach to curriculum and instruction Program Planning The IEP team determines the child has a disability that is adversely affecting his quot quot quot 39 39 39 program IEP must be planned and provided p 59 39 performance an Placement After the child s educational needs and the special education and related services necessary to meet those needs are determined the IEP team determines the least restrictive 39 in which an appropriate 39 quot can be provided to the child p 59 Review and Evaluation In addition to being specialized intensive and goal directed education is also continuously evaluated education p63 When it is properly practiced special The IEP must be thoroughly and formally reviewed on an annual basis p59 Teaming Multidisciplinary teams are Iof 39 from different quot 39 quot who work39 39 39 quot of one another Each team member conducts plans interventions and delivers services A concern is lack of communication among team members p61 Interdisciplinary teams are characterized by formal channels of 39 39 between members Although each professional usually conducts discipline specific assessments the interdisciplinary team meets to share information and develop intervention plans Members of transdisciplinary team seek to provide services in a uniform and integrated fashion by conducting 39oint assessments sharing information and expertise across discipline boundaries and selecting goals and interventions that are discipline free Members must learn to work collaboratively for the benefit ofthe student Coteaching p 62 Co teaching incorporates coordination ongoing communication and cooperation to ensure that services are provided in a timely and systematic fashion and consultation team members provide information and expertise to one another One teachingone helping one acts as lead teacher while other takes data or drifts Very simple approach and requires little planning Main problem that exists is that if the same teacher always takes the lead the other may feel like a glorified teaching aide and students may not accept this individual as their teacher Parallel teaching used to lower student teacher ratio Requires joint planning and for the teachers to coordinate their efforts so that the students receive essentially the same instruction Good for drill and practice projects requiring close supervision and test review Station teaching content is divided and each takes responsibility for part of it Requires teachers to plan together but individual teaching responsibilities May be a little noisy due to two teachers teaching at the same time Alternative teaching One teacher works with a small group of students to preteach or reteach while the other instructs the large group Good students with disabilities Make sure that the small groups are not stigmatizing to the students with disabilities Team teaching both teachers share instruction Requires the highest level of mutual trust and the most commitment Teachers may take turns modeling note taking leading discussions engage in role play simulate conflict and model appropriate question asking Individualized Education Program p63 IDEA requires that an E be developed and implemented for every student with disabilities between the ages of and a Individualized family service glans IFSPs are developed for infants and toddlers from birth until age 3 with disabilities Know IEP TEAM members p 63 1 Parents Regular education teachers Special education teachers LEA local education agency representative An individual who can interpret evaluation results Others at the discretion of the parent or school lO U IbUJN The student age 14 or older must be invited IEP Components know these components 1 A statement ofthe child s present levels of educational performance A statement of measurable annual goals including benchmarks or short term objectives A statement ofthe special education and related services and supplementary aids and services to be provided to the child on or behalf ofthe child and a statement ofthe program modifications or support for school personnel that will be provided for the child 4 An explanation of the extent if any to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and in the other activities Individual modifications UJN U39I 6 The projected date for the beginning and duration of services 7 Beginning at age 16 an individual transition plan must be developed Least Restrictive Environment p 73 IDEA requires that every student with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment LREI Summarize this provision of the law Based on the extent of the child s disability IDEA requires that disabled children should have a place in regular classrooms so that they may learn with children around them Continuum of Services p74 Children with disabilities and their families need a wide range of special education and related services Today most schools provide a continuum of services Know the continuum p 75 The continuum is a range of placement and service options to meet the individual needs of students with disabilities Placements range from the regular classrooms at the bottom to special schools residential facilities and hospital or home bound placements at the top Determining the LRE p 75 When is the LRE determined The IEP team is responsible for determining the curriculum and other educational programming services location of services and building to meet an individual child s educational needs quotLocationquot is the type of environment that is the appropriate place for the provision of special education and related services eg a regular education classroom a resource room The decisions must be made on a case by case basis To the maximum extent appropriate the child must participate with nondisabled peers Inclusive Education p76 Are the terms inclusion and least restrictive environment synonymous Why or why not No inclusion means educating students with disabilities in regular classrooms the LRE principle requires that students with disabilities be educated in settings as close to the regular class as possible in which an appropriate program can be provided and the child can make satisfactory educational progress Mental Retardation Guided Notes Chapter 4 De nition in IDEA 39 mctinning existing concurrenth 39 period that adversely affects a Mental retardation is de ned as signi canth subaverage general 39 quot with de cits in adaptive behavior and f 39 during the J 39 child s educational performance p 132 Three criteria must be met before the diagnosis of MR is given p 141 1 signi cant subaverage 39 quot 39 f quot 39 Signi cant refers to a score oftwo or more standard deviations below the mean on a standardized intelligence test 2 An individual must be well below average in both 39 quot 39 flmctinning and adaptive behavior Intellectual functioning is not the sole de ning criterion 3 De cits in 39 quot 39 f quot 39 and adaptive behavior must occur during the de 39 39 period to help I quot 39 39 mental from other disabilities The criterion that adversely affects a child s educational performance in the IDEA de nition is automatically met when a child exhibits 39 quot 39 quot quot quot in 39 quot 39 flmctinning and adaptive behavior 1239 For many years students with mental retardation in the public schools were classified as either educable mentally retarded EMR or trainable mentally retarded TMR p 133 Children with severe and profound mental retardation were not included in this twolevel classi cation system because they were not included in this twolevel classi cation system because they were often denied a public education and were likely to reside in a stateoperated institution Give IQ test scores for each of these levels of mental retardation Mild retardation 5055 to approximately 70 Moderate retardation 3540 to 5055 Severe retardation 2025 to 3540 Profound retardation Below 2025 AAMR S De nition Based on Needed Supports The 2002 de nition states Mental retardation is a disability characterized by signi cant quot quot quot in both 39 quot 39 mctinning and in adaptive behavior as J J in conceptual social and practical adaptive skills The following ve assumptions are essential to the application of the de nition 1 Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual s age peers and culture 2 Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as di erences in communication sensory motor and behavioral factors 3 Within the individual limitations often coexist with strengths 4 The purpose of descri bing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports 5 With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period the life functioning of the person with mental retardations generally will improve AAMR s 2002 system provides conceptual and procedural recommendations for functionally classifying mental retardation 39 to a pro le of needed supporters Needed supports are identi ed and classi ed by an interdisciplinary team according to four levels of intensities intermittent limited extensive and pervasive ILEP An interdisciplinary team develops a pro le of the types and intensity of needed supports within each of ve dimensions 1 Intellectual abilities 2 Adaptive behavior conceptual practical social skills 3 Participation interactions and social roles 4 Health physical health mental health etiological factors 5 Context environments culture and opportunities Identi cation and Assessment When assessing intellectual functioning as part of an evaluation for mental retardation and intelligence IQ test is given by a school psychologist or other professional trained to administer and interpret such tests An IQ test consists ofa series of questions eg vocabulary similarities problem solving eg mazes block desigps memory and other tasks assumed to require certain degrees of 39 quot39 to answer or solve correctlv In addition to being standardized tests the same questions and tasks are always presented in a certain speci ed way with the same scoring procedures used each time the test is administered 7 IQ tests are normreferenced m A normreferenced test is administered to a large sample of people selected at random from the population whom the test is intended Test scores of persons in the norming sample are then used to represent how scores on the test are generallv distributed quot 39 the 39 quot IQ scores seem to be distributed throughout the population according to a phenomenon called the normal curve To describe how a particular score varies from the mean or average score of all of the scores in the norm sample a 39 concept called the standard 1 39 quot is used u Theoretically an equal number of people score above and below the mean and about Q of the population falls two or more standard deviations below the mean which the AAMR calls sigpi cantly subaverage According to the AAMR a diagnosis of mental retardation requires an IQ score approximately two standard deviations below the mean which is approximately 70 or below on the two most widely used intelligence tests the Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children 7 Third Edition WISCIII and the StanfordBinet IV A higher IQ score of 75 or more may also be associated with metal retardation if according to clinician s judgment the child exhibits de cits in adaptive behavior thought to be caused by impaired 39 quot 39 functioning List the 7 considerations of IQ tests p 137 l The concept of intelligence is a hypothetical construct intelligence is something we infer from observed performance 2 An IQ test measure only how a child performs at one point in time on the items included on the test 3 Intelligence test can be culturally biased 4 IQ scores can change significantly observers are hesitant to label someone as MR because after an intensive systematic intervention their score might improve 5 Intelligence testing is not an exact science motivation time location and inconsistency aren t covered by the test manual 6 Results of an IQ test should never be used as the sole basis for making a decision on the provision or denial of special education services 7 Results from an IQ test should not be used to target educational objectives or design instruction Adaptive behavior is What are the 3 instruments used for assessing adaptive behavior that are frequently used 1 AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale a frequently used instrument for assessing adaptive behavior by schoolage children is the AAMR Adaptive Behavior ScaleSchool ABSS 2 Vinelanal Adaptive Behavior Scales 3 Scales of Independent Behavior Revised Characteristics p 1381 Mental retardation means substantial limitations in ageappropriate intellectual and adaptive behavior Many children with mental retardation are not identi ed until they enter school and sometimes not until the second or third grade when more dif cult academic work is required Most students with mild mental retardation master academic skills up to about the sixthgrade level and are able to learn job skills well enough to support quot 39 39 J r J ly or 39 J J J quoty Children with moderate retardation show sigpi cant delays in development during their preschool years As they grow older 139 39 in overall 39 quot 39 d velopment and adaptive f quot 39 generallv grow wider between these children and age mates without disabilities People with moderate retardation are more likely to have health and behavior problems than people with mild retardation Individuals with severe and profound mental retardation are almost always identi ed at birth or sh01tly after Most of these infants have signi cant central nervous system damage and many have additional disabilities andor health conditions Although IQ scores can serve as the basis for differentiating severe and profound retardation from one another the difference is primarily one of functional impairment Cogpitive Functioning De cits in cognitive functioning and learning styles characteristic of individuals with mental retardation include 1 Memory 2 Learning Rate 3 Attention 4 Generalization of Learning 5 Motivation Memory Students with MR have dif culty remembering information The more severe the impairment the greater the de cits in memog Research has found that students with MR have trouble retaining information in shortterm memory Short term memory or working memory is the ability to recall and use information that was J iust a few seconds to a couple of hours earlier Students with MR require more time than their nondisabled peers to automatically recall information and have more dif culty handling larger amounts of cognitive information at once Once person with MR learns a speci c item of information suf ciently to commit it to longterm memory information recalled after a period of days or weeks they retain that information about as well as persons without MR Focus on teaching metacognitive or executive control strategies such as rehearsing and organizing information into related sets which many children wo disabilities learn to do naturally Learning rate The rate at which individuals with MR acquire new knowledge and skills is well below that of typically developing children A frequently used measure or learning rate is trial to criterion the number of practice or instructional trials needed before a student can respond correctly without prompts or assistance Research has shown that students with MR bene t from opportunities to learn to go fas Attention Students with mental retardation often have trouble attending to relevant features of a learning task and may focus on irrelevant stimuli 39 J39 39J 39 with MR often have difficulty sustaining attention to learning m Effective instructional design for students with MR must systematically control for the presence and saliency of critical stimulus dimensions as well as the presence and effects of distracting stimuli After initially directing a student s attention to the most relevant feature of a simpli ed task and reinforcing correct responses the complexity and dif culty of the task can gradually be increased A student s selective and sustained attention to relevant stimuli will improve as he experiences success for doing so 139 39 Generalization of learning Students with disabilities especially those with MR often have trouble using their new knowledge and skills in settings or situations that differ from the context in which they rst learned those skills Transfer or generalization of learning occurs wo explicit programming for many children wo disabilities but may not be evident in students with mental retardation without speci c 39 to facilitate it Motivation Some students with MR exhibit an apparent lack of interest in learning or problemsolving tasks Some individuals with MR develop learned helplessness a condition in which a person who has experienced repeated failure comes to expect failure regardless of his or her efforts Some acquire a problemsolving approach called outer directedness in which they seem to distrust their own responses to situations and rely on others for assistance and solutions The current emphasis on teaching selfdetermination skills to students with MR is critical in helping them to become selfreliant problem solvers who act upon their world than passively wait to be acted upon Adaptive Behavior Describe these 3 areas and their signi cance for persons with MR 1 Selfcare and daily living skills rely on other individuals to help with basic skills like dressing eating and hygiene Direct instruction and environmental supports such as added prompts and simpli ed routines are necessary to ensure that de cits in these adaptive areas do not come to seriously limit one s quality of life 2 Social Development limited cognitive processing skills poor language development and unusual or inappropriate behaviors can seriously impede interacting with others 3 Behavioral excesses and challenging behavior dif culties accepting criticism limited selfcontrol and bizarre and inappropriate behaviors such as aggression or selfinjury Individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric conditions requiring mental health supports are known as duel diagnosis cases Prevalence If prevalence gures were based on IQ scores alone 23 of the population would have mental retardation US Of ce of Special Education Programs 2004 estimate that 570 643 of children receiving sped services have MR which is about of the totatl school age population Causes Prenatal before birth Perinatal during or shortly after birth Postnatal after birth Authors of a review of 13 epidemiological studies concluded that for approximately E of cases of mild mental retardation and Q of cases of severe mental retardation the cause is unknown Biomedical causes Speci c biomedical causes are identi ed for about twothirds of individuals with more severe forms of mental retardation The term syndrome refers to a number of symptoms or characteristics that occur together and provide the de ning features of a given disease or condition Down svndrome and fragile Xsvndrome are the two most common causes of inherited mental retardation Environmental causes Individuals with mild mental retardation those who require less intensive supports make up about 85 of all persons with MR When no biological factor is evident in an individual with MR the cause is presumed to be psychosocial disadvantage the combination of a poor social and cultural environment early in the child s life The term developmental retardation is also used as a synonym for Jo 39 39 39 139 advanta e to refer to mental retardation thought to be caused primarily by environmental in uences such as minimal opportunities to develop early langpage child abuse and neglect andor chronic social or sensog deprivation List the 4 key contributors to the cycle of environmentally caused retardation 1 Limited parenting practices that produce low rate of vocabulary growth in early childhood 2 Instructional practices in middle childhood and adolescence that produce low rates of academic engagement during the school years 3 Lower rates of academic achievement and early school failure and early school dropout 4 Parenthood and continuance of the progression into the next generation Prevention Why is the rubella vaccine so important When rubella is contracted by mothers during the rst 3 months of pregnancy it causes severe damage in 10 to 40 of unborn children Amniocentesis Withdrawing a sample of uid from the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus duing the second trimester of pregnancy Fetal cells are then grown in a cell culture for about 2 weeks chromosome and enzyme analysis is performed to identify the presence of about 80 speci c genetic disorders Chorion villus sampling A small amount of chorionic tissue is removed and tested This test is similar to Amnio but it can be performed about a month earlier and the cells can be analyzed immediately without waiting 2 weeks It is associated with a miscarriage rate of about 10 in 1000 as opposed to 25 in 1000 when the Amnio test is taken Phenylketonuria By analyzing the concentration of phenylalanine in a newbom s blood plasma doctors can diagnose PKU and treat it with a phenylalaninerestricted diet Most children with PKU who receive treatment have normal intellectual development Genetic counseling Women who are at risk for giving birth to baby with a disability on the basis of the parents genetic backgrounds are commonly referred to genetic counseling Discussion between a specially trained medical counselor and the prospecitive parents about the possibility that they may give birth to a child with disabilities Educational approaches Jean Marc Gaspard Itard pioneered methods for educating students with mental retardation 200 years ago His diary detailed his efforts to teach a young bov who was found in the woods and thought to be a feral child Functional Curriculum Learning activities in a functional curriculum are chosen because they will maximize a student s independence selfdirection and eniovment in evervdav school home quotI and work 39 Browder and Snell 2000 de ne f quot 39 J 39 as the most useful parts ofthe three R s reading writing and arithmetic Explain life skills Skills that will prepare students with MR for life after school Explain selfdetermination understanding of your strengths and weaknesses also means believing in yourself to the best ability Instructional methods Task analysis breaking down complex or multistep skills into smaller easiertoleam subtasks Need to consider the extent to which the natural environment requires performance of the target skill for a giver duration or at a minimum rate Active student response providing instruction with high levels of active student participation is important for all leamers especially those with disabilities ASR occurs when a student emits a detectable response to ongoing instruction This time of lesson will result in more learning than with one where the student does not respond Systematic reinforcement feedback is generally most effective when it is specific immediate positive frequent and differential What is the difference between acquisition stage of learning and practice stage of learning Acquisition Stage of Learning The instructional antecedent is spoken out loud childs response is out loud and the feedback is out loud Practice Stage of Learning the instructional antecedent is on a worksheet the response is written down takes more time to go back and fix each problem one by one the feedback delay is longer also Transfer for stimulus control trialanderror learning is inefficient and frustrating for students wo disabilities and it is a complete waste of time for children with MR and leaming disabilities Instead if you reinforce the correct response repeat the prompt and reinforce another correct student response then the children will understand better Name the 3 strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance 1 Aim for naturally occurring reinforcement contingencies teach only functional skills needed teach skills that students need to perform accurately and uently 2 Program common stimuli incorporate into teaching stimulation as many typical features of the generalization setting as possible teach common stimulus that child can take from teaching setting to generalization setting 3 Community based instruction teaching in the actual community where the child will use their new skills Direct and frequent measurement teachers should verify the effects of their instruction by directly and frequently measuring student performance


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.