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by: Gladys Ritchie PhD


Gladys Ritchie PhD
GPA 3.97

D. Bowles

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D. Bowles
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gladys Ritchie PhD on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Bowles in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/223193/engl-1001-louisiana-state-university in Foreign Language at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
Free Write 10272011 10200 AM Free Write Private 7 November 2011 How is the research going Are you ready to turn in your Annotated Bibliography on Wednesday The research is going ok there are some days when I forget to look up information so I feel like I won39t have as much to give I do think that I can understand I have no idea what I am saying I like to look up information but sometimes finding good information is harder than regular stuff I still don39t know what I am typing but Boz is not going to call on me so I guess I can just type whatever I want because he will never see this Although I might save it I am not ready right now to turn in my annotated bibliography but my tomorrow night it will be finished and ready for 940 am Wednesday I think that sometimes I get a little too side tracked when I look up my research because there is so much that I could be doing besides reading about global warming Although my topic is climate change on the environment I feel that it is a very serious subject and that I should have my annotated bibliography finished by tonight because I knew exactly why I went to some of the search sites and I think that39s all that we have to put in the bibliography besides the actual sites Free Write Private 9 November 2011 How do you stand with your research Do you have everything you need or do you need to keep looking With my research I stand in the all clear area By me meaning that I say I have just about all the information I can find to cover my topic I am sure there is a way to get more information to my topic but I feel that it would be overwhelming to the reader IfI found more information that would outdo the other research I have found then of course I would add it or substitute with information that is lesser to its overall worth I feel that I have just about everything I need but there are times when using my information that I can not seem to relate all of the information but only parts with parts I am sure I can continue looking but I don t feel that it is necessary for my paper I also feel like I could write a research paper and it be sufficient for what I am trying to show to my audience with what I currently have I am worried that some parts will not be an easy transition to talk about one item to another but I think I can do it Free Write Public 11 November 2011 What questions do you have about the Investigative Process Draft conversation between sources About the investigative process draft I only have questions about how lengthy it should be and if we use our six sources should you copy and paste most details because sometimes those things sound better already the way they are written So is that an issue are we limited to how much we quote our source Another thing is isn t it ok to quote our source twice if we split up certain information If we do this how do we go about with our in text quotation I think that is all the questions I have I know this draft is due Monday so I can t decide whether I will just finish the whole thing tonight or work on it over the weekend I hope to get some clarity from Boz today about how our paper should read or something to that matter I feel like a weirdo because sometimes I type what I think and I say what I think in my mind I hope this is a sufficient free write Look up sources authors credibility Need a works cited pagewill be 5 points Thesis statement 8 sentences Free Write Private 14 November 2011 How did the IPD go What problems did you have What successes did you have This draft that was due today was pretty good There were a few issues of finding the authors credibility and making sure that information I had was either enough or flowed well and made sense as to why I put it into the paper Some parts were a little sketchy where I wasn t quite sure what to do so I added a few of my own little statements to make my paper seem not so bleak Successes that I had were finding all of my information that related to my research topic and not many that I found really veered from what I was looking for I d say this paper was another successful day at the office The Academy should be proud Now I am just going to keep typing because I m not sure of what I should be doing since I already typed what I needed to say I do like typing I also like what we are doing with this research paper I think the final paper is coming up which makes me nervous because now I have realized I really need to have already had more of a rough draft than what I have now So that worries me a little but not too much I don t know what else to say Free Write 16 November 2011 NONE Free Write Private 18 November 2011 What do you still need to accomplish in order to complete your outline In order to complete my outline I need to clarify my subtopics IfI do not then I don t thinkI will really have a paper My outline should be fairly simple since it is only an out line of my paper It should have clear reasoning behind it and right now it really only has a thesis and sources I don t really have a paper set up I think this weekend I might actually be able to complete a full outline and possibly a rough draft This weekend I am going on a trip in my favorite rocket ship flying through the sky Little Einsteins Anyway I should be able to come up with some subtopics today and be able to use my sources to complete each one with detail for it to build my body paragraphs I hope that I am able to complete my outline and a simple rough draft by the end of the weekend That would be nice Why does Boz keep saying to keep my pens moving they can only move so much I really thinkI have said as much as I can about my outline It s not complete but it could be ifI make sure to narrow down my subtopics I think this would be my best bet Free Write 21 November 2011 NONE Free Write 28 November 2011 LAST CLASS Organizing Your Paper 10272011 10200 AM Topical Organization Start with the Evidence Investigated Process Draft Thesis Your words are not in it only what evidence tells me Conversation between sources MLA Works Cited Page WHEN IS IT DUE Monday 14 Nov 2011 Attribution phrases signal phrases Doctor yada from yada at the university of yada says blahblahblah In a signal phraseany information that increases the credibility o Names after introduced by full name and intro follow up by using last name o Do they hold a position that gives them credibility Article Title in quotations o Source Journal Title underlined or italics What has to be sited Anything that comes from an outside source anything that is not a product of your own brain Ways to Cite 2 Quotations exact words taken from an outside source put in quotation marks Need parenthetical reference usually just the number since you have stated the sources name prior After ending the quote with page number end with period after that EX 32 Block Quote when more than 4 linessentences are quoted If only changing a few words or changing tense you use brackets for those small changes is used for when you are only using a phrase from a sentence or from a section There are two times when you can not improve the way things are said the other time you quote is when you are commenting on the writing 2 Paraphrase means completely putting it in your own words 2 Summarize paraphrasing a chapter or entire book Difference between summary and paraphrase paraphrasing is smaller information while summarizing could be discussing a whole chapter from a book If it s just raw statistics or data CBO 32 is all that is needed Works Cited Hanging indentation Alphabetically Single space sources Capitalize source s titles Outline Ppoint what s the point Rreasoning warrant underlying principle that makes us agree how do you explain it Eevidence how did you prove it Uunpacking tie it to the thesis c We are explaining an argument so we split the reasoning and the evidence You re point should talk about all the reasoning and evidence however the unpacking still ties back to thesis Little arguments papers for each topic Thesis statement with subtopics Introduction and Conclusion Framing arguments To make an introduction hook the audience short narrative provocative question quotation a bold statement If it s not a rhetorical question then you need to answer it Restate the thesis change in tone it s not a new idea So What Future what do we need to do now is it a call to action Implications the old fall back call for further study If you start with a narrative finish the narrative Outline 10272011 10200 AM Intro Include Short Narrative get people s attentionWhat if your favorite animal no longer existed because of you Discuss an animal who has become endangered because of global warmingBiodiversity is currently being affected by climate change This is a product of global warming which is slightly considered a human cause With deforestation the weather changes and burning of fossil fuels animals are beginning to digress in their natural habitats Scientists have been carefully watching as some species become endangered and as some not many are flourishing into success Organizations such as the International Panel on Climate Change and Marian Koshland Science Museum see that Climate Change is to blame for the loss of some species and the reason for more becoming endangered Researchers scientists and environmentalists think that although the species are migrating it may be cause for them to become more successful Is Climate Change a negative problem on the Earth s biodiversity Body TOPIC SENTENCES Conclusion Elevational limits Cite The Following 10272011 10200 AM Just some websites htt librar c ress comibez lib suedu c researcher document h id cgresrre2006012700ampty9ehitistampnum 1 httpwwwivescienCecomtopicsqlobaIwarminq httpwwwcnasorqnaturaIsecuritvconsequencesbiodiversitv httpenviron mentnationaIqeoqraphiccomenvironmentqlobal warminngweffectsz htt cqresrre2011090900amptvpehitistampnum6 htt www obaissuesor issue 168 environmentalissues htt www obaissuesor issue 168 environmentalissues htt wwwi ccch news and events news and eventsshtm Annotated Bibliography 10272011 10200 AM How will the information be useful to me and my research paper Current thesis MLA format of sites used WEAK THESIS MEANS WEAK PAPERS make sure thesis makes valuable claim Current Thesis Some people see that Climate Change is to blame for the loss of some species and the reason for more becoming endangered Some think that although the species are migrating it may be cause for them to become more successful SOURCE N a This information will be useful to me because b This information will be useful to my research paper because Climate change is already having a measurable impact on species distributions reproduction and behavior and all evidence suggests that things will get worse even if we act tomorrow to mitigate any future increases in greenhouse gas emissions temperature will increase precipitation will change sea level will rise and ocean chemistry will change 2 Mainka Susan A and Geoffrey W Howard quotClimate Change and Invasive Species Double Jeopardyquot 52 2010 102111 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsid2c3a8336 435e4eab841e fa3dce91920asessionmgr111ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whvc 3thGIZZSZzY29wZleaXRlgt Invasive species are predicted to be more successful than natives as temperatures increase with climate changeOur data highlight differences between native and invasive species with respect to organismal and cellular temperature tolerances Future studies should address across a broader phylogenetic and ecosystem scope whether this physiological mechanism has facilitated the current success of invasive species and could lead to greater success of invasives than native species as global warming continues 2 Zerebecki Robyn A and Cascade J B Sorte quotTemperature Tolerance and Stress Proteins as Mechanisms of Invasive Species Successquot 64 2011 17 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsidd3f1f31f 75b940f691da bd0d9a64b5cdsessionmgr104ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whv c3thGIZZSZzY29wZT12aXRlgt Temperatures in mid to highlatitudes increased by greater than 4 C within 60 years and sea levels rose by up to 3 m higher than present For these intervals in time case studies of past biotic responses are presented to demonstrate the scale and impact of the magnitude and rate of such climate changes on biodiversityBased on this evidence from the fossil record we make four recommendations for future climatechange integrated conservation strategies 2 Willis Kathy J Keith D Bennett Shonil A Bhagwat and HJohn B Birks quot4 C and Beyond What Did This Mean for Biodiversity in the Pastquot 81 2010 39 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsid9640313d 504a4fc2aa0d dbf4ea6db99fsessionmgr114ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whvc 3thGIZZSZzY29wZT12aXRlgt Projecting the impacts of climate change on ecosystems is complicated by an uneven understanding of the interlinked temporal and spatial scales of ecosystem responsesEcosystems and species are very likely to show a wide range of vulnerabilities to climate change depending on the imminence of exposure to ecosystemspecific critical thresholds 2 Fischlin A GF Midgley JT Price R Leemans B Gopal C Turley MDA Rounsevell OP Dube J Tarazona AA Velichko 2007 Ecosystems their properties goods and services Climate Change 2007 Impacts Adaptation and Vulnerability Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ML Parry OF Canziani JP Palutikof PJ van der Linden and CE Hanson Eds Cambridge University Press Cambridge 211272 The author reflects on the impact of climate change on biodiversity The author states that climate change and human modification of the landscape are synergistic thus affect biodiversity and the stability of ecosystems Moreover the author mentions the ALARM research project funded by European Union which aims to apply best understanding of how terrestrial and freshwater organisms and ecosystems function and to use new ways to assess large scale environmental risks 2 Settele Josef Greg Fanslow Stefan Fronzek and Stefan Klotz quotClimate change impacts on biodiversity a short introduction with special emphasis on the ALARM approach for the assessment of multiple risksquot 5 2010 329 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsidb8e8ec7c 1e864177b915 bd649c8c31e5 sessionmgr112ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whv c3thGl22SZzY29wZleaXRlgt Limitations imposed on species ranges by the climatic ecological and physiological effects of elevation are important determinants of extinction risk We modeled the effects of elevational limits on the extinction risk of landbirds 87 of all bird speciesWorldwide every degree of warming projected a nonlinear increase in bird extinctions of about 100 500 species 2 SEKERCIOGLU CAGAN H STEPHEN H SCHNEIDER JOHN P FAY and SCO39I39I39 R LOARIE quotClimate Change Elevational Range Shifts and Bird Extinctionsquot 221 2008 140150 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsidf226157d 815a4168 9f25 66e4c567efa2 sessionmgr113ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whvc 3thG22SZzY29wZleaXRlgt The article provides information on the adaptation issue discussed during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change It mentions the impact of the abrupt climatic change to the human beings as well as the general biodiversity and cites that climate change has been considered as one of the major problems faced by most of the countries across the planet Meanwhile it aims to investigate on the efforts of the European Union for the creation of the climate change policy Furthermore the significance of biodiversity conservation and preservation are also highlighted 2 Cliquet An Chris Backes Jim Harris and Peter Howsam quotAdaptation to climate change Legal challenges for protected areasquot 51 2009 158 175 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsidfe90d449 557c47c7b818 518e826f53ccsessionmgr104ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whvc 3thGIZZSZzY29wZleaXRlgt Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scaleExtinctions were calculated using both speciesarea and endemicarea relationshipsUnder the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years estimated globalwarminginduced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet39s biodiversity 2 MALCOLM Jay R Canran LIU Ronald P NEILSON LARA HANSEN and LEE HANNAH quotGlobal Warming and Extinctions of Endemic Species from Biodiversity Hotspotsquot 202 2006 538548 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsidf18d0986 f25346aa91fc 914a756c8a58 sessionmgr104ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whv c3thGIZZSZzY29wZleaXRlgt Global warming may explain the current poleward shift of species distributions However paradoxically climatic warming can lead to microclimatic cooling in spring by advancing plant growth an effect worsened by excess nitrogen We underline the threat of climate change to biodiversity as previously suggested on the basis of mobility habitat fragmentation and evolutionary adaptation but we here emphasize a different ecological axis of change in habitat quality 2 Wallisdevries Michiel F and Chris A M van Swaay quotGlobal warming and excess nitrogen may induce butterfly decline by microclimatic coolingquot 129 2006 16201626 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailsid7c779d03 abae46edb55a c178b185de81sessionmgr115ampvid1amphid108ampbdataJandGU92Whv c3thGIZZSZzY29wZT12aXRlgt Therefore public policies and resources must be redirected towards supporting land use and agricultural practices that cool the planet nurture biodiversity and save energy These policies will check globalwarming 2 Guttal Shalmali and Sofia Monslave quotClimate Crisis Defending the Landquot 541 2011 7076 Web lthttpwebebscohostcomlibezpliblsueduehostdetailvid10amphid1 08ampsid7b244fd867774243b7fc 42d0a5162ca3sessionmgr110ampbdataJndiGU92Whvc3thGIZZSZzY2 9wZT12aXRlgt Global Warming 10272011 10200 AM Effects on Biodiversity Some human actions have global repercussions changing the chemical composition of the atmosphere and probably altering world climates The interaction of global climate change with habitat destruction and fragmentation is particularly troubling quot9 species that might adapt successfully to gradually changing climates by shifting their ranges will be unable to do so if contiguous habitat had been lost to development Globalization has social implications that impinge on biodiversity as well Threats to Biological Diversity The Oxford Companion to Global Change lst ed 2009 Print Wildlife biologists are detecting troubling signs that rising atmospheric temperatures have begun compounding the habitat losses and other ecological pressures already devastating many plant and animal species In April 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC reported quotapproximately 2030 percent of plant and animal species assessed so far are likely to be at increasingly high risk of extinction as global mean temperatures exceed a warming of 23 degrees C above preindustrial levelsquot The IPCC scientists noted that a European heat wave in 2003 sparked wildfires and drought that damaged forests and freshwater ecosystems potentially foreshadowing quotvery likely progressive impairment of ecosystem composition and function if such events increase in frequencyquot Researchers already have seen evidence in some regions Sea levels have begun rising snow cover has dropped glaciers and Arctic ice have melted and precipitation patterns are changing The number of glaciers in Glacier National Park has fallen to 26 from 150 and the rest could melt in another 25 years Saltwater has begun intruding on Florida Keys marshlands while bark beetle outbreaks have begun killing spruce trees on a million acres of Kenai Peninsula forest in Alaska Drought and invasive grasses are making the Southwest39s native saguaro cacti and Joshua trees more susceptible to exotic insects and devastating wildfire quotThis is actually something we see from pole to pole and from sea level to the highest mountains in the worldquot said Lara Hansen the World Wildlife Fund39s chief climate scientist Climate change quotmay not lead to extinctions per se but it will alter how ecosystems functionquot accelerating biodiversity losses says Dennis Ojima a Heinz Center global warming expert Beginning in the 19905 entomologists found evidence that rare butterflies have been forced northward as temperatures grew warmer and British researchers from Earthwatch reported badgers have responded to shifting climate conditions by bearing young earlier in the year Populations of small mammals like voles and wood mice have declined as diminishing vegetative cover made them more vulnerable to foxes weasels and owls Like polar bears walruses may be losing access to prime ocean feeding grounds as ice recedes in the Arctic Yellowstone National Park39s rebounding grizzly bear population could again collapse if hotter temperatures combine with disease to eliminate white bark pine trees that supply bears with nutritious nuts when they prepare to den in winter Rocky Mountain pikas distinctive small rodents have been forced to higher elevations by warming daytime temperatures Federal and state fisheries managers have been restocking coldwater Rocky Mountain streams with native cutthroat trout but they worry that restored populations will be cut off from each other by rising water temperatures in lowerelevation rivers Climbing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are making the oceans more acidic possibly disrupting the marine food web by dissolving the exoskeletons of microscopic plankton Rising seawater temperatures also are killing coastal coral reefs leaving them bleached and colorless quotIn the shallow seas of the Caribbean a number of reef systems are under threatquot Ojima says Those reef systems are critical nursery areas for important marine speciesquot In 2006 the federal government listed two Caribbean coral species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act In January 2008 the US government will decide whether to list the polar bear as a federally protected endangered species quotIf we don39t proceed to address climate change really quickly and systematically then all of the best conservation efforts will go for naughtquot the Heinz Center39s Lovejoy says However other biologists still doubt the link between global warming and extinction In March Botkin and 18 international colleagues challenged the accuracy of recent predictions of the damage from climate change They make note of what they call quotthe Quaternary conundrumquot revealed by fossils from the last 25 million years the Quaternary period when temperatures fluctuated as glaciers covered the Northern Hemisphere and then retreated quotWhile current empirical and theoretical ecological forecasts suggest that many species could be at risk from global warming during the recent ice ages few extinctions are documentedquot they noted During previous rapid climate shifts 68 percent of European trees but only one North American species disappeared they report North American mammoths ground sloths and other large mammals also were eliminated but human hunters migrating across the Bering Sea land bridge probably helped exterminate them Currently Botkin adds quotthe evidence that global warming will have serious effects on life is thin Most evidence suggests the contraryquot Botkin agrees that climate change is real and supports replacing fossil fuels with carbonfree alternatives But he argues that focusing on climate change could divert attention from dealing with more demonstrable threats to species Orangutans for instance are clearly imperiled by loss of their forest homelands Botkin says quotIn our fear of global warming it would be sad if we fail to find funds to purchase those forests before they are destroyed and thus let this species go extinctquot Despite the wide consensus about the global warming threat some probusiness groups including the American Enterprise Institute and Competitive Enterprise Institute still have doubts Some conservative religious thinkers also say global warming has not been sufficiently demonstrated to justify limiting economic development that benefits humans Countering evangelicals who back action to control carbon dioxide emissions Professor E Calvin Beisner of Knox Theological Seminary in Fort Lauderdale Fla told lawmakers last year that 19000 scientists have signed a petition arguing that higher C02 concentrations actually quotenhance plant growth and so contribute to feeding the human population and all other species httplibrarycqpresscomlibezpliblsueducqresear cherdocument phpidcqresrre2007 1 13000amptype h itlistampnum5REF22 Research 10272011 10200 AM httpenvironmentnationalqeoqraphiccomenvironmentqlobal warminngweffectsz Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warm summers The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees Some butterflies foxes and alpine plants have moved farther north or to higher cooler areas Researcher Bill Fraser has tracked the decline of the Ad lie penguins on Antarctica where their numbers have fallen from 32000 breeding pairs to 11000 in 30 years Ecosystems will change some species will move farther north or become more successful others won t be able to move and could become extinct Wildlife research scientist MartynObbard has found that since the mid 19805 with less ice on which to live and fish for food polar bears have gotten considerably skinnier Polar bear biologist Ian Stirling has found a similar pattern in Hudson Bay He fears that if sea ice disappears the polar bears will as well The Ocean is truly affected during times of drastic climate change


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