Notes on Islam
Notes on Islam JSIS C 201
Popular in Introduction to World Religions: Western Traditions
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This 10 page Reader was uploaded by Andrea Nathania on Friday December 5, 2014. The Reader belongs to JSIS C 201 at University of Washington taught by James Wellman in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see Introduction to World Religions: Western Traditions in International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 12/05/14
1142014 Islam Orientalism israel revelation and Greek Philosophy o democracy and science o vis a vis Islamic civilizations Changes AntiSemitism AntiIslam o Honor Jesus but not Muhammad Dante Rise of Israel rise of conflict Spanish Reconquista launch of Columbus American Slavery SpanishAmerican War Algerian War of Independence Napoeon s Invasion of Egypt 1798 19th Century gt White supremacyAnglo Saxon domination Marx Oriental mode of production Mystic East voluptuous women From Napoleon fonvard systematic conquest of Muslim world 90 colonized except for arabia persia turkey and afghanistan Slavery normal in Christian cultures through 19th century acceptable in scriptures Democracy human rights and women s right not mentioned in ancient scriptures Recent developments all of which religions must adapt or adopt Living Traditions Repentance from sin Ramadan vs Yom Kippur vs Lent Traditions of renunciation to sacrifice for a felt greater good to delay gratification for a great reward to come Ramadan Time of repentance and selfexamination o ever present temptation o must be on guard against evil o Allah commands Muslims to fast just as the prophets in Judaism and Christianity did Why study Islam nearly 12 billion Muslims worldwide 22 billion Christians around 16 Million Jews In Israel 12 are Muslims In China 143 or 15 million lndo 88 Muslim 204 million India 15 180 million MESA 30m Egypt 73m US gt not so much OOOOOO Realities Perceptions Ahmed marries khadija gt wealthy woman from merchant family takes over business wealth gives time to meditate in montain 610 receives a call muhammad recite or read gt archangel gabriel at mt hira 6 kids first and last son died 4 daughters survive Fatimah marries ali khadijah supported muhammad in his uncertainty a rock against the quraish clan ali cousin of muhammad early convert to islam after khadijah died 12 wives most over 40 widows all spoke highly of his fairness Muhammad Perfect man night of power o told to recite not a god but a man who submits o no more than an apostle known for love and humility actions and sayings of prophet hadith source of wisdom and social practice for muslim Muhammad Last Prophet seal of the prophet He is the final prophet for the Muslims Original message was corrupted and split into various religions Critical Islamic events 610622 Meccan phase announces revelations develops a small ummah community growing persecution Hears threat goes to Medina Battle of Badr 624 key turning point in battle w Quraish victory due to divine intervention 622 hijra emigration to Medina first yr of muslim calendar 630 Muslims conquer Mecca 632 death of Muhammad 354 days varies annually by 10 or 11 days from solar calendar Muslim yr divided into 12 lunar months of 29 or 30 days a month is added every three years to keep harmony with the solar year Hijra announces also Muslims must not live under tyranny must be able to practice faith freely Mhd came to Medina as a mediator resolves the feud between Arab factions of Aws and Khazraj Medina is home to Jewish tribes three major clans Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza and Banu Nadir Mhd drafted a document known as the Constitution of Medina to establish alliance of federation among 8 Medinan tribes Specified the rights and the clans of the Jews 624 Battle of badr Muslims were outnumbered 3 to 1 and yet they won with only 14 dead killed many meccan leaders including abu jahl o no beginning middle or end Qur an recited repeatedly Three types of tafsir o interpretation of the qur an by the qur an interrelatedness of the verses with one another by the hadith the most important ext aid are the hadith by history Doctrine of Monotheism o shahada to witness o fundamental confession divine unity o God beyond human comprehension absolute unbridgeable gap between humans and God o Allah means God o same creator God who made covenant to abraham o Universal deity unlike Yahweh who closely follows israelites Allah has no wife no son Human beings are greatest creation adam n eve sinned but they begged forgiveness and received it no original sin passed on each responsible for sin and for repentance o Judaism Christianity and Islam dualistic monotheisms each teaches that in addition to the existence of a supreme divine being there also exists a least one evil if less powerful supernatural being 0 Belief in Angels gt exist before man made of light theres a hierarchy o gabriel michael raphael azrael o lack free will 0 Jinn invisible beings similarto humans made of fire large class including righteous and evil o ibiS 11132014 Shi ism type of leadership o Charismatic gift or divine favor leadership trait magnetic and persusive o leaders are only charismatic as they attract and sustain followers o ali is that type imam infallible access to revelations God s will o tend to create a feeling of electricityan uncanny fee again a social construction Nature of the sunni o people of the prophet s sunnah literally people of the example o Clifford Geetz Pillars of Islam o Shahadah Testify that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of God and that none is worthy of worship but Allah o Command to worship gt 5 times a day pray 0 Salat gt worship and purification o Hadith purity is half the faith o Major impurities sexual int seminal emission menstruation childbirth large flows of blood touching a corpse o Ritualized washing wudu symbol of purification o call to prayer Adhan I God is most great 4 times Bear witness that there is no god but God 2 times Bear witness that Mhd is the Messenger of God 2 times Hasten to prayer 2 times Hasten to success 2 times God is most great 2 times Prayer is better than sleep 2 times I There is no God but Allah 1 time o Prayer 5 times a day I includes shahada I men and women are separated o Zakat Almsgiving o Cardinal obligation you have to give back gt tithing is a bit laxed in Christianity today I a tax on wealth 25 percent of liquid assets and 10 percent of agricultural profits help the poor create equality I the poor are not expected to give the Zakat I Based on the principle that everyone must be taken care of o the religion takes care of those in need o Sawm Fasting During Ramadan most sacred time of yr month where Qur an is revealed Night of Power Fasting during daylight no water no food eat at sundown and sunrise only Fasting is prescribed so that they might ward off evil resist the temptation excep ons I Prepubescent children I Medical conditions I Penod o Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca during Dhu alHijjah o Remember where you came from and where you are going o For those who can afford the journey and are able bodied at least once in their lifetime OOOO 0 set standard of what is good and what is evil for all timeall places monotheistic religions create or invent the idea that there can be only one standard eg the Torah the Bible the Qur an Islam and Ethics 0 purity is key gt ethical actions that are always seeking to do God s word in Islam o Mu tazites o asserted that an act is not right orjust because God declared it so but bcause it is right according to a universal principle ofjustice I How do you determine what is good and true and righteous o Life is a great test o Theodicy and divine justice I Problem of evil gt did God create or allow evil to exist I Evil seen as something that stems from errors in human acts I God does not do evil life is suffering sometimes beyond human abuse and misuse of free will if you sin it is your choice I to explain this type of apparent evil Mu tazils rely on the Islamic doctrine of takIif o Life is a test for beings possessed of free will o Law 5 principles of action o wajib Absolute requirements rewards and punishment based on obediencedisobedience 5 pillars purification o mandub recommended rewards for doing but not punished for disobedience sunnah gt extra prayers beyond salat o mubah permissible does not entail disobedience against God a matter of indifference to God choosing certain foods over others in moral terms nonmoral goods o makruh reprehensible neither rewards nor punishes gt abominates certain actions not performing what is mandub even though it is not obligatory o haram forbidden gt word comes from woman or holy place hints at danger that comes from that is sacred yet deeply attractive we outlaw what is most appeaHng I pork alcohol murder adultery and irreverence o Law and contemporary Islam o Liberal movements within Islam have questioned the applicability of sharia o Islamic feminism brings multiple POVs to the discussion a True Piety o Righteousness to believe in God spend your substance out of love for God for your kin orphans the needy the wayfarer to be steadfast in worship and regular in almsgiving be firm and patient in pain and adversity and throughout all periods of panic gt such are the people of truth the Godfearing o relationship to God 0 Avoid hypocrisy do your duty for God s sake