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by: Gladys Ritchie PhD


Gladys Ritchie PhD
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gladys Ritchie PhD on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 2300 at Louisiana State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/223204/engl-2300-louisiana-state-university in Foreign Language at Louisiana State University.




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Date Created: 10/13/15
English 2300 August 25 Language speaking reading writing conveying a message identity listening multiple communicators multiple meanings viewing symbols gestures spelling phonics syntax grammar Language is part of discourse Aims of Discourse by Knavy o Encoder speakerwriter emphasizes expressiveness o Decoder audience emphasizes persuasiveness o Reality referential o Signal text literary James Paul Gee had a different impression of what discourse can mean o Defines discourse as a way of being in the world the way you carry yourself and communicate o How you behave in an interview will be much different from how you behave with your siblings o Breaks down discourse to primary and secondary 0 Primary discourse born in tonative discourse We acquire this before we even realize it 0 Secondary discourse discourses you are taught According to Gee there s no such thing as a functional literacy Dominant Discourse allows access to potential goods interview with a business suit on can get you a job better than pajamas What happens when primary isn t in line with dominant discourse o Conflict and success may be more difficult Mushfake comes from prison culture for something not meant for a certain purpose but faking it and using it for that purpose anyway underwear as a hat to prevent lice Enallage replaces one grammatical form with an incorrect one o ownagegtpwnage August 30 Language is what makes us human Phonology is the study of sounds Lexis are words and vocabulary lexicon Morphosyntax is the grammatical system Morpheme part of a word that can t be further divided c There are free morphemes and bound morphemes o Examples Alligator 1 can t divide it anymore without changing its meaning Stapler 2 Calmly 2 Blindness 2 Running 2 Regrouping 3 Prefix 2 Reactivation 5 Frankly 2 Prescriptivists 5 O O O O O O O O O O Prescriptivists argue language needs to be based on rules Descriptivists focus on acceptable language in a certain context Grimms Law The chain shift can be abstractly represented as bh gt b gt p gtltIgt dh gt d gt t gt e 9Lgt 9 gt k gt X 9W gt9W gtkW gtXW Here each sound moves one position to the right to take on its new sound value English comes from an IndoEuropean language English is in the German language family September 6 Implied RhetorltgtActual Rhetor Actual ReaderltgtImplied Reader Presuppositions ideas beliefs and values Exigence is an occasion or opportunity and constraints that limit your behabiors within certain exigences Kairos qualitative time right place at the right time Chronos quantitative time hours days minutes etc September 8 Martin Luther King was in jail because he was parading without a permit for Civil Rights A Call for Unity written by 8 white clergymen unwise and untimely My Ammendment Samish sex marriage o uses satire to call attention to a key issue o Ethos the way you present yourself o Written in 2004 election yr o Refers to gender as a performance o Humor allows the author to point out absurdities o Relief theory release tension o Superiority theory laugh about things you think are beneath you c Humor is kairos driven September 13 Argument Analysis Aristotle described 3 artistic pisteis o Pathos emotional appeals and audience oriented o Ethos character speaker oriented how you present yourself credibility o Logos logic based on reality Steven Toulmin philosopher and rhetorician o All arguments can be broken into three parts 0 O 0 Claim Dataevidence Warrant relates the data to the claim Stasis position or standing o Originated from how you could best defend yourself in court 0 O O O O O Conjecture did something happen Definition What does it mean Marriage Quality is it a good thing or a bad thing Policy jurisdiction ex No rule against it ObjectionProcedure technicality not being read Miranda rights Cause What led to itWho is responsible for it September 1 5 Forensic Canons Deliberative Epideictic o Invention ability to find a logical claim o Structure how you organize your logic o Style imbedded in diction o Memory o Delivery the act of presenting info how you dress gestures you use etc Aristolean Proofs Pisteis o Logos o Ethos o Pathos Forensic proof something bad happened Epideictic in present time eulogy state of union address Deliberative rhetoric of future we should do this because Toulmin Analysis o Claim o Datum o Warrant presupposition wout this language fails o Backing comes up when warrant fails logically o Restriction Darts Passage o Claim to play darts you have to be fit o Datum eagle eye 25 km walking o Warrant 25 km is a long distance eagle eye requires training o Backing Enthymeme simplest basic unit of an argument o Presentational form of argument o Ideational focused on content of argument 0 Uses opinions rather than necessary truths Epicheireme enthymemes put together 5 paragraph essay gt subordinating premisegt evidence Chain Premise 1 conclusion Premise 2 conclusion etc Topics Formal can be applied to any argument Definition difference cause genus antecedent association example analogy September 20 Aristotalian Analysis what proofs are used c Pathos emotional appeals o Ethos how you dress the way you fix your hair etc Your ethos will be very different when you are running for President from how you go to a party Appeals to credibility Physics professor earns audience s respect o Logos logical appeals Stasis Analysis What types of claims o Conjecture Classics professor o Definition Classics professor o Quality o Policy Physics professor uses this type of claim most o Objection o Cause Topical analysis how does these individual rhetors make their case o Material Presuppositions and things in an argument that can be taken for granted by make the argument what it is o Formal strategies of argument moves for relating ideas and drawing inferences from the relation 0 Comparison Antithesis Definition Analogy using a metaphor or simile CauseEffect O O O Toulmin Analysis o Claim o Datum o Warrant o Backing o Restriction 0 When you hear an argument the first thing to ask yourself is do I find this convincing If you think it is convincing ask yourself what do you have to believe in order to be convinced If you don t find it convincing ask yourself what don t I find convincing Whatever your answer is is the warrant Enthymeme o Ideational content the logic involved claim datum warrant o Presentational form the way that it s presented to you thesis should go at the beginning of the paper In Narrative theory story and discourse often get confused o Story Chronological sequence of events o Discourse the way that it s presented Logical Fallacies classic rhetorical analysis analyzing where the logic fails o Argument can be fills with logical fallacies but still be convincing o Bandwagon Appeal everybody s doing it Kidd says darts is a sport and a sport is whatever a large number of people calls a sport Red Herring relevant to the story that distracts the audience False Dilemma You re either with me or you re against me Loaded Language Pick me and you won t die Life Raft Debate 0 O 0 Kenneth Burke s Psychology of Form o Progressive step by step chain epicheireme o Syllogistic logically moving from one step to the next 0 Qualitative matter of emotion o Repetitive same things keeps happening and builds on itself when a stranger calls babysitting movie o Conventional just a matter of when formalities intervene state of union address lab report eulogy Classical Template o Introduction o Narrative o Proofs o Conclusion September 22 Burke s Psychology of Form review o Progressive step by step one thing leading to another chain epicheireme agtbgtc o Syllogistic logical logos o Qualitative feelings pathos and ethos o Repetitive repeats abc adea o Conventional formality genre any type of classification Classical Template o Introduction o Narrative o Proofs o Conclusion o Digression o Rebuttal o Summation Helen of Troy started with a party Zeus had in heaven and didn t invite Strife Three reasons according to Georgias why Helen of Troy should be excused from blame o Act of fate o Power of language o Rapeviolence Chronological resume presenting experiences in order of occurrence most recent to least recent most recent education to least recent college then high school qualitative progressive Functional resume skills you have Use if you re fresh out of college and have no experience most important skills to least important skills These two types of resumes are both repetitive and progressive but use the same argument you should hire me because 9222011 40600 PM 9222011 40600 PM


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