COM 107 Gorham M003 Lecture Notes 9/22/2015 - 9/24/2015
COM 107 Gorham M003 Lecture Notes 9/22/2015 - 9/24/2015 COM 107
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Shelton on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 107 at Syracuse University taught by B. Gorham in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Communications and Society in Communication Studies at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Journalism and News Journalism the process by which citizens are presented the information they need to make good decisions in a democracy 0 The job of journalism is to make what is important interesting not to make what is interesting important Normative model of journalism attempt to present information as objectively as possible without bias 0 Journalists should be fair independent accurate 0 Journalists must have credibility with audience Advocacy journalism abandons objectivity presents info from a perspective To establish and maintain credibility journalists 1 Seek out expert sources 2 Rely on official sources and documents 3 Seek out two sides to a story Leads to news routines that produce a pattern of news 0 Gatekeeping process of deciding what is news What is news News Factors Timeliness Prominence Proximity Conflict Impact Human Interest Deviance from Norm For broadcast news great visuals Journalism is a process news is a product and commodity Commodity most news media are forprofit businesses so economics impacts process Important pressure now lack of credibility Credibility influenced by perceptions of Q Expertise Q Objectivity Q So questions about frames and agendasetting hurt this 0 Honesty O Plagiarism is therefore a serious problem 0 Press would not be seen as very believable Credibility or lack thereof Problem Bis is in the eye of the beholder Q Selective perception Q We tend to see things in ways that support our predispositions Q Elite cuetalking People take cues from elites they agree with Q Hostile media bias 0 Partisans tend to see news as hostile when covering their side but objective when covering the other side Two Important Considerations for Journalism 0 Agenda setting and framing O Agendasetting function of the press I Media don t tell us what to think they tell us what to think about 0 Hype up a story 0 Front page news 0 Every news outlet covers the biggest stories I McCombs and Shaw 1972 0 Media agenda gt Audience agenda Topics covered prominently Topics seen as important by press by people Topics ignored by press Topics seen as unimportant by people 0 McCombs and Shaw did a survey of the local community they called people and asked what they thought were the most important topics of the day and it corresponded with the media agenda 0 40 years of research support this media effect 0 Framing l Which narratives or aspects of a story get prominence and which get ignored or downplayed 0 Think of it as branding a topic I Example Estate tax or Death tax 0 Government waste or essential program 0 Immigration as ethical imperative or economic cost I lyengar 1991 frames impact how audiences understand an issue episodic vs thematic frames 0 20 years of research supports this conclusion News is a site for struggle over meaning Sources amp ln uencers gt News media Producers gt News content gt News Consumers Including PR Reports amp editors Media agenda and Citizens frames Audience agenda and frames Sources try to influence 0 Media agenda which topics get covered prominently Q Frames narratives used to discuss topic to influence public and the political process Credibility of Journalism attacked throughout past 60 years 0 19503 Red Scare Edward R Murrow vs Eugene McCarthy 0 19603 The Civil Rights Movement The South vs The North Outside agitators Communists the Black Press 0 19603 19703 Vietnam Press vs Pentagon 0 19703 Watergate Nixon v3 The liberal Washington Post 0 19803 Press v3 Reagan sort of Great Communicator 0 Iran contract scandal 0 19903 Lewinsky scandal Press v3 Clinton rise of talk radio 0 20003 Iraq War Press v3 GW Bush Criticisms 1 Giving a story too much or too little play agendasetting 2 Language used to describe story framing Journalism and the Civil Rights Movement The Race Beat Before WWII Q Segregation largely ignored ie not on media agenda 0 Segregation framed as natural appropriate when it was talked about it in mainstream press Gunnar Myrdal An American Dilemma 0 Swedish economist hired to come and check out human behavior in the American North and South 0 Was very upset by the racial dilemma going on and most people did not even see the issue as a big deal 0 Reframes segregation as against American principles backs this up with mountains of data C Says change will come only if reality of segregation gets attention in press 0 An American Dilemma Nothing is going to change in the US so long as people don t realize how bad things areNothing will change until the press covers it 0 People in the North seems very ignorant about how prominent segregation is in the South Black Press Segregation high on media agenda 0 Framed as antidemocratic especially during WWII 0 Black reporters wrote about how black soldiers would fight in Europe and the East for freedom and yet are denied service even in their uniforms just because they are black 1954 Brown v Board of Education Separate but equal no longer constitutional Q Puts segregation onto mainstream media agenda 0 Impacts frames used to discuss segregation 1955 Emmett Till It wasn t just the crime or the photo that got attention but the trial National press framed as outside agitators and communists Press highlighted reality of segregation Emmett Till s story meant that you can literally get away with murder in the South 0 The two men were later paid 4000 to tell their whole story and because of Double Jeopardy though they had essentially admitted to the crime they could not be tried The press was critical in the Civil Rights movement 0 MLK s and SCLC FourStep Strategy 0 Nonviolent demonstrators go into street 0 Racists including police unleash violence I Journalists capture results 0 Good Americans demand federal intervention 0 The Administration intervenes and works on appropriate legislation Alabama vs The Times Times v Sullivan 0 The purpose of the lawsuit was to silence coverage 0 Truth not defense her since ad contained errors 0 Supreme Court ruled 90 that First Amendment covered precisely this kind of speech Freedom Riders 0 Strategy test Southern law enforcement officials to enforce federal law desegregating interstate transportation 0 Have journalists on hand to record what happens The March on Washington August 28 1963 Q the greatest assembly for the petition of grievances that this capital has ever seen The New York Times 0 King s l have a dream speech on steps of Lincoln Memorial 0 Highly symbolic and good TV 0 Covered live on network TV 0 Covered internationally via new communication satellites 0 Civil Rights Act passed in 1964 Freedom Summer 1964 Q Volunteers spread across Mississippi to register black voters 0 Press was not an outsider to the erupting tensions and violence in the South they were part of the equation 0 Atlanta Times 0 Funded by wealthy interests created to specifically report on civil rights in the South Selma March 7 1965 Bloody Sunday 0 Fourstep Strategy 0 NV demonstrators in Selma O Racist police unleash violence journalists capture results and broadcast on TV 0 Good Americans demand federal intervention 0 The Administration intervenes and passes Voting Rights Act 0 ABC interrupts the movie about the Nuremberg trials to show what was happening in Selma the horror and devastation
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