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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 7 Complex Cognitive Process 10092015 More learners know about thinking and learning greater metacognitive awareness the better their learning and achievement is likely to be Vocab Complex cognitive processes cognitive process that involves going well beyond information speci cally learned analyzing applying or evaluating it Metacognition knowledge and beliefs about the nature of human cognitive processes including ones own as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory Learning strategy one or more cognitive processes used intentionally for a particular learning task Overt strategy learning strategy that is at least partially evident in a learner s behavior taking notes during a lecture Covert strategy learning strategy that is strictly mental rather than behavioral in nature and thus cannot be directly observed by others Comprehension monitoring process of checking oneself to verify understanding and memory of newly acquired information Illusion of knowing thinking that one knows something that one actually does not know Selfexplanation process of occasionally stopping to verbalize to oneself and hence to better understand material being read or studied Selfquestioning process of asking oneself as away of checking understanding of a topic Cognitive load cognitive burden that a particular learning activity places on working memory at any one time includes both the amount of information students must simultaneously think about and the speci c cognitive processes students must engage in to understand what they re studying Epistemic belief belief about the nature of knowledge or knowledge acquisition Critical thinking process of evaluating the accuracy credibility and worth of information and lines of reasoning By upper elementary school note taking skills begin to play a role in classroom achievement 0 When rst learning note taking teachers should scaffold by hinting at what is important Summarizing material aids in learning 0 when 1st introduced include charts but even HS kids need help summarizing properly 0 identifying what is important is hard for many students 0 teachers help by providing learning objective highlighting key concepts and asking questions focusing on central topics successful learners continually monitor their comprehension BOTH while studying and after 0 selfexplanation 0 self questioning learning strategies depend on task at hand 0 if learning task involves a heavy cognitive load students may have insufficient room working memory to use effective strategies epistemic beliefs evolve over lifespan motivation in uences extent to which students use effective strategies 0 promote effective strategies by teaching strategies with content suggest increased variety of strategies scaffold attempts at new strategies explain use of each strategy use small groups for studying share strategies use software to enhance strategies 0 Cultural differences 0 Cultural difference in epistemic beliefs what it means to learn Children with special needs teach metacognitive skills explicitly and increase scaffolding Recognition that learning requires hard work and open mindedness can increasingly impact later learning and achievement across multiple domains Meaningful learning promotes better transfer than rote learning Both transfer are more common when new situation is similar to a previous one a To decrease negative transfer must actively point out when similar looking things are NOT similar Principle theories are more easily transferred than discrete facts Transfer increases when info seems relevant interesting to the real world Problem solving continuum Well de ne lljlill de ned 0 Real world presents illde ned problems much more often 0 Steps to problem solving 000 O Encoding the problem Retrieving on or more strategies to solve the problem Choosing most appropriate strategy Evaluating the quality of the solution 0 World presents problems with no algorithms heuristics 0 00000 Identify subgoals Use paper and pencil Brain storm Round complex 5 Draw analogy Incubate Successful problem solving include considerable metacognition O 0 Many complex tasks involve both problem solving and creativity Creative people tend to have n Considerable knowledge relevant to task at hand a An ability to interpret problems situations in a exible openminded manner and combine existing info ideas in new ways a Passion Foster Creativity a Show creativity is valued n Focus attention on internal rewards n Promote mastery I Ask provoking questions I Give the freedom security to take risks a Provide time and resources creativity requires Critical thinking is speci c to content domains Increasingly likely to engage in critical thinking if they believe understand always evolves Foster Critical Thinking I Teach less in more depth a Encourage skepticism In Debate U Show worthiness n Embed critical thinking into real world context Culture effect level of emphasis put on creativity critical thinking