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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eiphyllis on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psych1 at Tufts University taught by Thomas, Mascher, Remedios, Howard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Tufts University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Psych Notes Myth vs truth Poisonblades in Halloween Rare and when it happen its their own candy parents Free A39s if roommate dies No college does this Pennymint sucking to pass Breathalyzers can39t be tricked DUI Marriage 4 horsemen of the apocalypse 1 Contempt microexpressions 2 Criticism 3 Defensiveness 4 Stonewalling passiveaggressive Scienti c Method Theory interconnected concepts vs hypothesis speci c testable prediction Testing Hypotheses A good hypothesis has every part well de ned to be able to be measured Operational de nition If you can39t measure it it39s not an op def Four Goals of Science 1 Description 2 Prediction 3 Control 4 Explanation Scienti c Method Continued No perfect research advdisadv To each method Tweak theory based on outcome of research Testing Hypotheses Continued Form hypothesis Conduct literature review Design study Conduct studyapproved empirical methods Analyze data Report resultspeer reviewed Replicate results Outliers Football in Title IX serendipity Shit happens that you don39t expect Cats respond to lines and edges not dots Good for playing with yarn IOWU39lbUJNH 7ypes of Studies Descriptive Study Observation Participant observation Naturalistic observation Usually for novel topic Nonot well formed hypothesis Systematic protocols Case studies Correlational Studies Describes relationship 2 variables ON EXAM don39t attempt to alter variables can39t draw causal conclusions from correlational studies Document data on scatterplot Run statistics to nd the strength of the relationship 0gt1 or 0gt1 Negative correlation More of one variable is less of the other Positive correlation Both variables move together more of one is more of the other correlation causation Problems with correlational study Directionality Ethics Experimental Study Manipulation of variables Can reach causal conclusions xaxis independent variable yaxis dependent variable Control group Experimental group Confound variables Random sampling Random assignment Statistics Reliability Consistency w self over time vs Validity Descriptive Stats Central tendency Mean Median Mode Variability Standard deviation Range lnferential stats Metaanalysis quotstudy of studiesquot Bene ts Summarized in one Believed to provide stronger evidence More than one can do alone Wash out bias Faults Dilute mistakes Lose outliersnuances Culminate bias if single similar one You can39t say something is a universal nding if it doesn39t apply to everyone Summarize research to re ect sample studied Have to study everyone to claim its universal Ethics APA39s Ethical Principles of Psychologists 1 Bene cence and Nonmale cence Psych aware of own physical and mental health on ability to help those w whom they work Integrity Professional and scienti c responsibility Respect for people39s rights and dignity jusUce gtUJNl 39 Ethical Research Privacy Con dentiality Anonymity Participant39s knowledge that they39re being studied Naturalistic observation approved by IRB Risk Riskbene t ratio Informed Consent Tell them what will happen Debrie ng if deception used Legalconsent Access to Data Personal info not publicly linked to data Sealed records with limited access by approved persons IRB Humane treatment of animals Legal adviser Field expert Outside of eld expert Professor Evolution Darwin Finches and Natural Selection Beak variety Finches that are able to eat more survive and reproduce Natural selectionmutationevolution Mutation Largely negative Occassionally productive Natural selection More reproduction for those best suited to a speci c environment Human Evolution Psychological traits evolve alongside physical ones 2 traits to explore the environment 1 Bipedalism 2 Encephalization i Communicatyculture ii Moralityhigher order decision making Hi Language FuncUons 1 Communication 2 Coordination 3 Control 4 Cognition Neuron 1008 neurons in brain Vary in shape size and function FuncUon Send signals Chemical and electrical Chocolate Demonstration Myelin Facilitate speed of signal transmission Nodes of ranvier Acetacholine Muscle contractions Terminal buttons Neurotransmitter Activates NaK depolarization process Synaptic cleft Synapse Denrites Axon Interaction with sodium outside of neuron Pick it up and drop it Neuron Behavior Resting membrane potential Neuron is negative at rest polarized depolarization depo and repo happening quotextremely fastquot Action potential the ring of a neuron Excitatory Inhibitory NaK ions Gating mechanism Controls the ow of ions through each cell membrane channel semipermeable Sodiumpotassium pump Refractory period CNS Central nervous system Prefrontal cortex Cerebellum Balancemovement Damage to ridge walking issues Temporal lobe Hea ng Previously stored info Occipital lobe extensively studied along with vision Vision Projections from retina to PVC primary visual cortex Bromlin39s area 44 No speaking Cortical and subcortical regions Hippocampus Memory consolidation New long term memories HM Severe epilepsy 18 yo Removed hippocampus No new memories formed Movie momento Supported by family and the state until his death Amygdala Fightor ight response Combo of amygdala and somatic nervous system Emotion Corpus Callosum If severedgtsplit brain Problems coordinating left and right hemisphere Left hemisphere Language use Right hemisphere Spatial relationship Phineas Gage Neuropsychology Bromlin39s area 46 Skull on display in a museum in Boston Disrupted executive control Phrenology Pseudoscience Measured skull bumps to explain personality traits Methods for Studying the Brain Single cell and population recordings Animal studies Surgical patient studies Stimulation Animal studies Surgical patient studies Damage Animal lesions Human injury Human surgical lesions Neuroimaging EEG CT scan MRI fMRI BOLD activation BOLD bloodoxygenIeveldependent Positron temography Connec v y Functional connectivity Structural connectivity DTI Diffusion tensor imaging DSI Diffusion spectrum imaging BrainBody Communication Peripheral nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Sensation environmental stimuli received by specialized receptor cells Perception Brain39s processing of sensory info EM waves from our bodies Neurons make meaning of all input Stimuli Dogs 1 tsp sugar in 1M gallons water Humans detect lt1 of visible and acoustic spectrums Can modify ability w goggles Night vision goggles Animals can sense a variety of symptoms as well as environmental changes Predict death detect high BP detect low blood sugar Smell changes in person39s body Predict natural disasters Meditation Can ne tune sense and perception Makes signi cant change in cortex over time Vision Anatomy of eyeretina Blind spot We compensate for it Spinal cord bundle axons Rods Cones 3 kinds Ganglion cells Primary visual cortex Color theories Complement each other don39t contradict each other both not eitheror Trichromatic theory of color Photopigment Opponent process theory of color Green yellow black ag to RWB ag Fatigued cones Ganglion cells Receptor elds Redgreen blueyellow blackwhite Center surround arrangement Cant code for both colors at the same time Detecting Cortical cells LGN cells Ganglion cells Sound Repeated ux in air or water or other uid pressure produced by object Amplitude wavelength etc Sound Location Different sound intensity in each ear Deafness Conduction deafness bones fused Nerve deafness hair cells damaged Ear Fluid movement in canals helps to orient us Basilar membrane Hair cells at speci c places on the membrane response to speci c frequencies Smell and Taste Stimuligtreceptor gtpath to braingtresulting perception Dogs 300M olfactory receptors We have 6M olfactory receptors 40 larger brain area for smell than humans We don39t have taste zones All taste buds can taste every type of avor Touch Receptor Pressure temperature pain Clitoris Most nerves 8000 nerves 4 nerve endings as head of penis and more densely packed Bottomup processing Topdown processing Expectation effects We often see what we expect Illusion Differences bw our senses mind and reality Occlusion Look for clues when no other info Likelihood principle Simplicity principle Binocular depth cues Retinal disparity convergence Monocular depth cues Relative size familiar size height in visual eld Position near horizon Texture gradient Linear perspective converging Occlusion Ponzo Illusion w linear perspective cue identical objects appear to be different sizes Context always has in uence on perception Sam color rectangle but box color changes perception Gestalt Theory therapy philosophy FigureGround Organization Foreground background Figure that is the focus of attention Cognitive rigidity Proximity We tend to groupaf liate by proximity 3 groups of blue dots vs 16 spread out dots Stereotyping feel close but don39t feel like they belong Similarity Find patterns by similarity Continuity Continuity in therapy Closure Circle w gap vs two curves Trauma survivors want closure Repressed blocked memories quotcome full circlequot bc we want to know it was worthwhile complete Attention Limited Direct to certain stimuli Select speci c info for further processing Allocate mental energy Regulate Competing Perceptions Impossible objects Stroboscopic motion Slightly different images in rapid succession What you think you become Thoughts are electrochemicalelectromagnetic events What are you drawing to yourself Quantum mechanics Heisenberg Schrodinger Hawthorne Heart rate increasing due to spider is learned behavior You learned to fear the spider Despite the fact that increasing heart rate is an innate behavior Instincts Re exes BaHoons Got used anticipated it Learning Relatively permanent change in behavior or mental state based on experience Relatively permanent change in behavior can be altered with future learning Behavior Some response to a situationevent Mental state Knowledge attitude belief strategy Habituate After repeated exposures to a stimulus our response decreases Learned to expect balloon popping and changed behavior Expectation accrued over a of trials If too infrequent wont habituate easily BehavioralEnvironmental Theories Epiphenomenal Not important to what you39re studying Change in behaviormental state is in response to something in the environment Environment only directly in uences our behaviors and mental states Internal statesprocesses are legitimate objects of study Cognitive Theories of Learning Change in behavior based on internal mental processes Not directly observable Environment only indirectly in uences behaviormental states Internal statesprocesses are worth studying Exposure effect Preference for a stimulus to which we have had previous exposure Even if we don39t remember previous exposure Exposure changes affective state Positive reinforcement Associative learning Learning that two events occur together Two stimuli Classical conditioning Simon and balloons A response and its consequences Operant conditioning Chocolate and touching hair Classical conditioning Cooccuroccur in close proximity to one another We see lightning visual stimulus and expect thunder auditory stimulus Behaviorism John B Watson In uenced by John Locke who said that we39re born as blank slates Psychology should Be an objective science Study behavior wo reference to mental processes Movie trading places 8039s movie Switch roles and learn to adapt to new role or not Limit to adapting Even if you watch a really good soccer player doesn39t mean that you39ll automatically have the abilities to copy the behavior Little Albert w only 6 pairings of banging noises and white ratsgt conditioning UNETHICAL maybe meningitis died at age 6 UCSthe noise Automatically elicited startled response with no learned association Re ex response UCRcrying Always same as CR but for different reasons CSanimalsmask No prior negativepositive association but learned in context of noise CRcrying ClassicalPavlovian Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Physiologist Studied digestion Organisms came to associate two stimuli Lightning and thunder Tone and food Begins w a re ex unlearned behavior Salivating w food Neutral stimulus paired w stimulus that evokes re ex w regularity and frequency neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the re ex Unconditioned stimulus UCS UCS triggers unconditioned response Natural and somatic Food Unconditioned response UCR UCR and CR some only difference is what elicits the response Unconditionedunearned Conditioned stimulus CS Originally neutral stimulus that after association w UCS comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned response CR Conditionedlearned Extinction Process of unlearning Extinguish break association Diminishing of CR When UCS doesn39t follow CS Tone wo food dogs salivate less and less Acquisition Initial stage of classical conditioning Response established and gradually strengthened Associate neutral stimulus with UCS so neutral stimulus starts to evoke a CR If tone precedes food better learned than if food precedes tone Spontaneous recovery of CR Trigger causes behavior to be recovered Reappearance after some rest period of an extinguished CR not totally random certain conditions Generalization Tendency to respond to stimulus that are similar Ratgtbunnygtdoggtmask quotall fuzzy white things became bad for little Albertquot Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS druggtUCR nausea CS waiting room UCS drug gtUCR nausea CS waiting roomgt CR nausea Operant Conditioning Associate their own actions with consequences Behavior strengthened if reinforced Diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike Rewarded behavior likely to occur Operant behavior Complexvoluntary behavior Pigeon push button perform complex task Operates acts on environment Produces consequences Respondent behavior Automatic response Not voluntary Operant Chamber Skinner39s Box Bar pressed for food Device to record rate of pressing Reinforcer Foodwater Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Negative reinforcer Taking away Positive reinforcer Strengthens response by adding something pleasurable Schedules Ratio Fixed ratio Variable ratio Rapid learning By frequency of behavior Interval Fixed interval Variable interval Slower responding By time not by frequency Gambling Behavior Playing slot Reinforcer Money Schedule Variable ratio Pop Quizzes Variable interval Punishment Aversive event decreases behavior that it follows Spaang Martin Gale Collar Punished behavior isn39t forgotten just suppressed Learn to discriminate where can I get away with it Caused increased aggression Fear Doesn39t necessarily guide to deserved behavior Teaches how to avoid behavior Psychanimal trainers emphasize reinforcement over punishment
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