Popular in Race, Gender and Class in Latin America
Popular in Arts and Humanities
This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Saturday December 6, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to HSTLAC 185 at a university taught by Prof. Silvia-Rodriguez in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.
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Date Created: 12/06/14
Post1945 Cold War 12 2 14 Cold war is a struggle of how to best control resources 0 0 Capitalism liberalism and communism compete for the top dog spot How to best organize resources and politics The ght goes way back it is not just about the Americans and Soviets after WWII 0 19quot C as the Age of High Imperialism O 19 century is where the ideas of citizenship and liberty and reorganization come to fruition The slave system also expands during this time 19 C also the moment of the expansion of European Empires Does not happen in Latin America but in Asia and Africa instead Britain all over Africa and France all over SE Asia 0 World Wars and Post WWII O In the early 20 C WWI caused the European powers to tighten control on their empires Many indigenous peoples thought that WWI would cause their freedom but it doesn39t work out that way until after the destruction of WWII These colonies ght their wars for independence but then cannot agree on which direction their newly independent country would go Causes in gh ng Post WWII causes competition between US and Soviet Union who were vying for hegemony against each other The second wave of independence comes after WWII in the Caribbean Africa and SE Asia Two super powers trying to address how these nations will turn out American strategy in Europe is to make an alliance of free western states NATO while rebuilding the infrastructure of western Europe Marshall Plan but many countries are thinking of independence 194254 Huk Rebellion in Philippines US 1949 Chinese Revolution ends in favor of the communists 1950 communist N Korea invades S Korea US and UN intervene 1954 French surrender to Ho Chi Minh at Dien Bien Phu 1950s early US involvement in Vietnam 1952 Bolivian Revolution US intervenes politically but not militarily Try and deradicalize the revolution in Bolivia 195254 Guatemala ghts bloodiest war in Latin America Ethnic cleansing of Native Mayan population 250000 people are killed The CIA instigates a coup o All of these people are rebelling against colonial structures The Cold War created a situation where long standing colonial structures could nally be taken down 0 Cold War 0 Reorientation of the economy moves to the right 0 Modernization theory industrialism middle class and electoral system vs Dependency Theory In the 1950s modernization theories say that no one in their right mind would ever vote for communism Felt that people would realize it was irrational Only primitive uneducated and corruptible people would do this In Latin America this meant the rural and indigenous peoples Creation of a middle class would solve the primitive problem Do this through a commitment to industrialization in the mid 1950s Industrialization always forgets about the rural populations No one attempts substantial land reform How to break dependency Have to protect your economy from the outside in uences To do this the Latin American countries focus on the industrialization of the urban areas 0 People talk about land reform but the effort is always minimal 82 of the land remains in 1 2 of the populations hands until the 1980s The UN freaks out throughout the 1950s and 60s International commissions are created to talk about overpopulation it took until the 1970s to realize that overpopulation results from the high density of urban populations Overpopulation in relation to the economic system they are dedicated too 0 US sponsors developmental programs for technology loans and health services Increasing persecution of the left socialists and communists o 1959 Cuba US intervention was not successful in Cuba as it had somewhat been in earlier revolutions Realized it would be a long time before the US or anyone else could do anything about it Revolution was initially violent despite advances in health services and infrastructure which gave the US a warped sense of violent communism o 1961 US Alliance for Progress developed to curb revolutionary fervor in Latin America o 1972 Salvador Allende successful in Chile Said that they could bring substantial change without violence Votes in favor of communism wants the people to elect revolution goes against the western theory that no one would ever vote for communism o 1979 Sandinista Revoution Nicaragua Expropriating foreign properties to the peasants Tried to engage in this redistribution legally but it took him too long The people wanted the redistribution right away 0 Whenever these revolutions start redistributing foreign and local property which is a huge problem for the property owners 0 Right Wing Authoritarianism o Peasants and urban workers pushed for deeper reforms O 0 Oil countries make tons of money off of this crisis They put the money in the banks in their countries and the banks decide that they can lend more money and make money off of the interest Give out lots of money at low interest to the Latin American dictatorships who want it to try and jumpstart their economies Did not think about the possibility of a second oil crisis 1979 Iranian Revolution causes a real oil crisis the armed con ict causes prices to skyrocket again The US is affected as well 0 The moment of the deindustrialization of the US US banks go to other countries who need money and establish free zones of trade 0 Prices too high no one can produce at the same pace as before President Reagan introduces his Reaganomics cut spending and funding and asks for the banks to get the money they lent out back 0 Countries like Brazil Mexico and others are forced to pay back on loans they can39t afford to pay off at the moment The oil crisis made nearly everything impossible in Latin America It totally undermined the efforts of Latin American countries trying to get their economies under control 0 Begin defaulting on the loans they took out Large international economic institutions tell the Latin American countries that they need to change the direction of their economies Dictatorships decide to open up markets to foreign investors to counter the debt crisis and ride out the wave of oil crisis Take out more loans from the foreigners Liberal Economic Theory Milton Friedman One tenant is that the gov must remove all rules and regulations that impeded the accumulation of wealth Should be natural if you cannot produce tomatoes on par with someone else39s than you shouldn39t try Gov should sell off all assets that private corporations can run and maximize pro t Stimulation of economy has to be done in the private sector Gov should cutoff social spending 0 Not here to facilitate education but will provide a few schools 0 If you work hard you can make money 0 State provides the bare minimum Taxes should be low and everyone should be taxed at a at rate 0 Sales tax for everyone but not necessarily an income tax